Skip to main content

Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

See other formats

(jinnaU cl W\jcm'mG 

Volume 13 

January, 1941 

No. 1 


John W. Meldrum, U. S. Commissioner of Yellowstone Park, 1894-1935, 

and his residence at Mammoth Hot Springs, in February, 1932. House 

built for the Commissioner in 1894. 





Published Quarterly 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2011 witii funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


ClnnaU oj. WvomiHC 

C, c^Vol. 13 January, 1941 No. 1 



JOHN W. MELDRUM, The Grand Old Man of Yellowstone Park 5 

By Joseph Joffe 



By John B. Ferguson 

EDWIN J. SMALLEY, One of Cheyenne's First Native Sons 58 

By Alice M. Shields 


By Nora Moss Law 

Chapters X and XI 74 


ACCESSIONS (Listed) 81 



(Front Cover) 





Publislied Quartcrl\- 

State Librarian and Historian 
Chevenne, \\'voniina: 


The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Board and the State His- 
torical Department assume no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion 
expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation of 
museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of Wyoming 
citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those familiar with im- 
portant and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyoming 
and the Nation a true picture of the State." The ANNALS OF WYOMING is 
one medium through which the Department seeks to gain this objective. All 
communications concerning the Annals should be addressed to Mrs. Gladys 
F. Riley, Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are set free of charge to all State Officials, heads 
of State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Committee, 
Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Supscription price, 
$1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1 94 1 , by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President 
Lester C. Hunt . 
Wm. "Scotty" Jack . 
Mart T. Christensen . 
Esther L. Anderson . 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary 


Secretary of State 

State Auditor 

State Treasurer 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

. State Librarian & Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 
Frank Barrett, Lusk 
George Bible, Rawlins 
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 
Struthers Burt, Moian 

Mrs. Elsa Soear Byran, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Prison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Bert Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 

Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 

Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River 

P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 

E. V. Knight, Laramie 

W. C. Laurence, Moran 

E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 

Howard B. Lett, Buffalo 

Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 

R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 

James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 

A. J. Mokler, Casper 

Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 

L. L. Newton, Lander 

R. I. dinger, Newcastle 

Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 

E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 

Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 

John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thoipe, Cheyenne 

Chapter 103 

103-1008. ADVISORY BOARD. The state historian may, by and 
with the approval of the state historical board, appoint an advisory board, * * * 
from each of the judicial districts of the state of Wyoming. The members shall 
serve without salary and shall advise and aid the state historian in every manner 
possible in carrying out the objects of this article. (L. '21, c.96, Sec. 8.) 


Gladys F. Riley 
Inez Babb Taylor 

State Librarian & Historian 
A-sslstant Historian 


The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Board and the State His- 
torical Department assume no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion 
expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation of 
museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of Wyoming 
citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those familiar with im- 
portant and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyoming 
and the Nation a true picture of the State." The ANNALS OF WYOMING is 
one medium through which the Department seeks to gain this objective. All 
communications concerning the Annals should be addressed to Mrs. Gladys 
F. Riley, Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

The Annals of Wyoming are set free of charge to all State Officials, heads 
of State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Committee, 
Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Supscription price, 
$1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1941, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President 
Lester C. Hunt . 
Wm. "Scotty" Jack . 
Mart T. Christensen . 
Esther L. Anderson . 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary 


Secretary of State 

State Auditor 

State Treasurer 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

. State Librarian & Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 
Frank Barrett, Lusk 
George Bible, Rawlins 
Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 
J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 
Struthers Burt, Moian 

Mrs. Elsa Soear Byran, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Alton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Nevvf castle 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Bert Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellov/stone Park 

D. B. Hilton, Sundance 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 

Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 

Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River 

P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 

E. V. Knight, Laramie 

W. C. Laurence, Moran 

E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 

Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 

Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 

R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 

James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 

A. J. Mokler, Casper 

Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 

L. L. Newton, Lander 

R. I. dinger, Newcastle 

Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 

Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 

E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 

Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 

Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 

John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 

Russell Thoipe, Cheyenne 

Chapter 103 

103-1008. ADVISORY BOARD. The state historian may, by and 
with the approval of the state historical board, appoint an advisory board, 
from each of the judicial districts of the t^tate of Wyoming. The members shall 
serve without salary and shall advise and aid the state historian in every manner 
possible in carrying out the objects of this article. (L. '21, c.96, Sec. 8.) 


Gladys F. Riley 
Inez Babb Taylor 

State Librarian & HisV^rian 
Assistant Historian 

Born, 1843 -- Died, 1936 


UoUh W, lftle[\um 



By Joseph Joffe* 


Honorable John W. Meldrum, United States Commissioner for the Yellow- 
stone National Park from 1894 to 1935, affectionately known by his many 
friends and admirers as "The Grand Old Man of Yellowstone National Park," 
answered the call of his Maker on February 27, 1936, at the home of his niece, 
Miss Susie A. Meldrum, in Denver, Colorado, at the age of 92. 

For several years during the time Horace M. Albright was Superintendent 
of the Yellowstone he bemoaned the fact that practically nothing had ever been 
written regarding the life of Judge Meldrum, and that when the old gentleman 
passed away there would be little in the records regarding his interesting and 
eventful years. Judge Meldrum was a marvelous story teller and his remark- 
able memory amazed one when listening to him recall hi? adventures and 
experiences during the Civil War, in the employ of the Quaitermaster De- 
partment at Little Rock, Arkansas, after the Civil War, while living on the 
Laramie Plains, during the making of early Wyoming history and throughout 
his many years in the nation's oldest national playground. With the remarks 
of former Superintendent Albright always in mind 1 decided to obtain from 
the lips of this nonagenarian some of the interesting stories he had so often 
related to me, to Mr. Albright and to his other park friends, so as to record 
them for the permanent Yellowstone Park Library, the archives of the State 
of Wyoming and the libraries o' those who had followed the collection of 
Yellowstone literature. 

Accordingly, on several days during 1933 and 1934, namely, November 
23, 24, 27, 28, 29 and December 1, 1933 and Octobei 23, 1934, I spent two 

*B10GRAPHICAL SKETCH— Joseph Joffe was born in St. Joseph, Missouri, 
on June 6, 1896, and was educated in the town of his birth. In November 1916 
he entered the government service as a clerk in the Washington Office of the 
Panam.a Canal. He resigned from his position in 1918 to enter the military 
service during the World War and served in the U. S. Naval Reserve Force. 
Following his discharge from the Service he returned to Washington as a clerk 
in the office of the Chief of Staff of the War Department. 

In March, 1920, Mr. Joffe departed for Europe with the American Graves 
Registration Service, the Service which was responsible for returning the 
bodies of American soldiers to their homeland, and served for two years as 
chief clerk at the port of Antwerp, Belgium. 

Returning to the States in March, 1922, Mr. Joffe obtained a position with 
the National Park Service and was immediately sent to the Yellowstone to act 
as clerk and secretary to the superintendent of the park. He has been con- 
tinually employed in the Wonderland since May 1, 1922, having been appoin- 
ted to the position of assistant to the superintendent in 1927, which position 
he still holds. 



to three hours on each occasion at the Judge's home and took dov/n verbatim 
the accounts of his inspiring hfe. Each day as I would ask ques'ions and 
lead him on to relating his experiences I would become so engrossed in the 
stories themselves and in his remarkable memory that I often found myself 
not mak'ng notes but just listening However, I feel that what material was 
gathered from him will leave one lasting memorial to that great Yellowstone 
character. As one reads these detailed accounts as he gave them to me it 
is well to keep in mind that they are the words as actually spoken of one who 
was then over ninefv years c' age 

The material as related to me by Judge Meldrum was not in sequence but 
I have attempted to transpose it to make the events of his life follow as closely 
in order as possible. 

Chapter I 

Childhood Days 

John W. Meldrum was born in Caledonia, New York, on 
September 17, 1843. While relating some of his early life to 
me he +old me that he had his birth record, written by his mother 
when he was seven years old. Speaking of this birth record, 
he said: ""I remember sitting at my mother's elbow when she 
wrote that record — remember it as well as anything. I was 
about seven years old. 

"My father was a very religious man. My mother died 
when I was nine. My father wouldn't let you do anything on 
Sunday. He went to church; he lead the singing in the church; 
he was guite a singer; he used to teach music — vocal music. 
He didn't teach for pay but because he loved it. He had every 
kid in the neighborhood learning music so that he could get 
+hem to sing in Sunday School. One day he had taken my 
oldest sister and they had gone to church and my good mother 
thought she would take that time — she didn't have time during 
the week for anything like that — to write up the old family 
record and I sat at her elbow while she wrote it. 

'1 v/as fifteen when my father died. My mother died and 
left seven children and my father, an invalid — couldn't do 
anything. He was an invalid for about twelve years. He could 
get about some but was always sick — consumption. I could 
never understand how my poor father went through it all. 
It is a wonder he didn't commit suicide. He was a big fellow, 
six feet two, and strong as a buffalo. He died of consumption. 
He got a severe cold and he didn't take care of it and it finally 
developed into consumption and took him away. 

"'Speaking of experiences of my father — one day he was 
going out to teach a class of kids some singing. My oldest 
sister was with him. They were going down the road and some- 
thing about the harness gave way, the horse commenced to 


kick and tipped the buggy over and threw them onto a fence 
and broke my father's shoulder. They sent for a country doc- 
tor and two or three neighbors. They laid him on the floor 
there and put a sheet around his arm. I can see them now 
pulling that shoulder into place. That was number one. 

''We had a pair of young horses and my father had been 
driving them. He put them in the stable one day after a drive and 
took the buffalo robe out of the sleigh. The buffalo robe scared 
the horse and he let go at him and split his kneecap. That was 
number two. He was an invalid all the time — tubercular. 

''Well, he couldn't do anything about that. We ran the 
farm and he told us what to do. He was able to drive a team. 
We would load the grain and get it all ready for market. My 
father, even in +his critical condition, would get up on the 
spring seat and drive the load of grain to town and get the 
money. Going to town one day with a load of grain — it was 
in the fall of the year. The roads were pretty bad those days 
and the wagon went into a chuckhole and he threw himself 
the other way and while doing so the wagon hit another chuck- 
hole and threw him out on the frozen ground and broke his 
hip. Now, what do you think of that! That man drove to 
town and delivered that grain and rode back in a lumber wagon 
with a broken hip. That was the end of him though. He 
lived some time after that but he went on crutches the rest of 
his life. By golly, when I think of that it is just a mystery to 
me how he stood it." 

The relating of the life and experiences of his father by 
Judge Meldrum early convinced me of the excellent character, 
stamina and fortitude he inherited from this man. 

Taking up from the death of his father the following from 
his boyhood days was very vivid in the memory of the old Judge. 
After I had made a rough draft of the material I gathered from 
him on these several occasions I let him read it and he felt hurt 
that he had mentioned to me the name of his neighbor who 
caused him and his brothers so much grief. The Judge said 
tha+ the old fellow was dead now and he did not want to say or 
do anything that would ever hurt anybody. Because of the 
Judge's attitude and wishes I promised him that I would re- 
frain from using the name of this neighbor and, keeping that 
promise, I have substituted the fictitious name of '"Smith". 

"After my father died we managed to run the farm tor 
two years before it was sold. The creditors came and took 
everything we had and then we had to gui^-. Joffe, you can't 
believe what we had to go through. One creditor drove into 
our barn with a team, pulling a hay rack. He drove in and 


took the hay right out ot our barn that we needed for our Btock 
and put it on his wagon and went away with it. He had no 
right to do this. We were just kids — we didn't know what to 
do and he got away with it. I told him we needed that hay 
for our stock bu^ he said, that he didn't care, he was going to 
have what was coming to him. We could have had him ar- 
rested but we didn't know what our rights were. Joffe, we 
didn't have a soul, neighbor or relative, that ever lifted a hand 
1o help us. We stuck to the ranch for two years, lived, by 
golly, just on what we raised, but we paid our father's depts. 
We left there with a clean bill oi health. 

"'What happened after my father's death was an interes- 
ting story and one which I shall never forget. Every farmer 
boy had to work so hard in 1hose days he thought anything was 
better than farming. However, after my father's death we 
all had to stay on the farm. My father was in debt and every- 
one wanted their money. So my father, on his death bed, 
called us around and told us that he was not going to be with 
us long and that he wanted Colonel Smith, who was our next 
door neighbor, appointed administrator of the estate. So his 
wi'^hes were followed out and Colonel Smith was appointed 
administrator after my father's death. Well, the story of sett- 
ling that estate was a nightmare. 

"7ofte, I never knew a man could be so mean. This old 
fellow tried to cheat us out of the little we had left. However, 
we fooled him and beat him to it. 

"Well, we worked the farm a couple of years but everybody 
seemed to feel that we owed them some money and they would 
come along and say: "Here now, your father owed us so much 
money, we will take one of those steers for pay, or we will take 
a horse.' And they kept that up until they took everything we 
had. They left us so that we didn't have anything to work the 
farm with. So we just had to break up, one going here and one 
going there. 

"I had made up my mind to learn a trade and was working 
at it in town at that hme. This old administrator wanted his 
brother, whose farm adjoined ours, to have a certain part of 
our old farm. Another neighbor, on the other side, he wanted 
it also. Well, after a while they cooked up a job, the adminis- 
trator and one of these fellows, and when the property was 
sold they wouldn't bid against each other but they would just 
bid enough on the property to pay the debts. Well, sir, a son 
of old man Smith's heard them put up this job. And by the 
way, this son was the fellow I have told you about so often who 
made the first grain binder. He was working at that time in 


a little shop in the attic ot the house of these fellows. They were 
down in the parlor, which they used only on special occasions 
in those days. They were putting up this job and the son heard 
them. He started out and found my brother and told him what 
he had heard. He told my brother that even if he was his father 
he was a damn old rascal. The farm was to be sold the next 
day. So my brother sent a rressege to me by this Jim Smith, 
telling me to go and see Charley Cam.eron, a rich old bachelor, 
and get him to go up there the next day and run the land up 
on those fellows. 

"It was after dark when I got this message from my brother. 
I knew Charley Cameron well — he boarded at the same hotel 
I did. I was then learning my trade of wagonmaker. I thought 
Charley would ccm_e to the rescue but he was one of those 
scared fellows. He told me to go and see his brother, Angus, 
who I knew to be a regular skinflint. He was a rich and 
had miade all of his money by taking advantage of people in 
distress. I would just about as well have bearded a lion in 
his den as to go and see Angus. However, I made up my 
mind and did go up and see him. They had a large savage 
dog in the yard and an old maid sister kept house for Angus. 
Mind you, it was dark and the dog nearly scared me to death. 
I finally managed to get by the dog and knocked on the door. 
His sister stuck her nose out of the door. I asked her if Mr. 
Cam.eron was in and she said that he was but that he was going 
to bed. I told her that I wanted to see him on some very im- 
portant business. I told her to please tell him that John Mel- 
drum is down here and wants to see him on important business. 
Old Angus had shaved some notes for me before that and he 
came down. I told him what I wanted. I told him they were 
going to sell our farm tomorrow and told him of the job which 
had been put up on us and asked him to run the land up on 
those fellows. Well, it took a whole lot of talking. I finally 
told him that if he would do it I would give him $5, that I would 
be there at six o'clock in the morning with a livery rig to take 
him up there. After a good deal more talking he finally said 
he would go. By this tim.e it was getting along toward mid- 
night. There was no livery stable in the town but there was 
one about a mile away at Mumford. So I hiked out to Mumford, 
saw the livery man and told him that I wanted a horse and 
buggy at five o'clock in the morning. He told me he would 
have it ready at five o'clock. I didn't have any where to go 
particularly so I stayed up all night. I had no place around 
there to sleep so I just hung around until morning. 

"'About five o'clock I got the horse and buggy and when 
I reached Camerons the old man came out He always car- 


ried an old black satchel which contained all his valuable 
papers. He carried this with him wherever he went. Imagine 
him trying that these days! He didn't trust the banks and 
he wouldn't leave them in the house. He cam^e out with 
his old black satchel, got into the buggy and we started to 
drive on. He said he would like to drive around to George 
Thompsons. So we went over to George Thompsons and 
George hadn't had his breakfast yet. George brought out a 
little black jug containing some good whiskey. He gave old 
man Cameron a drink and that put him in fine shape. We 
had about a mile to go and when we came in sight of the farm 
he said that the land was worth about $100 an acre. He was 
in fine shape now after that drink. Well, the old administra- 
tor was there, they had an auctioneer and the two men who put 
up the job, Mr. Smith and Mr. Brown, were there. They were 
all ready to 'kill the fatted calf. They were going to sell right 
on the minute, nine o'clock. 

"I was a little late. My brother told them this sale couldn't 
go on until I got there, that it was always nine o'clock until it 
was ten. He continued to protest that they wait until I get 
there, saying it would be before ten o'clock anyway. The 
auctioneer was a good friend of ours and my brother gave him 
a tip. The auctioneer said: 'Gentlemen, we better wait, the 
boy is right, it is always nine o'clock until it is ten." 

''Well, sir, when they saw me coming in with old Angus 
Cameron they knew the job was up. My brother told them 
then to go on with the auction. Thirty seven dollars an acre 
would pay the debts which we owed. We had it all figured 
out. The auctioneer cried out: 'How much am I offered per 
acre?' and one of the fellows said $30. Then they run it up 
to $37 between the two of them. They stopped there. Old 
Angus piped in then and said: 'Five dollars more.' So the 
two had to bid again or lose the job. So they kept going on 
and on until they got up to $63. Well, that wasn't nearly what 
it was worth. Sixty three dollars was Mr. Brown's last bid. 
Old Angus said to me: 'Should I hit him again?' My brother 
then said that that sounded good enough, to let it go at that. 
So it was knocked down at $63 an acre. They expected to 
get it for $37. After the auction I had to hunt cover because 
I couldn't face those fellows. I couldn't go out in the neigh- 
borhood for two months. But we beat them! We beat them 
at their own game! 

"I didn't get any patrimony until after the War — I was 
only seventeen years old then. After the Civil War I went 
back and got my patrimony. It didn't amount to very much. 


and Joffe, that is all I ever got from anybody in my life. Yes, 
sir, that little that I got out of that old farm was all 1 ever got 
from anybody. 

Chapter II 

Civil War Breaks Out 

"About that time the War came on. My older brother 
and my younger brother they both enlisted right away. Thai 
was in 1861. We all held a council of war and my brothers 
said that it wouldn't do for us all to go to war, that I would have 
to stay home and take care of the girls. My youngest brother 
was only sixteen years old and this old administrator wasn't 
going to let him go. My brother said that he might just as well 
let him go because he would run away and go anyhow. So 
he went. 

'1 thought it a pretty hard deal, my two brothers going off 
to leave me here to take care of the family. I had nothing to 
do but agree. Anyhow, they went on. I stuck it out until 
sixty-two but I thought I couldn't stick it out any longer. By 
golly, the people would look at a young man and say: 'What 
are you doing here, why aren't you in the army?' I was never 
strong while a kid — I was really the puny one of the family. 
I had been ill shortly before this, almost at death's door. The 
doctor told me that I was going to die and all such stuff. This 
was just prior to my first enlistment and I wasn't passed. They 
turned me down for physical disability. Well I felt kind of 
chargrined to think that 1 wasn't a man, that I wasn't good 
enough to be a soldier. So, 1 kept working at my trade until '63. 
Then I tried to enlist again and they took me this time." 

Relating back to the early days of his life in Caledonia, 
Judge Meldrum said: 

''During the time that I was working at my trade of wagon- 
maker, I was living at Caledonia. That was in 1863. Al 
that time the first railroad was built through there. I saw the 
first telegraph operator there I ever saw and, of course, we 
all stood in amazement. It came out on a ticker then. The 
operator would pull out the tape and read it. Well, by golly, 
that was just a mystery to all of us. But there was a kid whose 
father was freight agent at this station who was hanging around 
and listening in at the telegraph and he wanted to learn tele- 
graphy. The agent never took a message by ear, always by 
tape, but that kid learned to take a message by ear. Well, 
they thought he was just a wonder and his name was Gus 
Mead and he developed into a very expert telegrapher, went 
to New York and that was the last I ever heard of him. He was 


the first person I ever heard of who took a message by ear. Of 
course, that is just a side issue — probably wouldn't interest 
anybody else, but it is so marked on my brain I can just see it. 
The agent's name was Hugh Sinclair. (The Judge recalled 
all names from memory without the slightest hesitation.) 

Geiung back to the Smith family who lived next door in 
the early days at Caledonia, the Judge said: 

"Jim Smith, the fellow I told you about who informed us 
of the job his father was putting over on us, was the man who 
made the first grain binder. He worked on his invention for 
about fourteen years and he made it go about 1878. Here's 
another thing in connection with Jim Smith. His patent attor- 
ney, George B. Sheldon, was the man who made the first gaso- 
line automobile. I knew him very well and saw his drawings 
long before he ever made the machine. Once while he was 
with the Smiths they received their royalties paid by the big 
reaper men. They came through Sheldon, their attorney. 
Some Auburn people had just paid %eir royally amounting to 
$50,000.00. There were two Smith boys, Jim and John. Jim 
was the original inventor and John came in later. Anyway, 
they pulled down the royalty that day, Jim got two-thirds and 
John one-third. I said: "By golly, I would like to make money 
that easy.' When I said that Sheldon made this remark: "Boys, 
I will show you something one of these days just as wonderful 
as your reaper. I will show you a carriage going around here 
without horses.' Upon saying this he pulled down a big book 
with his drawings in it. He made the firsi gasoline automobile. 
I have a picture of Jim's model of the reaper in an old album. 

Civil War Days 

Judge Meldrum joined the Union army in 1863. He went 
through Grant's campaign of 1864 and stated that he probably 
saw more of real war than lots of fellows that served four years. 
However, he did not want to talk about these things but I per- 
suaded him to relate some of the incidents of the war, which he 
did, as follows: 

"On one occasion I lay on the floor of a building in Fred- 
ericksburg with dead men lying beside me * * * . A corps of 
civilian surgeons came down from New York and Philadelphia 
— the armiy didn't have half enough to take care of their 
wounded. This was after the battle ot the Wilderness in Spottsyl- 
vania. They came down and for a solid week they sawed arms 
and legs, night and day. They all had to be amputated. I 
don't think I am exaggerating when I say they amputated a 
wagon load of arms and legs at Fredericksburg. This was after 
Spottsylvania and the Battle of the Wilderness. 


"I enlisted at Rochester, New York, in the 14th New York 
Heavy Artillery, in the surrrrer of '63. We were in camp for 
a while at New York Harbor at the different forts around there 
until the Campaign of the Wilderness opened in 1864 — May 4, 
1864. I remembeT the date as well as if it were yeclerday. 
On May 4, 1864 Hancock's division took the lead, crossed the 
Rapadan at Germania Forde and went into the Wilderness. 
We were near Culpepper, Virginia. We stood in line all day 
waiting for orders to move. Some of the men dropped in their 
tracks, standing in the sun, it was the hardest work in the world 
- just waiting. 

'This is just an incident of war. I suppose it occurs in 
every war. A boy next to me just collapsed — slumped right 
down. The senior major of the company came along and said: 
'Get up!' at the top of his voice. Well, the poor devil wasn't 
hardly able to get up. He said: 'Give me time!' The officer 
hit him with the flat of his sword right over the head. And 
this young fellow said: 'God damn you, I'll kill you!' And, by 
golly, the officer was killed a short time after that. 

"We were camped near Culpepper and Brandy Station. 
The Battle of the Wilderness was fought, I should say, about 
15 or 20 miles from Fredericksburg. There was no big battle 
near Culpepper. Two of the big battles of the war were at 
Chancellorsville. This battlefield and the battlefield of the 
Wilderness adjoin — they were not far apart. The foliage there, 
the trees were so dense you couldn't see 50 yards ahead of you 
many places. The woods got afire — lots of fellows burned to 
death. It was fearful, just fearful, Joffe, by golly. 

"Hancock started out on the 4th of May to cross the Rapa- 
dan. That was the beginning of the campaign of 1864, when 
Grant took command of the army. Hancock started out, he 
crossed the Rapadan and went to what they called the Brock 
Road. I think Warren's corps was the next to cross the Rapadan, 
the next day. They crossed at Kelley's Ford. We belong to the 
9th Corps — Burnside was commander. We were held at Brandy 
Station awaiting orders. We got orders the 5th to join the troops 
in the Wilderness. We marched all night, all the next day and 
got into the Wilderness on the 6th of May. Business was going 
on right then, I'll tell you. 

"About the 8th of May we got out of the Wilderness on the 
way to Spottsylvania. The battle of Spottsylvania was on the 
12th of May. (These dates the ludge gave me all from memory. 
He had no references whatever.) On the march I was over- 
taken with some brain trouble and for a period I was kind of 
between night and day. I couldn't therefore give you a very 


accurate report of what happened then. We lay around on 
the ground at different places. If it hadn't been for the Chris- 
tian Endeavor and the Christian Commission I think we would 
have starved — a lot of us. All we had to eat was what they 
gave us. Well, I was finally discharged in September, 1864. 
I never got strong again for a long while — I never completely 

Speaking of horrible incidents of the War, the Judge said: 

''During these times I saw such sickening, sickening scenes 
I don't like to talk about them. When we landed in Washing- 
ton, the transport, we landed at Belle Plaine. I remember a 
woman came on the boat after we had landed. There was a 
young fellow lying on the deck right next to me. She came 
and grabbed him around the neck and kissed him and she 
asked: 'Where's Jim, 'or Bill, or whatever the brother's name 
was. The boy looked up and said: 'Mother, he's in a box over 
there (pointing).' That scene is burned into my memory. 

"The one that touched me most was this. When the 
ambulance train was going from the battlefield John Mosby came 
down and jumped the ambulance train in the night and stole 
all the mules, and left the ambulance standing there full of 
wounded men. There was one boy — he wasn't, I don't think, 
more than 15, if he v/as that old — all shot to pieces. He was in 
terrible agony and he begged them to take him out of the ambu- 
lance and let him lie on the ground. They took him out. This was 
after Mosby had taken all the transportation — we were all 
stranded there. They laid this boy down. It was the most 
pitiful thing to hear that poor boy call for his mother. (Judge 
cried while telling me this — there was a break in his voice — 
tears were coming down his cheeks.) The scenes, Joffe, would 
make a book. Just similar scenes would make a book. 

"One young fellow — one of a hundred — was shot right 
through the wrist. I told him that he ought to put some cold 
water on it — it was all black and swollen. He said: 'Oh, the 
dam thing will have to be cut off anyhow!' He walked a dis- 
tance of about 14 miles in that condition. Weeks after, when 
I was in the hospital, I heard a fellow making the darnest racket, 
hollering and cursing. They brought him out on a stretcher, 
took him into the operating room and cut his arm off. When 
they brought him back in his good arm was hanging down, 
holding on to the stretcher. He said: 'I told you they would 
have to cut the damn thing off!' This was that same kid. The 
bone was all honeycombed. He carried a piece of that bone 
around in his pocket after that. That was just one of the in- 


'The Sanitary Commission and the Christian Commission 
were what the Red Cross is today. They would come around 
and bring dehcacies to eat. They would come around, and 
occasionally a priest or minister would come around. There 
was a minister in there one day and I was feeling pretty punk 
that day. He asked the surgeon to point out the critical cases 
to him, so the surgeon pointed over to me. The surgeon told 
him that I wouldn't last 24 hours. Well, I just said to myself, 
I'll just fool you. They thought I didn't hear and I let on like 
I didn't. That minister came over. I was a Christian boy then. 
I often wished that I had passed on. The minister came over 
and said: Tou know you are very, very sick and that you are 
liable not to be here tomorrow. Would you like to have me 
pray for you?' I told him: "Sure, I had no objections.' I 
thought all the time I would be here tomorrow. And I was 
there tomorrow and several more tomorrows. They made a 
fellow feel like he was pretty near the brink. 

''All the nurses we had were convalescent soldiers. There 
was not a woman nurse. I never saw one during the entire 
war. The soldiers would lie and dress their own wounds. * * * 
Every wounded fellow had a tin basin and a sponge. Think 
of it — a tin basin and a sponge. Why, they wouldn't allow a 
sponge in a hospital today any more than they would a snake. 
That was the paraphernalia they had. Every fellow who had 
a bad wound had a tin basin and a sponge. I saw a man, shot 
in the thigh, with a hole as big as a broom handle, put the basin 
under his wound, take a sponge and let the water run through 
the wound into the basin — dressing his own wound. Gosh! 

'There was a convalescent soldier in the hospital at the 
time I was by the name of Newton, I think. I would give any- 
thing if I could get in touch with that fellow today, but he is no 
doubt gone. He was a little older man than I. That fellow 
waited on me and carried me around like I was a baby. * * * Well, 
that fellow, I owe him my life. We don't think of those things 
when we ought to. If I had that man's address I would like 
to get in communication with him — but I know he isn't living. 
That fellow was a great big strong man but was convalescing 
— he had been wounded. He was my savior. 

"They had to fill me up with guinine. There was a light 
hanging about 15 feet from where my cot was. I would just 
lie there looking at that light for hours. I was full of morphine. 
If I had taken all the medicine they prepared for me it would 
have killed me. I used to throw it out and get away with it. 

"I saw so many touching incidents there, Joffe. There 
was a fellow just across the aisle in the hospital — he faced me — 
and he was shot in the shoulder. I thought he wsa making a 


darn lot of fuss for the wound he had. I got kind of out-of-pa- 
tience with him — he made so much noise. But, by golly, the 
poor fellow was dead one morning, when we were looking for 
him to keep on complaining. Possibly he had taken pneumonia. 
They didn't know what pneumonia was then. We used to call 
it inflammation of the lungs those days. 

''Another case. One day a girl came in. She had a 
little basket on her arm. She looked all around and came in 
like a scared cat. The hospital steward, I think it was, asked 
her if she was looking for some one. She said she was and 
when she told him his name he said he was right over there. 
That was an affecting scene. She had come from way down 
east — I think Massachusetts. She just dropped her basket 
and got her arms around the fellow's neck and they had it out. 
He was badly wounded. It was her sweetheart. 

"Those are just some of the incidents — they occurred every 
day. There was a young fellow in the next ward to me that 
had his leg amputated three different times. Gangrene set 
in and they had to cut him three times. He was a young fellow, 
just a boy, and he had good nerve. He would say: T'll get 
well, I'll get a wooden leg and will be just as good as ever.' He 
had his foot torn off with a shell. They started amputating 
his ankle, then later between the ankle and the knee, and then 
they took off another chunk just below the knee. * * * When old 
Sherman said was was hell, he didn't say half of i+. 

'Tou may think I am a pessimist, but do you know I have 
often thought I would have been better off to have been killed 
and buried on the battlefield. It would have saved a whole 
long life of struggling for existence and a whole lot more to 
account for in the end. I would have gotten by pretty easily 
then, probably. My kid brother — his bones are bleaching 
somewhere in Virginia — I think he had the best of it, by golly. 
He got out of the whole trouble early in life. 

War Record of Brother Norman 

''My older brother, Norman, had a great war record. He 
had three horses shot from under him. Harry Gilmore, in his 
book 'Four Years in the Saddle', tells of an encounter with my 
brother. He had a hand-to-hand encounter with him. My 
brother was on Hunter's staff. He was going out one day with 
an escort of about 30 men. They had just dismounted in a 
ravine and, by golly, here came Gilmore right in behind them 
with his outfit. He was a rebel leader, like Mosby. He was 
a kind of independent fellow. When they saw Gilmore, my 
brother turned around and said: 'Boys, it's fight or go to Libby, 


for my own part I'm going to tackle these fellows.' (So they 
stood their ground and had it out. My brother had his black 
stallion and Gilmore shot his horse right through the head. 
The horse fell and my brother went down and caught his foot 
under the horse. Gilmore emptied his pistol at him but didn't 
hit him. Of course, Gilmore, in his book, said he got the best 
of my brother. My brother used to say, 'Well, if he got the 
best of me, why didn't he take me prisoner. We got away 
from him.' That was published in a paper. Somebody who 
saw it in the paper wrote back home. That was the first news- 
paper notice any body from our town had had. They thought 
it was something great, seeing something about their own boys 
published in the newspaper. I had the clipping but an old 
uncle of mine talked me out of it. I wish I had it now. This 
fellow's name was Harry Gilmore. 

''My brother was a fellow worth while — he made his mark. 
Norman H. Meldrum was his name. (Judge had pictures of 
his brother hanging in his office, one taken just after the war on 
the horse which he rode back and the other when he was 
Secretary of State for Colorado. The picture taken when he 
was Secretary of State and a candidate for Governor had a 
splendid write-up regarding him on the back thereof). 

Discharge and Return to Caledonia 

'T was discharged from the hospital in 1864. Then I came 
home and my brother came back two or three days after. He 
had been all through the hospitals in Washington looking for 
me. I hadn't heard anything of him. One day, one of these 
Smith boys, who had been our pal, came rushing in and said 
that Norman was here looking for me. I thought he was joking. 
But he was there and had come just as he had been on the 
battlefield, with his uniform and spurs on. He had 30 days 
leave so we put in the 30 days together and he went back to 
his outfit. He stayed until the war was all over. 

"You see, Joffe, after my brother and 1 went off to war the 
administrator didn't know whether we were dead or alive. It 
was October, 1864, when my brother, Norman, came home on 
leave and I had just been discharged. He didn't know where 
I was and I didn't know where he was. I hadn't heard from 
my brother since the campaign started in the spring. It was a 
remarkable thing — we reached our boyhood home within four 
or five days of each other. 

Shortly after we got back the first thing we decided to do 
was to go and visit this old Colonel Smith's sons. There were 
six of them and we had all been just like brothers. So we went 


to call on the Smiths. We rode those two horses that my 
brother had brought with him — it was about three miles. When 
we got to the Smith home we didn't find anyone at home. On 
the way back to our house we met the old Colonel on the road, 
just about dark. I really think he thought we were ghosts. 
Both of the horses we were riding were military horses and I 
think that he must have thought somebody was coming to 
arrest him. I think he must have thought of what he had done 
to us. He said: 'Boys, God has taken care of you!' So, I forgot 
all about his treatment of us and I have long since forgiven him. 
Let him rest." 

Chapter III 

Life in Little Rock, Arkansas 

Following his discharge and return to Caledonia after the 
war, the next chapter of Judge Meldrum's life is centered around 
Little Rock, Arkansas, of which he had the following to say: 

"'After I had had about three months of good feed and 
nursing in Caledonia I got back to being guite myself. So, I 
said to myself: Toung fellow, you must do something. You 
can't loaf. Your life's ahead of you and you have to do some- 
thing.' So, that is when I went to Little Rock, Arkansas. 

''Really, that whole thing would sound like a fairy tale. I 
saw a notice in a Rochester paper that the governmient wanted 
all kinds of m_echanics, teamsters, laborers, etc., to go to the 
different posts of the army. So, they had a local agent in 
Rochester, this advertisement told where he could be found. 
So I went and interviewed him. 1 asked him what the govern- 
ment paid and he told me that they paid teamsters $45 a month, 
laborers $45 a month, and that they paid mechanics, it didn't 
make any difference what kind, $75 a month. Well, I thought 
that sounded pretty good. That was the biggest job I had ever 
had offered me in my life, so I told him to just put me down, 
that I was going with them. He told me when to be ready. 
Well, we started for St. Louis. 

"We had guite a batch of fellows with us. You had to 
enlist, just like the C. C. C. men today. You had to enlist for 
six months, take the oath of allegiance and be willing to serve 
with a gun, if necessary. That wasn't hard for me to do. We 
got to St. Louis and signed up, ready to go to Arkansas. There 
were different posts where they were sending the men. Kansas 
City was one of the places — it was nothing but a little shanty 
then. They were sending men there and to Little Rock and 
to other places. So I chose Little Rock. Well, they chartered 
a steamer but the man wouldn't sail for the reason that it was 


reported that the White River was infested by bushwackers and 
that they would shoot the tar out of us if we went down on the 
boat. So the fellow held up for five or six days. They finally 
gave him an escort and we finally made the station which con- 
nected with Little Rock. We got there without anybody being 
killed. The pilot was protected with boiler iron all around him. 
We had all around the deck of the boat piled up with oat and 
grain sacks, six feet high — probably three rows of them. We 
could stand behind those oat sacks and let them shoot. They 
didn't have anything that would go through three oat sacks. 

'The only railroad was 40 miles — built through a swamp. 
The mud would fly all over the cars as they went over the rails. 
That was the condition when we struck Little Rock. I signed 
up as a carpenter. They gave us a hatchet and saw and told 
us to go over and report to the foreman and he would tell us 
what to do. They put us on a building, pounding shingles. I 
could pound shingles as good as any old fellow. All you had 
to know was to saw a board straight and pound nails. But, what 
I knew about mechanics was worth a fortune to me. I could 
do a better job than fifteen out of twenty of them. My old dad's 
instructions to me when I was a kid was: 'Whatever you do, do 
the best you can!' So I did just that. I never dropped my ham- 
mer until after the bell sounded. They sounded a bell instead 
of a bugle. Well, 1 was only fifteen days on that job and I went 
to the foreman. I had his good will in that fifteen days. He 
saw that I was always on deck and was doing just the best I could. 
I asked him if he couldn't get me into the carpenter shop. It 
was pretty cold working outside on those roofs — it was Decem- 
ber. He told me that the carpenter shop was pretty well filled 
up. I then asked him how about the wagon shop. He asked 
me if I could work at that and I told him I could work at any- 
thing made out of wood. I thought to myself, now or never! 
So he said he thought he might be able to get me in the wagon 

Promoted to Assistant Foreman 

''He took me over to the foreman of the wagon shop and 
asked him if he could give me a job. The foreman was a Dutch- 
man — a big six footer. His name was Louis Weil. Weil said: 
'Well, I guess so. What can you do?' I told him I thought I 
could do anything I had to do here. He asked me what I knew 
about wagons and I told him I knew all about them, that I had 
helped make them. 1 had learned the wagon makers trade. 
He told me to go and inspect the wagons, to inspect them care- 
fully, to take the wheels off and see that they were in proper 
condition and so on. So, I inspected all the government wag- 
ons. I just had a fine job. I don't know how long that took. 


But in the meantime I got acquainted with the assistant fore- 
man — a nice fellow. I don't know why it was but he kind of 
took to me and told me that he was going to quit there, and 
asked me if I wouldn't like to have his job. He was a white 
collar fellow. I told him, you bet I would, if I could get it. He 
told me that he belived I could. He said he would go with me 
to Weil and see about it. Well was a kind of gruff old Dutch- 
man and he asked me if I could do this, if I could do that, and if I 
could do this, and so on. I told him I could. The main thing 
was to see that the men were provided with material, keep 
time, etcetera. So I got the assistant foreman position. 

Gets to be Foreman 

''Well, when the war closed — this was just a short time 
before the closing of the war — everybody wanted to dig for 
home. A lot of them went into business. If they could get 
permission from the Government they could go into business. 
This fellow Weil wanted to start a beer saloon. So he made 
application for a Government permit to start a saloon. I was 
hoping that he would get it. Well, he got the permit. In the 
meantime, I got pretty well acquainted with the superintendent. 
I asked him who was going to be foreman. He said that he had- 
n't thought about it. I told him Weil v/as going away and he 
asked me how I would like to have the job myself. Well, I 
didn't say this but I thought to myself: 'Did a duck swim?' So 
I got to be foreman, over men old enough to be my grandfather. 

From Foreman to Assistant Superintendent 

"Then the war closed. I got a telegram fromi my brother 
asking me to meet him in Rochester on such and such a day, 
that we were going West. I went to Rochester and found a 
letter from my brother, written in Leavenworth. The regimient 
was on their way west, it said. So I made my trip for nothing 
— not exactly that because I had a good time. When I got 
back to Little Rock I found there had been a conspiracy in the 
wagon shop. They thought the foreman ought to be an older 
man. They had a petition signed to present to the superinten- 
dent. They had picked out somebody else for foreman. When 
I got back my place was kind of in the air. The superintendent 
told me not to mind those fellows — that he wanted me to come 
and help him in his office. He told me he would take me for 
his assistant. This fellow he had was not altogether satisfactory 
and he was going to let him go. I knew all the work from the 
ground up — just what was going on. He said that he wanted 
somebody to go on the outside and look after different crews. 
By golly, I got to be assistant superintendent. Got a nigger to 
make my bed for me. 


Made Superintendent 

' They were getting up an expedition to go to Albuguerque, 
New Mexico. That was the first time I ever heard of Albu- 
querque and I didn't know how they spelled that name. They 
sent an outfit there and needed a long line of wagons. Soon 
before they got ready to go the superintendent came to me and 
said that he was going with the expedition. He said that he 
was tired of his job and that he wanted to go out and see that 
country — it was absolutely new then. Well, I said 'Oscar, 
who will get your place when you go away?' This fellow was a 
nephew of Colonel Noble. In the meantime I had gotten pretty 
well acquainted with the Colonel. He said: 'Come on, let's go 
up and see the Colonel, right now.' He told the Colonel he 
thought he would go with this expedition and that he would 
like to have me for his place. The Colonel looked at me. I 
was just a barefaced kid. He had a full beard. He said: 
7ack, do you think you can swing it?' I said: 1 will make an 
awful hard try, Colonel.' I got it. That was all there was to it. 
I was the big man then. 

''After I became superintendent in Little Rock then the 
trouble began. Colonel Noble wanted to quit. He wanted 
to go home. The war was over by this time and he wanted 
to get out. He was succeeded by Colonel Henry Page. Colonel 
Page and I got along fine but his stay there was very brief. He 
also wanted to get home after a short while. I don't think he 
was there a month. He was succeeded by Alexander Mont- 
gom.ery, a regular army officer. Well, sir, here's where the 
fun started. (Judge showed me a picture of the old arsenal 
building at Little Rock, built in the '20s, over which he had 
some difficulty with Colonel Montgomery. The building was 
used as a storehouse at the time he was superintendent at 
Little Rock.) 

"Colonel Montgomery was there quite a while before he 
ever came in to see me. He walked by my office every day 
for a week but never stopped in. He was a strange old fellow, 
with gray hair and a gray clipped moustache. He always 
carried a cape, with one side thrown back. I thought he would 
never come in to see me but one day here came an orderly 
into my office, post haste (he put me in mind of Colonel Benson.) 
The orderly came in a flying and said: The compliments of 
Colonel Montgomery. He wants to see the superintendent 
AT ONCE!' I thought, well here goes, so I jumped on my 
horse, I had a better horse than the Colonel, and rode up to 
the office. I went in and here was a long table with about 
four to six commissioned officers sitting around with a map on 
the table. They seemed very much interested. Old Colonel 


Montgomery looked up and said: 'Are you the superintendent?' 
I said: Tes, Sir'. He said: 1 wish you would look over these 
plans here.' I saw they had blue prints made. They wanted 
to change the old building into an officers guarters. As the 
plans were spread out on the table he asked me to look them 
over. I didn't know anything about what they were going to 
do, but I looked wise and interested. He asked me if that 
building could be transformed in accordance with those plans. 
I told him that 1 didn't see any reason why they couldn't. He 
asked me if I could make him a perspective of that building. 
I told him that I could (1 was thinking fast all that time.) 1 had 
a foreman who was a good architect and 1 was thinking of him. 
He asked me how long it would take and 1 told him probably 
a week. "All right,' he said, you have that done and bring it 
up just as soon as you can.' So I went to Wallace — that was the 
foreman's name — and told him I had a job for him. I told him 
to go up to George Gibbs and get whatever he needed in the 
way of ink and drawing paper and make a perspective of the 
arsenal building and to do it just as fast and fine as he could. 
He said he could do it in a couple days — so I told him to get busy. 

""After the drawing was finished, I armed myself with it 
and went up to the Colonel's office. He spread the drawing 
out on the table, looked at it and said: "Capital, Capital'. Then 
he told me to proceed to fix the building according to these 
plans. So I went out and got a crew of men — I had all kinds 
of good men then — and started to work. Of course, I had to 
get a lot of lumber and other things. 

""The post commander of the Little Rock post was an in- 
fantry officer by the name of Smith. Colonel Smith had a 
regiment there. He was post commander. So Colonel Smith 
would come in every day and find fault with what we were 
doing. It didn't suit him at all. I told him I was doing it ac- 
cording to the orders of the Chief Quartermaster. He got so 
darned nasty that I just had a break with him one day. I told 
him: "I am doing this work under the direction of the Chief 
Quartermaster. If you have any complaints to make, you go 
to him. I have heard enough about it. That is the end of that.' 
But he didn't go to the Chirf Quartermaster, he went to the 
Commanding General, who was old General E. O. C. Ord, 
one of the prominent Union generals of the army. He was one 
of the few very marked generals of the Union Army. (Here 
the Judge told me that he could name every important general 
in both the Un^.on and Confederate armies.) So the Colonel's 
orderly came down to my office on the gallop. He said: "Com- 
pliments of Colonel Montgomery. The Colonel would like to 
have you report to General Ord at his headguarters.' I thought, 
by golly, I'm tangled up now with the Commanding General, 


I better look out. I jumped my horse and rode up to General 
Ord's headquarters. Joffe, I can remember as he sat there, 
his position, just as well as if it were yesterday. The adjutant 
general was in the front room and the old general in the back. 
I came in and saluted the adjutant general and told him who 
I was and told him I had a message to report to General Ord. 
He told me that General Ord was in the next room, so I went in. 
General Ord was sitting with his legs crossed. I noticed he 
had Government socks. He was a plain old fellow. He looked 
up and I stood there. He said: 'Are you the superintendent, 
Mr. Meldrum?' I said: Tes, sir.' 'What is the matter with you 
and Colonel Smith?' He told me that Colonel Smith had lodged 
complaints that I was superintending work at the arsenal and 
that he went in to make suggestions about it and that I was im- 
pudent to him. But the first thing the General said to me when 
I came in was: Tou look like a man who had some judgment, 
you ought to know your business.' I said: 'General, I thank 
you, I believe I do.' Then he went on and told me about the 
charges. So we talked it all over and I stated the case just as 
it occurred. I told him that I was doing that work under the 
direction of Colonel Montgomery, the Chief Quartermaster, 
that I couldn't change it to suit Colonel Smith and that he ought 
to know that. 'Well!' said the General, 'that's all right. You 
go back. We'll see about this.' So I went out. The old Quar- 
termaster he had had a lookout watching for me. The orderly 
came in to my office after I got back and said that the Colonel 
wanted to see me. I went to see him and he asked: 'What did 
the General say?' I told him. 'GOOD, GOOD,' he said. 
He gave me something that day I would give a hundred dollars 
in gold if I had it today. The old man sat down and wrote me 
a letter directing me to go and finish that building according 
to specifications and that this would be my authority for doing 
it irrespective of what anybody else suggested. The funny 
part of it was you couldn't read it after he wrote it. You could- 
n't read it to save your soul. He wrote it and then he read it 
to me. I would never have known what was in it if he hadn't 
read it to me. (The Judge reflected a keen sense of humor 
while telling this.) I kept that letter for years. Yes, I would 
give more than a hundred dollars if I had it today. 

"So I took the letter and started back. He said: 'Now, if 
that damn Yankee gives you any more of his lip, slap his mou1h 
and I will stand by you.' That is what the old Colonel said: 
Well, that finished that war. We got along for a while. 

"I thought I was getting along well until one morning when 
I was in my office in came the old Colonel's orderly. He was 
looking kind of pale and kind of trembling and he said that the 
Colonel wanted to see me right away. I asked him, where. 


and he told me in the blacksmith shop. I went over to the 
blacksmith shop and this was my greeting: Tou're a dam 
pretty superintendent!' — or 'a damn fine superintendent!' — 
There was sarcasm in his voice. 'By golly', thinks I, 'what is the 
matter?' He turned around and there was a baby buggy that 
had been brought into the Government shop to be fixed. One 
of the springs was broken. It was the first baby buggy I ever 
saw. It would cost the Government probably fifteen cents to 
fix it. He was just crazy mad. That's a dam pretty thing to 
have in a government shop', he said. He never gave me time 
to say a word, he just kept on talking, cussng and stamping 
his feet, right in front of my men. We finally went into my 
office and I said to him: 'Colonel, I served as a private soldier 
in the Union army and I never had an officer reprimand me 
or say an unkind word to me.' I said: 'I am not a private 
soldier now — I am an American citizen — If I don't suit you you 
get somebody else to run this business.' I said: "If I was a 
private soldier you might cuss me, but you can't as a private 
citizen.' Well, he kind of coughed and went out and went 
over to his office. His orderly came in and told me that I was 
wanted in the office. So I went in to the office — McCormick 
was the chief clerk. McCormick was sitting there like he was 
going to be crucified. He said: 'Colonel ordered me to pay you 
off.' I said: 'All right, you can't do it any too quick.' He told me 
to shush and pointed to the Colonel's room. I told him that 
I didn't care, that I was ready to go. I was talking pretty loud 
and McCormick was trying to appease me. And, by golly, 
here came old Colonel out of his office. He walked out of the 
door with his glasses on his nose and said to McCormick: 
'What's the matter?' He said: 'Didn't you direct me to pay Mr. 
Meldrum off.' He said: 'No, I didn't do anything like that.' 
Well, sir, McCormick didn't dare contradict him. The old 
man was just fine to me then. He asked me to come into his 
office and after we went in he closed the door and asked me 
to sit down. So I sat down. And he said: 'Mr. Meldrum, I 
like you but you are quicker than a pepper pod.' 'Well', I said, 
'Colonel, I think I had occasion to show the resentment.' He 
said: 'Why, what did I do?' I told him that in the presence of 
at least fifty of my men he said that I was a damn fine superin- 
tendent. 'Ohl' he said, 'I didn't say that.' I said: 'Well, you 
did Colonel, that is just what you said.' He kept on talking 
and finally said: 'You go back and tend to your work and we 
will forget this.' I told him that I would go half way anytime 
with anybody. So I went back and I never had a better friend 
than old Colonel Montgomery. 

"I will tell you what started the whole stink. He had a 
nephew. Captain Garland. Garland was in charge of the 


transportation, the mules and all transportation which carried 
supplies from Little Rock to the outposts. I had charge of fix- 
ing up the transportation, shoeing the mules and repairing the 
wagons. He thought because he was the Colonel's nephew 
that he didn't have to ask me when he wanted something done. 
So he put some mules in one day and told the foreman he 
wanted them shod the same day. Well, the foreman told him 
he would have to go to the superintendent and get an order 
before he would shoe any of them. So he had to come to me 
for the order and that made him mad. Where he was boarding 
they had a baby and they had this baby buggy. They busted 
the spring one day but he wouldn't come over and ask me be- 
cause he knew I wouldn't let him have it fixed. So he slipped 
it into the blacksmith shop and told the foreman he wanted it 
fixed. They never fixed it — it was just standing in the shop. 
This was the cause of all the trouble. When I was in the office 
with the Colonel I told him that it all started over his nephew. 
I told him everything Ihat had happened. That gave him a 
different picture. Well, that settled that party. After that I 
never had a better friend than old Colonel Montgomery and 
when he went away he said: T am going to Fort Niagara.' Just 
think, that was within fifty miles of my home in New York. He 
was going to Fort Porter, Niagara Falls. He said: Tf you will 
go with me I will give you the best job at my command there.' 
Well, I knew he had several others to look after before he got 
to me, and I didn't want to go anyway. I thanked him and told 
him that although that was but fifty miles from my old home, I 
preferred to stay. That was the parting between Colonel 
Montgomery and I. 

'"Well, the next Quartermaster was Joseph Pierce. Joseph 
was a gruff fellow but we never had any war. The only thing 
I recall that he found fault about was one day he came along 
by the blacksmith shop and the man that brought the coal had 
thrown it down near the door and some had scattered outside. 
Pierce came along and saw that coal. He came to my office 
and said: T wish you would have them clean that coal up — it 
doesn't look right scattered around there.' That was the only 
word of fault he ever found. 

''My next Quartermaster was Captain Forsyth. Captain 
Forsyth was a fine fellow. We never had an unkind word pass 
between us. Captain Forsyth was on the job when 1 said 'good 
bye' to Little Rock. 

"It was while I was superintendent that 1 had the only 
fight I ever had while I was grown. When I was a kid I would 
rather fight than eat but it was the only fight that I had when I 
was a grown man. (Judge told me of this incident, which 


happened in an eating house, when a big fellow drew a knife 
on him. The Judge hit him over the head with his chair, and 
that ended that.) 

''Another incident. While I was superintendent there 
was a fellow who came in and asked for a job. Well, there was 
a railing all around my desk, as high as four feet, and I had 
a little wicket in it. The fellow came up and asked for a job. 
I asked him what he could do and he said he was a first class 
painter and paper hanger. He was a pretty lippy cuss. Well, 
I told him I would see about it, that I couldn't give him a job 
just then. Before I left as superintendent we fixed up all the 
government buildings that the government had occupied. We 
put everything in perfect order before we left there. So I 
employed this fellow when we got to paper hanging and so on. 
He was just the man I needed for ihat work. One day when I 
went over to the paint shop he was mixing paste and he said: 
'Boys, I've seen the day when I thought that would have been 
damn good grub.' Wel^ I said: 'Bonnell, (that was his name) 
were you in the army?' He said: Tou bet I was, I was a good 
old Johnny Reb. I told him I didn't think that made any dif- 
ference with his capabilities as a paper hanger. He was a 
pretty good fellow and pretty lippy. Well, later, when he got 
through and he came in to get his time he said: 'Now, do you 
remember the day I came and asked you for a job?' I told him 
I did. He said: 'Do you know what I thought? I thought you 
were a damn stuck-up stinker. But I found out you were a 
mighty good fellow.' 

"Here's another incident. I told you about that expedition 
going to Albuguergue. In the cavalry regiment was a major. 
I think he was the only officer who had his wife. We called 
the wagons ambulances in those days. An officer's wagon 
would be an ambulance. He wanted an ambulance fixed for 
his wife to ride in. She was going with them overland all the 
way to Albuguergue. I told him I would fix it up for him. He 
said he had a rocking chair which he would bring down and 
wanted the rocking chair put in the wagon somewhere so she 
would be comfortable. So we got together and fixed it in the 
wagon with springs. It was stationary and very comfortable. 
Well, he was so pleased with it that when he went away he left 
a note for me saying: 'Call at Lafferty & Royalty's store and 
ask for a bag.' After they had gone I went to the store and 
asked if there was a package for me. The fellow told me there 
was and took down a box. Here was a $10 hat, by golly. This 
is only a part of this story. 

"While I was here in the park when Colonel Wilder was 
superintendent I got talking to his wife one day. She was an 


angel. I asked her where she Uved, where she had spent her 
girlhood. She told me at Conesus Lake, in New York. This 
was a grape-growing country. Well, she went on to tell me 
that there were three sisters who married army officers, all of 
whom became generals, and one of them was the wife of the 
man that rewrote the drill regulations of the army and he went 
crazy over it and committed suicide. A fine fellow and a fine 
general! He lived not far from where I did back in New York. 
She said her oldest sister married him. Then she had another 
sister that married another army officer and she, the youngest, 
married Colonel Wilder. The other sister married this major 
that gave me the hat. She said she had heard her sister tell 
dozens of times about that wagon and how that chair was fixed 

Chapter IV 

Wyoming Life 

In 1867 Judge Meldrum left Little Rock and returned to 
New York state, where he was married, and 1hen left for his 
honeymoon for the West, landing in Wyoming, where his life 
was full of interesting experiences and where he became one 
of the best known men in the Territory. Of this chapter of 
his life the Judge had the following to say: 

'We'll get to July 1, 1867, when I completed my work at 
Little Rock. While I was there at Little Rock my brother came 
and asked me what I was going to do when I left there. He told 
me to come West with him. He had taken up some ground. 
He told me that when I got through at Little Rock I should go 
back to New York and buy a thrashing machine. He said there 
was lots of money in thrashing and that there was just one 
north of Denver, in Colorado. He told me to buy it and ship 
it to the terminus of the Union Pacific Road, which was some- 
where down in Nebraska. 

Return to New York and Marriage 

''Well, I went back to New York and bought the thrashing 
machine. There was a firm in my eld town that built thrashing 
machines. There was another firm three miles from there 
that built Ihem ^-oo. I thought I would patronize home industry 
but it was the biggest mistake I ever made. I told them I 
wanted a machine and asked them what they would charge 
to put it on the cars. There is a lot of paraphernalia connected 
with a thrashing machine. I told them that it was a cash trans- 
action and asked them what they would charge to put a machine 
on the cars for me. They said $500. That was about a hundred 


dollars less than they would ordinarily have charged but usually 
they had to wait about iwo years for their pay. So I bought 
the machine and they shipped it. 

''While back there I got married. So I took my wife and 
came out to Cheyenne. We struck there the 13th day of April 
1868. I was married in 1867, about four months after I left 
Little Rock. We came west and struck Cheyenne April 13, 1868. 
Meanwhile, the thrashing machine had been shipped, got out 
to the end of the Union Pacific road, had to haul it from there 
to Fort Collins and when they got it laid down in Fort Collins 
the freight was $611 — more than the machine was worth. The 
grasshoppers had eaten everything there was in sight and there 
was nothing to thrash. So when I got out there they didn't even 
have a place to store the machine, they didn't have a building 
to store it in. She was leaned up against an old stable with some 
boards on it. I had gotten an oilcloth covering for it when it 
was shipped. The freight handlers had it all torn to pieces. 
But here was my thrashing machine leaning up against an old 
stable with some boards over it. 1 didn't thrash a bushel of 
wheat because the grasshoppers had eaten it all up and there 
was nothing to thrash. 

Reception at Cheyenne 

"My brother, in the meantime, had a lumber yard in Chey- 
enne and was furnishing lumber tc build Fort Russell. He had 
let the ranch out on shares to some young fellows from the East 
and they were running the ranch and he was running the lumber 
yard in Cheyenne. He was to have made provisions for our 
coming. There was another young man who was a lieutenant 
in the same company with my brother and he got married and 
we came out together — a couple of bridegrooms and brides. 

''My brother came down to meet us and we were all dressed 
up like bridegrooms should be, wearing high silk hats and all. 
My brother told me 1 better cache that hat. He said that if I were 
to wear it up town somebody would shoot it off my head. He 
said he wouldn't wear it up the street for a million dollars. 
So I took his advice. We went up to the hotel where he had 
reserved rooms, or thought he had. It was later the Inter-Ocean 
hotel, but it was known as the Ford hotel then. He said to the 
landlord: 'Here's my brother and his friend and their wives 
and I wish to have those rooms you reserved for them.' But 
he said they didn't have any rooms left — +he house was full 
and he was turning people away. My brother told them what 
he thought of them. The landlord finally said he could give 
us one room, that that was the best he could do. I told him to 
give the girls the room and we would go out and rustle. He 


told us that he had lots of floor space in the office, lots of rugs 
and buffalo robes, but no beds. We spent the night in the office 
and were packed in like sardines. When you wanted to turn over 
you had to heller 'spoon'. That was how I spent my first night 
in Cheyenne. 

'There was an old wit there who was hauling lumber from 
a saw mill in Colorado to Cheyenne. This fellow's name was 
Billy Patterson. He said to my brother: 'Don't you think we ought 
to give your brother a kind of entertainment?' My brother told 
him he thought it would be all right. He gave him some money 
and they went out. Well, they went out and played a mean 
prank. That was the reception they gave us. That was the first 
night we spent in Cheyenne. We didn't get much sleep. 

Introduction to Ranching 

"Well, the next morning we had to prepare to go to the 
ranch, which was forty-five miles from Cheyenne. We had 
shipped our stuff out from New York. So I made arrangements 
with a freighter to haul our goods and went to a grocery store 
and bought some provisions. I had a wash tub full and it cost 
me over a hundred dollars. Things were very high — $10 for 
a sack of flour, three pounds of sugar for a dollar, seventy five 
cents for a can of tomatoes. That was the price I paid. I went 
down to the livery stable, run by Reed & Abney. It was just 
next to where the Plains Hotel is now. I went there and hired 
a team to take us over to LaPorte, near Fort Collins. We hired 
a team, got an old surrey and the darn horses balked forty 
times on the road be^■ween Cheyenne and LaPorte. They 
would balk at every ditch or stream they came to. Finally, we got 
to a half-way station, kept by a friend of my brother. He had 
a stage line from Cheyenne to Fort Collins. This was his half- 
way station. We stayed ihere overnight. 

"The next morning he asked my brother if he didn'i think 
1 would like to take a horseback ride. My brother told him he 
thought I would. I thought at that time I could ride anything with 
hair on it. So, we went out to the stable. They picked out a 
horse for me. It was a good looking horse. He saddled him 
up and my brother suggested that we better get the horse 
outside before I got on him. So we led him outside and I mounted 
him and he stood there looking one way and then the other — 
wasn't inclined to start. Joe Mason, my brother's cronie, said: 
'Don't you think we ought to touch him up a little?' So they hit 
the horse and he commenced to buck. Well, I stayed with him. 
He was just an ordinary bucker. So they had their fun over the 
bucking horse. Well, we got over that and the next day we 
went on to the ranch. 


'1 never read of anybody going out to make a home but 
that comes back to me. My brother had had his house about half 
built. There was a pile of debris in the front of it, plaster and 
shavings and pieces of board up half as high as the door. We 
got inside. There was a stove in there but not a darn sign of a 
bed, or a table. So the first ten days that we spent in there we 
slept en the floor without anything but what we had taken in 
the coach with us, a buffalo robe and blankets. Our table was 
a cracker box, about a foot high, and we sat on the floor for 
chairs and that is how we put in the first ten days ranching. 

'T had to go to Fort Collins every other day to see if the 
teams had gotten in with our stuff. In the meantime, it had 
rained, snowed, sleeted and everything else. In about ten 
days a fellow rolled in with the stuff — soaked and resoaked. 
He got caught in the storm, his oxen got lost and he was hunting 
them and my good stuff was out there with the elements playing 
with it. 

''Well, we were on this ranch in LaPorte. Half of our 
neighbors were Frenchmen with sguaw wives. Old Chief 
Friday of the Shoshonis had a camp about three miles away 
from the ranch. The Indians used to come around daily nearly 
to visit us. They always wanted something to eat. Well, we 
couldn't feed all the tribe, so we would feed two or three of them. 
After we had given tham all we thought was necessary we would 
make the Indian sign for 'All Gone'. We would get rid of them 
after a while. I had to go a mile to get milk. The nearest water 
we had was the river, a mile away. We had to haul our water 
from the river to the ranch house. Not a thing, not a conven- 
ience, nothing to do anything with did we have at the place. 
There was no fuel. We had to go six or seven miles for fuel. 
The only fuel was the pieces of boards and timber that had 
been thrown out from the building of the shack. 

'T have often thought if I had the pep now that I had 
then I could make a world in a couple weeks. Nothing fazed 
me in those days. 

'Well, I bought a team, a wagon, some milch cows, built 
a door-yard fence, skinned the poles, skinned the pests, dug 
the holes myself, built +he fence, painted the fence — in fact, I 
did everything myself. The last time I was there six or seven 
years ago, the gate I made was still there. I made that gate 
and that was all that was left of the front fence, the gate. My 
brother was in Cheyenne busy with his lumber business and 
I was alone to do all the work. 

"The friend of my brother who came out with me had a 
ranch adjoining mine and he was there all the time. 


''We really didn't have much trouble with the Indians. 
They used to come and steal our stock. My brother used to laugh 
when anyone would say that the Indians would kill anyone. 
All they ever wanted was to steal your stock. 

""I worked all summer getting the ranch fixed up. My 
brother, of course, was in Cheyenne tending to his business 
there. I got a carpenter and we built that house. (The Judge 
shewed me a picture of the house. It had been hanging on his 
wall for many years.) I hauled the brick from Cheyenne, 
forty-five miles. I hauled the lime twenty miles the other way, 
from Loveland. I got the sand out of the bottom of the river. 
I mixed the mortar, carried the brick and built those chimneys 
myself, and they are standing there today. Every lick of ii I 
did myself. I packed the mud up the ladder en to the roof. loffe, 
I am not saying these things in a boastful way just to show you 
what you had to go through in those days. 

''We got through the summer all right and we were decently 
comfortable. I built a barn, hauled the lumber out of the hills. 
It was hard work getting them out, the roads were terrible, 
+hey were steep and it was necessary to lock the wheels. I 
think every spoke on the back wheels was cracked. The same 
house and barn were standing the last time I saw them, six 
or seven years ago, just like when I built them. 

A Near Tragedy 

"Now, I'll tell you about a near tragedy. I had my thrashing 
machine covered up with boards and as I told you it was along- 
side of a building with a straw roof. So, the thing to do was to 
get ready to thrash. I went around and engaged a lot of thrash- 
ing from the ranchmen in the neighborhood and I had to hire 
a crew. I had to have ten horses, I had one team of my own. 
I had to have four trams and three men to run the machine. 
We were all ready to s+art in. We started to thrash at a neighbor's 
ranch. We got all underway and the machine ran abou+ 
fifteen or twenty minutes and clogged up. Well, I saw at once 
what the trouble was. The capacity of the fanning mill wasn't 
adeguate to separate the straw, chaff, etcetera from the grain. 
The dry grain out in this country stops up when it is put through 
a machine. The fanning mill needed about three times the 
capacity it did back East. Well, after trying half a dozen times 
and the men who owned the ranch around there fretting and 
wanting to know what's the matter and jumping around it was 
guite embarrassing for me. He had his sacks to sack the grain. 
It was right out in the open. The wind would blow your hair 
off too. I changed the machine around twice in one day. The 
wind would blow right in your face and blow everything over 


your head. You would have to get down and turn the machine 
around and when you got it turned around the wind would 
shift and you had to do it all over again. I saw the machine 
wasn't going to work and I knew what had to be done. The 
sieve had to have a new shoe about double the capacity which 
it had. The trouble was, where could we get the material to 
fix it. I knew what was reguired because I knew what the old 
one was made of. I needed some basguewood in order to fix 
it. That wood is tough; you can drive nails into it without 
splitting it Well, where was I to get the basguewood. We had 
to stop work with all these men and teams under pay waiting. 

~'So, I hauled the machine back to the ranch and I scratched 
my head and wondered where I was going to get the material 
for the shoe. I happened to look across the road and there was 
an old prairie schooner bed. I had made wagons myself and I 
knew that all prairie schooners were made of basguewood. 
So I went over and looked at it. It had been thrown off along- 
side the road. It took me the best part of a day to get the rivets 
and nails out of it before I could use it. I went to work and I 
worked night and day. I worked in the night just as long as I 
could stand up. I had my poor little wife hold the light for me. 
I worked a solid week, night and day. I had it all done and 
took a long breath now and thought, by golly, that's fixed. I 
really was so tired and dopey I probably didn't know what I 
was doing. In the shoe there is a little trough where the chaff 
runs out of the sieves and from there they go up the elevator 
back to the binder. I had it all fixed — what I thought was a 
fine job — with an end sticking out both sides. One side was 
to be cut off and the other was to have been left. By golly, I 
cut off the wrong end! I just sat down and said I guess this is 
the end. What's the use! Well, I picked myself up and started 
in again. I had to take it all apart and do it all over again. It 
wasn't guite as much work as to make a new one but it was a 
sorry job. I had used all my material and I wondered what I 
was going to do for material to make a new part. I looked up 
and I saw the running board of the separator was basguewood. 
So, off came the running board and I got her fixed. I hitched 
up, hauled her back, gave the high sign that we were ready 
to proceed and we went to work and it worked all right. Every- 
thing worked except the elevator which carried the chaff back 
into the cylinder — it stopped up. It wasn't large enough. So, 
I had to make a new one. I had to go to Cheyenne to get the 
material. There was another three or four days lost. But I 
got her fixed and away we went. It worked all right then. 
Within four or five days after the machinery that connected 
from the horsepower to run the cylinder began to cut. It wasn't 
set true. I saw what was coming. It would wear out within the 
course of a week and I would be lost again. So I had to telegraph 


back to New York where I bought the machine to have Ihem 
send this material and we kept going. We got through with 
that job and moved to another, and we kept going. 

''In the meantime, I hardly ever had my clothes off. The 
ranchmen would laugh at you if you asked for a bed. You had 
to carry your own bedroll with you and sleep in the hay. There 
wasn't a solitary day when night would come but what something 
had to be fixed and I would have to saddle a horse and go to 
the nearest blacksmith shop and pray to the fellow to do the 
work for me in the night. Now that was every day — something 
would happen. 

''Moving one night from one place to another, coming 
down a steep hill, one of my horses collapsed. I thought he 
was going to die. This was about ten o'clock at night. So I 
got down and finally got the horse on his feet and started up 
and one of the straw carrier legs fell off the separator and one 
end hit the ground and one just leaned against this elevator 
that carried the chaff from the fanning mill up to the cylinder. 
The leg stuck and went right through the whole thing and tore 
the insides out of the elevator. After I got started I passed +he 
house, where my wife was there alone, and I didn't dare go 
in the house because I thought I had bugs. So I went to the 
porch and sat out and talked to her through the window. 

"Well, I got though the season. We had a fine crop. We 
had sixty acres of oats that year, sixty bushels to the acre and 
they weighed forty pounds to the bushel. We sold those oats 
for four and a half cents a pound. That's about a dollar and 
seventy-five cents a bushel for oats. That wasn't bad! That was 
the only pay crop raised there — oats. Oats and potatoes. The 
old overland stage route was still going and they bought all 
the oats in the coontry for their stock. All the farmers could 
raise the stage company would take from them. They furnished 
the sacks and all we had to do was sack the oats and they came 
and hauled them. The year before, when the grasshoppers had 
eaten the crops, oats sold for fourteen cents a pound. With my 
old machine, when I got it all fixed up, we could make good 
money. Make about a hundred dollars a day if things ran all 
right, but, of course, there was the overhead to come out of 
that. When the season was over I pulled the old thrashing 
machine home. We had a place to put it then. When I saw my 
brother I said to him: Tf you want to run that thrashing machine, 
why go to it, but I'll never touch it again. I'm through!' In 
the meantime he had closed his business in Cheyenne and came 
back to give his attention to the ranch. So, he ran the thrashing 
machine the next year. He didn't have any of the trouble I 
had but when he got through he was satisfied. He said: 'Well, 
take the dam thing out there and burn her up!' 






''Well, when the thrashing was through we had the house 
all hxed up. It had folding doors in it. So we decided to have 
a house warming and it was a dandy. It was the talk of the 
whole country. We got the music from Cheyenne. Every- 
body in the country — all our friends — came. There were a 
number of my brother's friends who had been in the army and 
settled there. We had a whole bunch there and we had a 
dance that was the talk of the country. This house warming — 
that closed the season. 

''My brother went East that winter — off to New York. Mrs. 
Meldrum and I stayed there alone all winter. After the sum- 
mer's work was all dene I saw that the wood pile was pretty 
low and that I would have to get some wood in. I hired a man 
.and worked a month getting wood for the next season. We 
would get up at four o'clock in the morning and go out about six 
over a terrible road to get a load of wood, sixteen feet lengths. 
They had to roll the logs up on to the wagon, bind them with 
a chain and lock the wheels and come out. We spent just a 
month hauling wood. We would get up at four, start out about 
six and come back after night. I had a fine pile of wood, I'll 
tell you. With that pile all you had to do was to take an axe and 
go to it. That I could do. That was just fun for me. 

"One day a fellow came to my place, asked me if I was 
John Meldrum, and when I told him I was, he said: 'You're a 
fiddler, aren't you?' I told him I played a little and asked him 
how he knew it. He told me that he had heard about me. He 
said: 'I'm going to have a housewarming nearly twenty miles 
from here tomorrow night and we haven't any music. We heard 
you could play the fiddle and they sent me for you.' I told him 
that I couldn't go, that I couldn't play for a dance. He said: 
'Oh, yes, you can. Now we have heard all about you. You 
will be fine if you will go.' I told him I couldn't go, there was 
nobody there and I couldn't leave my wife here alone. He 
said: 'If you will go I will give you any sum you fix, within reason, 
if you will go.' And Mrs. Meldrum said: 'Go on, I'm not afraid 
to stay here.' I finally told him that if he would pay me doctor's 
fees I would go. The doctor's fees were a dollar a mile. 'All 
right', he said, 'I will pay you doctor's fees.' I had a good team 
and a good top buggy. There were only two top buggies north 
of Denver and we had one of them. I had a good team and 
plenty of buffalo robes. My brother had gotten them from the 
Indians. So I hitched up my team and lit out. Well, by golly, 
if you could have seen the crowd that was there and witnessed 
what took place that night you would never have forgotten it. 
They were all assembled in the new house, all spick and span. 
The old house adjoining it had a big fireplace where they had 
a log fire. Of course, I was a little chilly when I got there. 


The fellows took care of my team. I went in and there was a 
fat woman, she was big as a hay stack, sitting in front of that 
fireplace. She had only one eye and had a baby in her lap. 
I had my fiddle box in my hand. She looked up and said: 
'Good evening, are you one of the musikans?' I said: 'I guess 
so.' I was wondering where the other one was. 

''Well, sir, I played all night for those buggers — until day- 
light. All alone. And maybe you think that isn't a job. Well, 
of course, they were all drunk before morning. Every fellow 
had a bottle and they were all right for a while. Their scheme 
of caching ^"heir bottles worked all right early in the evening 
but it played out later. There was snow all over the ground. 
A fellow would go to the door and go so many steps and stick 
his bottle down in the snow. The other fellow would do like- 
wise. I don't know how many they had cached but before 
morning they had forgotten how many steps they had taken. 
They would kick the snow around looking for the bottles and 
in the morning it looked like this parade ground out here does 
after the elk have been wallowing in it all night. They were 
all drunk. I left in the morning. Well, sir, that is just one 
incident of the first winter. 

The Story of the Buggy 

''Now, I'll tell you how that buggy got there. I told you 
about my brother coming to Little Rock on his way back from 
New York. When he was East he bought a top buggy and the 
harness back there in our old home county and shipped them 
to the end of the Union Pacific road, near the same place where 
the thrashing machine was shipped. He bought a team and 
drove across the country from there all by himself and it was 
full of Indians. It was a crazy thing to do but he did i+. He 
drove all the way to Denver and there were Indians all over that 
country. The men working on the railroad were guarded by 
soldiers all the time. I guess he gave away pretty near every- 
thing he had in the buggy before he got through them though. 
They would see something in the buggy and tell him what they 
wanted and he had to give it — abou* everything but his gun and 
cartridges. So that is how the buggy came. It was the only 
one except one north of Denver. That closes 1868. 

"In 1869 I had the crop all in on Inauguration Day, the 
4th of March. I finished seeding the whole business. Of 
course, I had some help, two or three men. Well, the grass- 
hoppers came down on us. Now if you never saw a grass- 
hopper raid you don't know anything about it. I couldn't tell 
you but you just couldn't see the sun for grasshoppers in the air. 
They looked like a cloud. Well, they just dropped down and 


within a few hours everything would just be stripped. They 
would even eat your clothes. Well, we were pretty well along 
with the harvest. I think we had it all down. When they 
ruin the crop it is while it is standing. They eat the little thread 
that holds the grain and let it drop on the ground. We had 
some twenty acres that we had left because it wasn't thor- 
oughly ripe. So we got most of i+ down about the time the grass- 
hoppers lii". Of course, they did guite a bit of damage but it 
wasn't anything to what it would have been. 

'Tn '69 we started off and spent about a week hunting for 
cattle — to buy. We finally rounded up about a hundred head 
and drove them home. In the meantime both my brother and 
I became snowblind. It was in the spring. If you've never 
been snowblind I can't explain it but it is terribly painful. That 
is the way we started '69 but we got through the year pretty 
well. We had a pretty good crop and we were getting along 
pretty prosperously. 

Ranch Sold in 1870 

"In 1870 my brother-in-law came out from the East — my 
wife's brother. He came out to visit us. He got out there and 
saw the country and the land and what he could buy it for and 
he nearly went crazy. He wanted to buy a farm before he had 
been there twenty-four hours. I told him that the land wasn't 
going to run away and for him to stay there long enough to 
see if he wanted to live there. His father was a rich farmer. 
There were four sons and every son had a horse and buggy. 
They didn't run around like they do nowadays with autos. 
They worked all week but Sunday they had their horse and 
buggy and went where they pleased. Well, I do not know 
whether his father gave them his patrimony or not but he had 
a pocket-full of money. I just had to herd him to keep him from 
buying every ranch he saw. I told him to wait and see how 
he liked it and if he was satisfied I would sell him miy ranch. He 
immediately asked mie what I would take for it. I told him I 
would take just what it cost me, that if he would pay me just 
what it cost he could have it. Well, how much?', he wanted 
to know. So I figured up and I think, as I remember it, it am- 
mounted to about four thousand dollars I had invested. He 
couldn't count the money out guick enough. In the meantime 
I had concluded that there was an easier way of living than 
ranching. The woman is a slave on a ranch and I didn't like 
to see my poor little wife working from sun to sun. Having a 
ranch that way some of the fellows and ranchmen would drop 
in and there wasn't a day but what somebody would come in 
and would stay for something to eat. It meant a lot of work for 
the woman. I thought I would get out, so I sold out. 


'Then I bought a bunch of cattle and that was when I came 
to the Laramie Plains — in 1870. May, 1870, I drove my cattle 
on to the Laramie Plains. 

The Stolen Mower 

"This is just a story but really worth while. While down 
on the ranch we would go out and could get hay anywhere. 
The grass was a couple feet high. There was practically no 
stock in the country to eat it. No one had any big herds of 
cattle. We had been cutting some hay on a hay claim about 
ten miles from the ranch and we left the mower out there — I 
think we broke a wheel. So I started out one morning to bring 
in the mower. I only had a horse and wagon. When I got 
to the place, by golly, the mower wasn't there. Somebody had 
stolen it. Mind you, I went away from the house, supposing I 
would be back in three or four hours and I didn't get back for 
four days. And there was my poor little wife fretting and 
wondering what had become of me and I had no way of send- 
ing her word. When I think of those things, Joffe, I think I 
ought to have been shot. 

''But I found the wagon track and I just kept following it 
and I followed it all the way to Cheyenne. I got to Cheyenne 
and the first place I went was to a blacksmith shop because I 
knew the wheel would have to be fixed before it could be used. 
I went to the shop of Herman Haas — his son is now postmaster 
in Cheyenne. I had never met him before but I went in and 
told him who I was and that somebody had stolen a mower from 
me. He told me that there was a fellow in there who had got- 
ten a mower fixed. I asked him what he had to fix on it and 
he said that the wheel was broken. I asked him what he did 
with it and he said he sold it to Sam Johns. I asked him where 
Mr. Johns lived and he told me. I went into Johns' place and 
like a darn fool said: 'Did you buy a mower from a man within 
the last few days?' Tes', he said, 'what of it?' I told him that 
it was mine and that I was after it. 'Well', he said, 'I'll just be 
damn if you'll get it.' He said he had one outfit come and take 
a pair of mules from him within the last few days and that he 
would be damned if I was going to get that mower. 

"So I went to a lawyer, a friend of mine. It was the first 
time I had ever consulted a lawyer. I went to this lawyer, a 
Mr. Johnson. I told him my troubles. He told me that I didn't 
need a lawyer but that I should go down to the Justice of the 
Peace and have him tell me what to do. So I went down to see 
the Justice of the Peace and he told me what to do. He told 
me to get a writ of replevin and go after that mower. I didn't 
know what a writ of replevin was but I got it and went over 


fifteen miles to where this man was working. I took the sheriff 
along with me. Mr. Johns was there but the mower wasn't 
there. They had a big stack of hay, about eight or ten feet 
high. The sheriff says to me: T'll bet you the mower is under 
that hay.' So he told Johns: T think that mower is under that 
hay. Will you loan me some of your men to dig it out?' He 
pledged his word that it was not there. By golly, it was getting 
along towards evening. The sheriff didn't find the mower but 
he said he would go back to Cheyenne and that he would come 
back, they would have the mower out here and he would snatch 
it. So I went back with the sheriff, paid him his fee, and went 
home. I had been gone about four days. Without any com- 
munication with my wife. Well, the darn sheriff never went 
out after the mower. 1 waited and waited, so finally let it go. 
I thought there was no use in sending good money after bad. 

'Two years later when I had my herd of cattle on the Lara- 
mie Plains every fellow in town wanted a cow. So I used to 
drive some cows in. I rented a corral in town. I used to drive 
the cows in at night. One cow 1 had, had lost her calf and 
had a swollen udder. I said to one of the fellows if he would 
help me we would catch her and milk her or her bag would 
mortify. So we lassoed the cow and stretched her out and 
I milked her while she was lying on her back. 1 told the boys 
tiiey better climb the fence and let her up. I told them there 
would be something doing when she got up and for them to 
hunt cover. The lariet was hurting her head. I was waiting 
to loosen that. So this one fellow, dressed in buckskins, he 
said he wasn't afraid of a damn cow. In the corral right at the 
end of it was a stable and a big pile of manure. When Mrs. Cow 
got up she took right after that fellow and he ran toward the 
stable. He stumbled in that pile of manure and she just pinned 
him right down. A horn was on each side of him. 1 grabbed 
a club that was in the corral and I ran and struck her right over 
the horns. I knocked her silly and she let him go pretty guick 
and I hunted the top of the fence. When I got back on the fence 
there was a fellow watching the performance. He laughed 
and said: That's guite a circus.' After a while he said: 'By 
golly, haven't I seen you somewhere before?' That was the 
first time I took a good look at him. Tes', I said, Tou saw me 
over on Crow Creek when I was after the mower you had buried 
in the hay.' It was this same fellow. I told him, now that the 
thing was all over, where had he put that mower. He said that 
the m.ower was on a wagon just driving away when we arrived. 
He said it was traveling toward Old Fort Laramie. 

A Cow For A Horse 

''After we had talked for a while, he asked me how I would 
like to trade a cow for a horse. That was just what I wanted. 


I wanted a good saddle horse. Well, he had a fine looking 
animal, a black mare. He asked me how I would like to give 
him a cow for that mare. I told him to pick his cow. He asked 
if they were gentle. I told him I would show him. There was 
an old brindle cow — she had an udder as big as a bushel basket 
and she did give a lot of milk. He picked her. He asked if 
she was gentle. I told him I would show him. I got down in 
the corral and went up to her and got hold of her udder and she 
stood and it worked fine as a fiddle. So we struck a bargain. 
Just as I was going with the mare he said: 'I wouldn't tie her 
with the bridle because she might break it. She sometimes 
gets a little frightened and she might break it.' I told him 'All 
right' . I took her over to the house and I had a rope there and 
put the rope around her neck. I was building a house at the 
time and had a temporary house. I tied her to the fence and 
went in to get my dinner and when I came out she was dragging 
about four panels of fence around with her. I knew what was 
the matter with her — she was a puller. So I never said a word. 
He came after the cow next day. His camp was right out on 
the plains, not more than a half mile from my house. I watched 
him through a glass and he was taking her away. They were 
trying to milk her. There were about four men holding her 
to milk her. When they got through she stuck up her tail and 
beat it for the herd. You couldn't see her for the dust! He 
stood there and watched her go. He had to come back to the 
herd to get his cow. When he came up to me he said: "How 
do you like my mare?' I said: "She's all right, how do you like 
your cow?' That was surely funny. That was one incident 
of that year. 

Opens a Meat Market 

""While in Laramie in 1870 I opened a meat market. I ran 
the butcher shop during that summer. That was a darn fool 
job. I had to go and build a slaughter house, costing guite a 
bit of money, and I had to hire a butcher and rent a place for 
my meat market and I finally concluded that it didn't pay. There 
were three butchers shops in the town, competition was pretty 
keen and as it didn't pay I sold out and tended to my cattle. 

""1870 was the finest winter I ever saw in the West. We 
drove the cattle right off the range up to the slaughter house 
— never had to feed them a bit. The next winter, 1871, was the 
worst one I ever saw. It started in in November and it never 
stopped until after May. More than half, which I would say 
was a conservative estimate, of the cattle in the country froze 
to death. You could see old Texas steers coming down the 
street eating droppings of horses — starving to death. Well, 


with this severe winter, I got cold feet. I decided to sell what 
cattle I had before another winter came along and froze them 
all out. 

Employed by Union Pacific Railroad 

'That winter after most of my cattle froze and starved to 
death I got a job with the railroad at their shops. I went to 
the master mechanic, who was a gruff old Scotchman and asked 
him for a job. He didn't give me any encouragement. I then 
went to the foreman, whom I knew. He was a Scotchman too 
and he asked me if I told this fellow I was a Scotchman. I told 
him I didn't. He said that I should have told him that, that he 
would go and tell him and he thought I would get the job. So 
he went and saw the master mechanic and in a day or two the 
foreman of the car shop came up and asked me if I wanted to 
go to work. I told him I did. He said he had a job for me. I 
had guite a kit of tools so I took my tools down and went to work 
and I worked the rest of the winter. I earned good money. 

''It was while I was working for the Union Pacific that Mr. 
Hutton of the firm of Hutton & Metcalf came up to my house 
and said: 'Will you come down and run our business for us?' 
Well, that kind of took me off my feet. I knew the fellow who 
had managed the place. He was a fine fellow but had the 
failing of a lot of others and he would go out and get drunk. 
Hutton was running a herd of cattle on the plains when I had 
my herd there and he knew me pretty well. He told me that 
if I would come down and take charge of his place he would 
give me anything I asked. I knew that they had been paying 
Williams, their old foreman, a good salary. I told him that I 
would take what they were paying Williams. So I went to work 
the next day for Hutton & Metcalf. I was their manager in 
Laramie. Metcalf was an eastern man who had bought into 
this cattle ranch so that he would have a place for his two sons. 
One of the sons came out and worked for a while but he wasn't 
worth the powder to shoot him and he didn't last long. His 
second son came out and while he was some better he didn't 
stick it out either. I couldn't get along with these two fellows, 
they were such drinkers. Mr. Metcalf came out from the East 
and told me he wanted to sell me his interest in that business. 
They had contracts of all kinds with the Government and it was 
a fine firm. It was a pretty responsible thing to handle. But 
he saw he couldn't make anything out of his boys and he wanted 
to sell out. He said he would sell me his interest in the business, 
I think it was for $50,000 and that I could pay him whatever I 
could and he would take a mortgage on the stock for the balance. 
I told him I didn't have any money. He told me that I must have 
some. I told him I could pay five thousand dollars. He said 


that was all right, that I could pay five thousand dollars and he 
would take a mortgage on the business for the balance. Well, 
I didn't have the nerve to go in debt for fifty thousand dollars. 
I turned it down. 

'There was a fellow working in the freight office of the 
railroad company getting sixty dollars a month. He was an 
Englishman. He had some English friends in Laramie. By 
golly, he went to these people and got them to back him and he 
bought out that herd. He didn't have five hundred dollars to 
his name. He blossomed out as one of the big cattle men of 
the Laramie plains. He had these men with all their money 
backing him and he made a go out of it. But finally when he 
died he didn't have any of it left. Prosperity set him wild and 
he didn't have anything left in the end. The cattle business 
finally went down and he went down with it. 

'It was in 1871, while I was running the meat market in 
Laramie, that I first got into politics. One day some of the 
fellows came to my store and asked me if I knew what they did 
last night at the convention. I said that I didn't and they told 
me that they had nominated me for the legislature. I told them 
that I was busy, that I didn't have any time, and that I didn't 
know any more about politics than I did about heaven, although 
I thanked them for the compliment. However, I was forced to 
shck out the campaign and without even making any attempt 
^o campaign I came within three votes of being elected. Had 
I contested the election I could have boosted the other fellow 
out but I didn't care about it. 

Chapter V 

Appointed Clerk of the Circuit Court 

'It was shortly after that that I sold my caftle and the butcher 
shop and went to work for Hutton & Metcalf, who had the 
largest herd of cattle on the Laramie plains. They had Govern- 
ment contracts, meat contracts, tie contracts, meat markets and 
other things. While working for this firm I became well ac- 
guainted. One day one of the leading politicians came in and 
said to me: 'Do you know you have been appointed Clerk of the 
Circuit Court?' I told him I had not and asked how that had 

'The Clerk of the Circuit Court at that time was what we 
called a mugwump'. That was a fellow who was neither a 
Democrat nor a Republican, who straddled the fence and who 
would do anything to hold his job. The Judge of the Court had 
the authority to have anyone for his clerk whom he pleased, 
so I was appointed Clerk of the Court. 


Remained in Politics 

'1 then remained in politics. At the next election I was 
elected County Clerk, then I was reelected County Clerk and 
the next time they elected me County Commissioner and I was 
made chairman of the board. 

''While I was County Commissioner I was elected to the 
Upper House of the Legislature. This was the year Kendrick 
came to Wyoming, 1879. This Upper House in the territorial 
days would correspond with the Senate under the States. In 
the territorial days the two branches were known as the Council 
and the House. 

Nominated for Congress 

''By 1882 I had had things pretty much my own way in 
politics in my own county and the fellows thought I could be 
elected to anything. So, in that year ihey nominated me for 
Congress. My opponent on the Democratic ticket was Morton 
E. Post, a banker and a miillionaire. I knew that I didn't stand 
much chance against Post, because of his wealth, for in those 
days one could buy himself into almost any position. Votes 
could be bought openly. There were only six counties in Wyo- 
ming at that time. I carried three and Post carried three, each 
of us carrying our own counties. As Post lived in Cheyenne, 
the most populated county, he beat me by a thousand votes. 
That ended thai show! 

Appointed Surveyor General of the Territory 

"After being beaten for Congress, I still retained my posi- 
tion as Clerk of the District Court. My running for Congress 
didn't interfere with that job. There was a public office holder, 
a Republican, who did me awfully dirty in that campaign. I 
went to this man and told him that I was going to get his scalp 
for what he did to me in that election. He held one of the best 
offices in the territory, being appointed by a Republican Presi- 
dent. My opponent, being a wealthy man, had gotten this 
fellow to do what he wanted him to do for him. My friends 
knew what he had done and they knew that I had told him I was 
going to get his scalp. He was a close friend of my best friend, 
the father of the present Bob Carey. This man who did me dirt 
was as near to Bob Carey's father as he could be and not be his 
brother and it was a kind of a bad situation. I then started out 
after this old fellow's scalp. I went to Washington and stayed 
there all winter in order to get even with this old fellow. Up 
to that time no member of the territory had been appointed to 
a popular office. All had been appointed by the President. 
Men would be selected from outside the territory and sent in to 


take the plums. My brother was Secretary of State for Colorado 
and he had some good friends in the Senate. Teller, who was 
later Secretary of the Interior, was in the Senate, and old Jim 
Belford was in the House. Jim was quite a scrapper. I went 
to Belford to keep this old fellow from being reappointed. Bel- 
ford asked me why I didn't go after the place myself. I told 
him I could never get it. That position was Surveyor General 
of the Territory, the best appointive position in the Territory. 
He told me to go after it and he would help me. I talked to my 
brother about it and he said he would get ^he whole Colorado 
bunch behind me if I had the sand to go after it. 

''After this talk with my brother I told him that I was ready 
to do my part. I was young and full of pep and I went after it — 
and I landed it. I really didn't care much about the job be- 
cause I had a better position as Clerk of the District Court, 
which was a better paying job, but I set out to accomplish a pur- 
pose and I succeeded in getting the old fellow out of his place. 

''Of course, it was a big thing for me to be able to walk into 
that office — in those days there was no civil service — and say 
to this fellow I had promised to get, 'I don't want you, come and 
sign the payroll and get your money.' That's all you had to do 
in those days if you didn't like a fellow. I had glory enough in 
making that old fellow walk out. I merely told him: 'I'm boss 
here now, you get out of here.' 

"That was fifty years ago — I was just forty years old at the 

"After Cleveland was elected President, succeeding 
Arthur, I told the boys I had always been a Republican and 
didn't want to hold a position under a Democratic President, so 
I sent in my resignation to Cleveland. This was in 1886. I 
resigned a month after Cleveland was elected. 

Two Years in California 

"By that time I was pretty well worn out and I made up my 
mind then to go to Europe. Mrs. Melfrum and I were always 
talking about going to Europe and now that the time seemed 
opportune we began making plans for the trip. I went down 
to visit m.y brother in Denver and was taken sick there. The 
family physician told me it was no time to go 1o Eurpoe. It was 
then winter. He told me what I ought to do was to go out to 
California where there is a milder climate and stay there for 
the winter. I was like a dog with a sore head, I didn't want to 
go, I was mad that I had to go but thought it was probably the 
wise thing to do, so I went to California and I stayed there for 
two years recuperating. 


"While in California I got pulled into several speculations, 
then the bottom dropped out of everything and as I was pertty 
well recuperated 1 started back to Wyoming. When I got back 
to Wyoming the Harrison campaign for President was on. My 
friend, Joseph M. Carey, was 1hen a member of Congress and 
had been renominated for reelection. So I campaigned with 
Carey that year and he was successful and Harrison was elected 
President. After that Carey asked me how I would like to have 
my old place back again, that he thought it would be +he thing 
for me to do to oust the other fellow out as Surveyor General. 
He told me if I would say the word he would have me appointed 
but I told him that I didn't want it. He tried to insist that I take 
it but I told him I preferred not to and when he saw that my mind 
was made up he told me that if I wanted anything he could help 
me with all I had to do was say the word. I told Carey that I 
was going back to Los Angeles and Pasadena and gather up 
the loose threads and get things fixed up before I returned to 
Wyoming to live. 

Appointed Secretary of the Territory 

'1 then went back to Pasadena and while back there I got 
a telegram from Carey which read: There will be a vacancy 
in the office of Secretary of the Territory soon. Will you take 
the place?' I consulted with Mrs. Meldrum. She had gotten 
pretty tired of politics but afler a while I wired Carey that I 
would accept. When 1 got back to Wyoming I don't think there 
was one of the leading Republicans who didn't say 'Amen' . The 
fellow who had been Secretary was a fine, high-toned Secre- 
tary, but he would get drunk and let things go to pot. His 
friends, after seeing his case was hopeless, finally went to him 
and told him the decent way for him to get out would be to 
resign rather than to have charges preferred against him. So 
he resigned. That is how 1 came to be Secretary of the Territory. 

Wyoming Becomes a State 

"Things ran along until the constitutional convention was 
called to be held in Cheyenne, Wyoming in the fall of 1889 
when Wyoming was to ask for admittance as a State. I was 
Secretary then and, of course, I had to make provisions for the 
holding of the constitutional convention, although we didn't have 
any appropriations for holding it as yet. 1 went out and bought 
stuff for the convention and told those from whom the purchases 
were made that they would have to take their chances on money 
being appropriated later. 1 got everything for this convention 
on credit. The convention met and the constitution was drawn 
up and sent to Washington. The copy of the constitution which 


was sent to President Harrison was written by my own clerks 
under my close observation. I saw to it that every t was crossed 
and every i dotted. It was written entirely by hand as we had 
no typewriter available in those days. 

''When it came time for the Congress to decide on Wyo- 
ming becoming a State, Warren, who was then Territorial Gov- 
ernor, was back in his home in Boston. So when Congress 
passed the law admitting Wyoming as a State I received the 
telegram from Carey announcing the admission of Wyoming 
and I issued the first proclamation for the State of Wyoming. 
I have a copy of this in my scrap book today. The original 
telegram is in my scrap book also. (Showed both to me.) I 
wouldn't take a million dollars for that telegram today but when 
I pass on it will go into the historical museum of the State." 

Judge Meldrum showed me the original telegram, which I 
copied from his scrap book. It reads as follows: 

"JULY 10, 1890 





The Acting Governor Makes a Statehood Proclamation 

The proclamation issued by Judge Meldrum was dated 
July 11, 1890. It was +he first state paper issued for the State 
of Wyoming. It follows: 


"WHEREAS, The people of the territory of Wyoming did, on the thirteenth 
day of September, A. D. 1889, by a convention of delegates called and assem- 
bled for that purpose, form for themselves a constitution, which constitution 
was ratified and adopted by the people of said territory at the election held 
therefor on the first Tuesday in November, A. D. 1889; and 

"WHEREAS, By an act of the Congress of the United States approved by 
the president on the tenth day of July, A. D. 1890, the said territory was duly 
admitted into the union as a state of Wyoming, and the said constitution was 
duly accepted, ratified and confirmed by congress; 

"NOW, therefore, I, John W. Meldrum, acting governor of Wyoming, do 
hereby proclaim that the state of Wyoming has been duly admitted and de- 
clared to be a state of the United States of America on an equal footing with 
the original states in all respects whatever; and I do hereby call especial 


attention to the several provisions of Article XXI of the constitution of the said 
state regulating and providing for the change and transition from the terri- 
torial system to a permanent state government. 

"In performing this duty I extend to the people of the state my most earnest 
congratulations, and express to them my entire confidence in their readiness 
and ability to cheerfully meet and sustain the obligations and responsibilities 
incident to their entrance into the union of states. 

"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great 
seal of the state of Wyoming to be hereto affixed at Cheyenne, the capital, 
this eleventh day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety, and of the independence of the United States of America the one 
hundred and fifteenth. 

(SEAL) Acting Governor" 

Almost a Bank President 

Another interesting incident in the Judge's Ufe was just 
prior to his trip to CaHfornia in 1886, when he almost became 
the president of a bank. The Judge laughed about this incident 
as he related it as follows: 

"In 1886, after resigning as Surveyor General, I came near 
becoming President of a bank in Laramie. There were five of 
us and we each had agreed to put in $20,000 each as it was 
necessary to have $100,000 to start a bank. In fact, I rather 
think there were six but I can remember the names of four be- 
sides myself. We had it all doped out how we were going to 
run it. I bought 1he ground to put the building on. I went to 
Denver and spent some time there with an architect getting 
the plans for the bank. We were all ready to start the building 
when a man from Pennsylvania came out — an old banker — and 
he wanted to get in on the deal. Of course, he didn't want to 
come in unless he got an office. However, all the offices were 
already spoken for. The president, vice-president and cashier 
were all the positions there were and these were already ar- 
ranged for. 

"He said that if we didn't let him in on this he would start 
a bank here of his own. He was connected with the moneyed 
men in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania — I believe it was Pittsburgh. 
Well, I knew that that was just sand, that he was merely talking. 
I told him I thought he was talking through his hat. 

"The man we had picked for cashier was already a cashier 
in a bank — the Wyoming National Bank. He was going to 
guit that position and become cashier of the new bank. So 
this fellow got after this cashier and tried to get him to pull out 
from our bank and let him go in. This cashier's name was 
Dawson — Cashier of the Wyoming National Bank. After much 


persuasion by this man from the East, whose name was Crumhn, 
Dawson asked that we let Crumhn in. He said he had a posi- 
tion already, just as good as he would have in the new bank, 
and was in favor of letting Crumlin come in the new bank in 
his place. I told Dawson unless he would go in I would not 
go in myself. Dawson was a popular fellow, he knew everyone 
in town, and we needed him in our bank. This fellow Crumlin 
just kept around, trying to get in. He had some influential 
friends in Laramie and they asked why we didn't let him in. 
I told them that I wouldn't want him in because I wanted Daw- 
son and unless Dawson comes in I will not come in. 

"After some time I finally said to Crumlin: 'If you will take 
the property off my hands — I had paid the cash for the site out 
of my own pockets — and buy my house so that I will be footloose 
here I will step out and let you in.' With that he said: "How 
much do you want?' I told him about $16,000. By golly, he 
took me up right off the bat. I said to him that I was a good 
enough sport and that I wouldn't go back on my word. That 
was in 1886 and that was as close as I came 1o being the presiden+ 
of a bank. I was glad later on that it happened this way be- 
cause it is no pleasure to be a president of a bank. Especially 
in those days. When I was director of the bank later in Cheye- 
nne every time I heard the telephone ring I was afraid someone 
was calling up to tell me that the bank had gone under. I was 
almost afraid to asnwer the telephone. 

''After I sold out that left me footloose. It was then I told 
Mrs. Meldrum we could now go to Europe as we had planned. 
We went to Denver and I took sick and we wound up by going 
to California." 

(Tn be Continued) 



By John B. Ferguson* 

After graduation from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in 1899, I was with the Burlington Railroad, and by 1900 
had seen considerable of that railroad's territory in Western 
Nebraska, Montana, the Black Hills of South Dakota and the 
North Platte region of Wyoming. 

Unexpected orders often moved us engineers overnight to 
new localities, and about the first of the year 1900, while I was 
temporarily at headguarters in Lincoln, Nebraska, I received 
sudden instructions to proceed at once to Frannie, Wyoming, 
to take charge there of the first ten miles in Wyoming of the 
Toluca-Cody line, to be constructed ''from the grass roots up," 
as Chief Engineer Weeks put it. 

I had finished up the Toluca Division a few days before, 
and had stopped off at Deadwood in the Black Hills on m_y way 
back to Lincoln to make a survey of the Burlington yards there. 

Obeying orders without delay, I took a night train out of 
Lincoln and was met the following morning at Alliance by my 
assistant, Dick Hughes. Hughes had been with me the previous 
few months at Toluca, had gone home to Denver for a few days, 
and was now eager to see new territory. 

A long trip to Billings, Montana, the end of the line, a 
mighty cold night at the Cottage Inn there, then the Northern 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. — John Berton Ferguson, proprietor, since 
1909, of J. B. Ferguson and Company, Engineers, Constructors, 312 West 
Washington Street, Hagerstown, Maryland, was born in Woburn, Massachu- 
setts, on January 8, 1877, and subsequent to his early experiences in Wyoming, 
has carved out a useful and successful career as a leader in professional and 
civic affairs. 

In "Who's Who in Engineering" appears the following information: 

From 1899 until 1909, when he became the proprietor of his own business, 
Mr. Ferguson held positions, respectively, with the C. B. & Q. Railroad, the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and the Ohio Electric Railway. From 1914-1927 he 
was City Engineer of Hagerstown, Md.; 1916-1925, Chief Engineer of Hag- 
erstown Sewage Commission; 1916-1930, County Engineer, Washington 
County; 1918-1920, Supervising Engineer, Camp Eustis, Virginia, Balloon 
Observers School Camp Morrison Yorktown Road Projects; 1938-1940, 
Director of the Western Maryland Ry. Co. 

He has served as president of the Hagerstown Chamber of Commerce, 
1930-1938; president of the Washington County Council of Boy Scouts, 1927- 
1937; vice-president and secretary, Board of Trustees, Washington County 
Free Library; director, Washington County Museum of Fine Arts; is a member 
of the Rotary Club, Antietam Archers and American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Mr. Ferguson was married to Beulah L. Darby at Williamsport, Maryland, 
on September 21, 1904, and they have a son, John B. Ferguson, Jr. 


Pacific the next morning to Gebo, Montana, where we un- 
loaded with our big tent and other engineering paraphernaha. 
As per instructions, we hunted up a Mr. Thurston just outside 
of town whom I beUeve was a brother-in-law of Mr. Waterman, 
the general storekeeper of the Burlington. Mr. Thurston kindly- 
put us up for the night and arranged to drive us to Frannie next 
day in his well eguipped wagon. 

I have little recollection of that drive except the bitter cold. 
As we wound up over the rim rock of Clark's Fork Valley into 
that of Sage Creek, we could find little pleasure in facing, from 
the driver's seat, the strong cold wind, and each of us in turn 
was only too glad to surrender the reins to the next man and 
take his turn to walk. I do recall with pleasure, however, the 
beautiful view that confronted us as we topped the rise and 
found the Sage Creek Valley unfolding before us with the ma- 
jestic snow-capped Big Horns in the far distance. 

Long after dark that evening, we reached the camp of 
Division Engineer Bergen near Bowler, where we were warmly 
greeted by Bergen and his assistants. We found Bergen 
comfortably established with his new wife and we enjoyed a 
splendid meal with the hospitable folks at Piney Camp, where 
we spent the night. 

The following morning we were up early and soon after 
breakfast were harnessed up for the remaining miles to Frannie. 
We found the thermometer 40 below, but happily had the strong 
north wind on our backs for we were now proceeding almost 
due south. The bitterness of the wind and its penetrating 
gualities were silently testified to by the many north bound 
freighters whom we passed. All, without exception, were al- 
lowing their teams to take their own course without a driver, 
while they trudged behind in the shelter of their wagons. 

I have a clear recollection of the vast sea of unusually 
tall sagebrush that met our eyes as we crossed the Wyoming 
line and wound coA^n the ever widening Sage Creek Valley. 
Some of that sage was fully ten feet tall. 

We ended our trip at Jack Morris' ranch house about noon, 
where we again received a warm welcome typical of that coun- 
try and time. Jack told us to go ahead and pitch camp where 
we chose, and gladly arranged to provide us with meals during 
our stay. We met his young and attractive daughter and 
learned that the posKoffice in his house had been named Farnnie 
in her honor. 

We pitched our tent that afternoon just across Sage Creek 
which flowed a short distance back of the Morris house. The 
chief engineer had provided us with a very heavy and large 
tent with a knock-down wooden floor and double deck bunks. 



Looking North From Morris Ranch Along Sage Creek. 
Sub-Contractor's Tents in Back, June, 1900. 

The ground was frozen and therefore it was impossible for us 
to seal up our tent at the bottom. For heat, we had a cast iron 
way car stove but did not have time to forage for fuel. As a 
conseguence, after burning a few of our precious stakes, we 
went to bed wi% no fire and no straw for our bunks. In spite 
of our wealth of blankets, we spent a bitter night. I can never 
forget Dick's face in the morning as he crawled out of his patent- 
sleeping bag, nor his emphatic assertion "1 was never so damned 
cold in my Ufe." 

However, a ho^" meal at the Morris's restored our good 
nature, and it was with a renewed interest in life that we set 
out to locate the center line of the proposed railroad. We soon 
found it a mile or so west of the Creek skirting the hillside and 
bearing away to the southwest. Profile in hand, we followed 
the line for the full ten miles until we reached the beginning 
of the next ten mile division near Polecat Creek. The next 
few days were busy ones delivering stakes along the line and 
proceeding with the setting of the grade and cross section stakes 
for the contractor, Charlie Sharpe, who had not yet appeared. 

We had completed about five miles of this work when we 
were delighted, one morning, to see Sharpe' s outfit trundling 
toward us from the direction of Frannie. With it came somie 
old friends who had been on' other work with us near Alliance, 
Nebraska, Bill Chalk was in charge as general foreman and 
with him was a recruit for my own camp, a J. Buell Chessington. 
They speedily selected a site and soon had a camp well estab- 
lished abeut 2Y2 miles from Frannie. Sharpe was handling, 
directly, several miles of the grading, and so, almost immedi- 
ately established a second camp about five miles from Frannie. 
As this second camp would be about the center of our work, 


we decided to move from Frannie, and located near Sharpe's 
outfit, where we could get good board at a reasonable price 
and have some company at the same time. 

In locating our tent, we noted that all of Sharpe's were in 
the open directly exposed to winds from all directions. For 
ourselves, therefore, we chose a little sheltered spot about 100 
yards from the maun camp. We looked forward to some more 
bitter winter winds and low temperatures. 

With three of us, moving was a simple operation, and we 
soon found ourselves enjoying the bountiful table in Sharpe's 
big horse tent used as a dining hall for all of his men. 

We devoted part of our evenings to fixing ourselves up 
with a few conveniences in the way of tables, shelves, etc., 
but with the intense cold of those winter months, and the fact 
that we got up pretty early, our evenings were never long. 
Our mail reached us from the Northern Pacific at Bridger by 
stage to Frannie, thence to us either by courtesy of Sharpe's 
men or through our own visits to the postoffice. 

A couple of weeks after we moved, Chessington looked 
out the tent door one Sunday morning, and burst out with the 
statement that there was ISPW, meaning Chief Engineer Weeks, 
who, a moment later, burst through the tent door in his usual 
hearty wholesome way. He had just driven out from Frannie, 
and had with him the general superintendent, T. E. Calvert, 
and also another recruit for our camp, W. G. Dungan, who had 
returned to Lincoln a few days before from a long experience 
in Wyoming and Idaho on location work. Dungan proved a 
most welcome addition to our group, for his Irish wit and good 
humor were never failing. 

They complimented us on our tent location, then took me 
along with them over the rest of the division, this being the 
Chief's first inspection of it. We discussed ditches, drainage 
and overhaul, and at the end of the ten miles they kept on for 
Dick Morrow's division near Cody several miles beyond Pole- 
cat Creek, while I turned back for our camp to get better ac- 
quainted with our latest recruit. 

When Mr. Calvert came back a few days later. I heard 
him tell Mr. Weeks a bit about a trip he made through the Big 
Horn Canyon by boat, possibly the first ever to have accompli- 
shed this. Mr. Weeks' comment was that it was an awfully 
dangerous thing to do. 

There was little we could do in the way of entertainment. 
Y/e had some newspapers, a few magazines, and we did manage 
to make and use a checker board. A favorite pasttime into 
which we drifted unconsciously, was argument. I marvel yet, 


after all these years, at the very trivial things we nearly came to 
blows about. I remember one particularly heated affair that 
lasted for days and days over the difference between muslin 
and cotton cloth. We wrote away to our respective homes for 
information in widely different sections of the USA and found 
this strangely confirmatory of our separate opinions, but yet 
unconvincing to others. We were too young then to realize 
what different meanings the same word may have in various 
parts of the country. The writer had brought with him into 
camp an old flute which he had learned to play after a fashion, 
together with a lot of music. At times this appealed to the others. 

The winter was a bitterly cold one as we had anticipated. 
Our work took us five miles in each direction. We were not 
allowed any form of transportation and it was strictly against 
the rules of the company to bum any off the contractor. The 
continuous walking kept us continuously hungry and always 
able to do tull justice to the excellent meals that Charley Sharpe 
furnished at reasonable cost to us. 

Sharpe' s camp consisted of a commissary and office tent, 
a large horse tent for a dining hall, another large tent for the 
stabling of the horses when they were not ranging in the open 
at night and many smaller tents for the housing of the foreman 
and straw bosses. The men were largely housed in large 
tents and provided with individual cots. 

There was no mechanical eguipment on that job. In fac^, 
I do not recall seeing any on the Burlington's outlying work. 
This particular job was carried on wholly with wheeled scrap- 
ers, slips, Fresno scrapers, and sometimes wagons. The cuts 

Sharp's Ten-Horse Plow Team in Action. 


were plowed first, then slipped or scraped away, or the earth 
was elevated by a grading machine, into eleven wagons drawn 
by horses and mules. I have a clear recollection of the fine 
stock that Sharpe always had. I have a picture or two, taken 
by myself, of ten -horse plow teams working on the cemented 
gravel sometimes encountered. The "freehaul" of the grading 
contracts in those days was 500 feet. For all additional dis- 
tances excavation was hauled, the contractor was paid '"over- 

The camp had no resident doctor. Anyone who was sick 
had to get well the best way he could or go some place else. I 
was interested in the method of keeping beef when the weather 
got warm. They simply erected a pole or flag staff at the kit- 
chen door, with a pulley at the top. The quarter of beet was 
fastened to a stout rope woven through the pulley, and was 
hoisted up to the top of the pole above the level of the flies. When 
a supply was wanted for a meal, the beef was lowered to the 
ground, the necessary amount sliced off, the quarter hoisted to 
the top again. The milk used was, of course, of a canned variety 
diluted with plenty of water. We knew it in those "'free silver 
days," as 'T6 to 1." God knows what the butter was made of, 
or from. It was recognized as axle grease among the diners, 
who knowingly hollered for the gravel car when they wanted 
sugar. Anyone who tried the doughnuts in those camps would 
understand why they were universally dubbed "gaskets." 

The water was hauled from Sage Creek in tank wagons, 
and no one, in those days, ever heard of chlorinators. Yet, I 
have no recollection ot outbreaks of diarrhea or dysentery 
among the men. Sickness was really quite rare. It simply 
didn't pay. There was no fun in lying round in an old tent 
all by yourself. 

The matter of fuel was at times of considerable concern to 
us. This was a treeless section of Wyoming, the Big Horns 
being many miles +o the east of us. We had a cast iron stove 
only, and we feared the lack of fuel in the days to come. Hiring 
a wagon from the contractor, therefore, we set out toward the 
Big Horns, resolved to bring back a capacity load of wood if 
we had to camp out for it. We were given a lot of directions 
as to where we might find wood before we got to the mountains, 
but all conceded that we were in for some adventure. We 
set out with frank misgivings, with a moderate amount of grub, 
Dungan with his old service revolver strapped under his coat. 
Past Frannie we went, and still headed east, in the general 
directions of the mountains. Two miles east of there we turned 
to the south down a gulley, following, as we supposed, certain 
directions we had received from someone. A mile or two, 
then a sharp turn brought us up against a hillside covered with 


low cedar trees. From the top of the hill, the camp was in plain 
sight seven miles away. Our adventure was over. The rest 
was hard work, but we succeeded in loading the wagon and 
had the laugh on our croaking friends when we showed up 
in camp early in the afternoon. 

This same cedar, however, came near being our undoing. 
Setting out one morning, to be gone for the whole day, Dungan 
happened to step round to the side of the tent and discovered 
a rapidly widening four inch hole burning in the fly that cover- 
ed the tent. Cedar is a very sparking wood and a good sized 
spark from it nearly lost us our home. We were exceptionally 
careful after that. 

V\/'hen that load of cedar was about gone, we decided we'd 
mine coal from one of the many thin veins of coal visible in that 
region. Again hiring a wagon from the contractor, we trekked 
a few miles to the northwest and spent an energetic day digging 
out a load from an eight-inch vein exposed on a hillside. It 
proved to be a soft lignite which burned freely with a soft ash, 
but which disintegrated quickly when left exposed to the wea- 

That winter of 1900-1901 was one of widespread small-pox 
epidemics (so called) . The Chief had required that I be vacci- 
nated before going into the Big Horn Country. 

Late in the winter, we were much disturbed to learn that 
the disease had broken out in Sharpe's camp and that at least 
sixteen men were reported down with it. As we were getting 
our meals in the same tent as the rest of the men, we were nat- 
urally exposed. Here we had a splendid subject for argument, 
ready-made. How best to avoid the disease? There was no 
doctor in the camp, and the nearest one was probably 60 miles 
away. Those were the early dates of Physical Culture and 
Bernarr Macfadden. 

As only one of us smoked, strange to say, he was naturally 
urged to stop his use of the weed. As to diet, there was net 
much we could do except eat what we were given. We could 
fast, of course, but, being guite young, that idea did not seem 
to appeal to us, as a reasonable palliative. But baths and per- 
haps exercise! There was the chance. We argued that small- 
pox was a skin disease. Keep the skin healthy by proper baths 
and exercise and you should be free from danger. But bathing 
and drinking water had to be hauled five miles in a wagon from 
Sage Creek. It was therefore quite precious. It was still 
winter and too cold for outdoor bathing. Saucer baths then, 
cold saucer baths sounded about right. Cold baths with a 
judicious bit of fasting, but not too much. The smoker figured, 
under pressure, that maybe he might cut down some on the 
use of the weed. 


One most confident figure among us was Chessington. 
He was not afraid in any way. No indeed, not he. They had 
tried and tried to vaccinate him, but in vain. It simply couldn't 
be done. Ergo, he was a natural immune. He would not be 
afraid to go into a small-pox hospital and nurse smallpox pat- 

The discussions and arguments were endless. Then, one 
Sunday evening. Chess came down with chills and fever. He 
really must have felt pretty rocky, but having been imbued 
without braggadocio attitude, about rugged health, etc., he 
hated to complain. But that night he whimpered a lot in his 
sleep. Next morning, he was too sick to go out. Hardhearted- 
ly, we left him to his ills alone, while we worked and ate the 
meals we needed. Being partly sold on the fasting idea, he 
ate little for the next day or so, thinking he had only a bit of 
cold and fever. He stuck closely to his bunk and the tent. By 
the middle of the week, he was able to stagger over to the din- 
ing tent for a bit of food. Then we discovered that he was 
breaking out with white pustules. The natural immune had 
the loathsome disease, there was no doubt about it. Four of 
us in one tent, and one with smallpox. There was nothing to 
do. It was too late. We had to take it. But, to his cheerful 
and sardonic statement that as long as he had it we'd have to 
have it too, we cheerfully told him that we'd fool him yet. And 
we did. Not one of the rest of us got it. 

When the camp had its greatest number of ill men, the 
situation came near being tragic for a while. One of Sharpe's 
men ran away from the camp to a small Montana town where he 
proceeded to get ''lickered" up to the point of loguaciousness, 
when he told that Sharpe's camp had broken out with smallpox, 
and how he had gotten away from it. Now Sharpe was getting 
his supplies from that town, and there seemed a good chance 
to the townspeople, therefore, of the dread disease being passed 
along to them. They took prompt action, chasing the drunk 
out of town and sending a posse of well armed citizens to the 
State line above Frannie. We had visions of being starved out 
for awhile, bu^ reason finally prevailed, and the embargo was 

About that time I received a letter from the chief engineer, 
discreetly referring to a rash or measles that he understood had 
broken out in our camp, and suggesting that I fumigate our 
letters outgoing to him, with sulphur. When he visited the 
camp later, he was very careful to keep me on the lee side while 
inspecting the work. 

I made my first acguaintance with formaldehyde at this 
time. Mr. Sharpe sent in a generator which we used to fumigate 
our tent. I can testify to the penetrating gualities of the gas, 
for we could detect it long after in the bottoms of our trunks. 


Some practical joker in Sharpe's camp got hold of the 
machine and setting it up just outside one of the men's small 
tents one night, he passed the hose under the tent side wall to 
discharge the contents into the tent. The men were busy with 
a game of poker, and showed a rare lack of sensitivity. The 
only thing they noticed was a peculiar odor, which did not even 
slow up the game. 

I recollect that we all craved candy and sweets, the desserts 
probably not being satisfying. We used to buy bitter chocolate 
by the pound and shaving it up on a scratch pad with a mixture 
of sugar eat it with gusto. I recall that we used up 20 lbs. of 
chocolate in this way. My sister was a famous fudge maker in 
those days. Understanding our need, she once sent me 7 lbs. 
of her best brand. Receiving it one afternoon, it was all gone 
to the last crumb by the following noon. 

With the coming of spring, I was able, at last, to solve a 
problem that had been brought to camp with me, had bothered 
me all winter, literally hanging over my head. The tools avail- 
able helpful in solving such a problem in addition to our usual 
eguipment were a small pair of scissors, and two very small hand 
glasses. With the help of these, I set to work, and after two 
and a half hours of backbreaking toil I solved this problem to 
the vociferous acclaim of my associates. I do not think I have 
ever since done anything that gave me so much personal sais- 
f action of the kind. Fortunately, it was a problem the solution 
of which can be readily understood by any man who has been 
out in the wilds away from the accessories of civilization. Dear 
readers, I cut and trimmed my own hair! 

The warmer weather also released us from the long indoor 
evenings, and our arguments. We tried pistol shooting, and 
played a lot of ''Duck on the Rock." We made long trips to the 
north and to the south visiting our neighboring division engi- 
neers, twenty miles to each round trip. 

One day I recall while Jack Morris and I were standing on 
the banks of Sage Creek, his talk turned to Buffalo Bill. He 
spoke admiringly of that colorful character and of his ability 
as a marksman. Jack then told me of being in conversation 
with Buffalo Bill one time in that vicinity when suddenly he 
threw his rifle to his shoulder and fired instantaneously, ap- 
parently without taking aim, at a fence-post about 150 yards 
from where we were then standing. Jack remarked that if I 
would look at the post sometime, I would find the bullet-hole. 
I did inspect that post later, and found a bullet-mark on one side. 
While Bill had hit all right, it was close to being a miss. I have 
since felt that if I were a relic hunter, I should have cut a piece 
out of that post and preserved it as bearing the trade-mark of 
William F. Cody. Perhaps the post is still there for someone 
else to collect that trophy. 

Late in the spring, Sharpe had all the heavy work finished. 
There remained only the first three miles to be done by a sub- 


contractor. So, we again found it necessary to move, this time 
to Frannie, with the help of some accommodating passing 
freighters. We pitched tent near Jack Morris' again. We 
were getting restless with our activities cut down. None of 
us had any idea where we were to go when the work was over, 
and we even began to plan a trip through the Yellowstone Park 
if there was to be a layoff. The mountains of the Park were in 
plain sight from our camp. Our only diversion was sitting 
outside the tent evenings, watching for the cloud of dust to the 
north which would indicate the coming of the stage and perhaps 
some letters for us. 

Then suddenly, Dungan was called away to take charge of 
some work in the Black Hills, Chessington was sent down the 
line and Hughes was sent to a party with Mr. Ensign to do some 
locating work. Finally, I received word to pack up and head 
for Edgemont, South Dakota, where I was to be stationed for 
an indefinite time on maintenance work. 

Jack Morris took me to Bridger, Montana, where I was to 
board the train on the Northern Pacific for Billings. It was a 
Saturday morning, very early, when we left, and the beauty of 
that day is with me yet. The western meadow larks were at 
their best. It was such a different drive from the one coming 
in, in January. 

This Big Horn country made a deep impression on me that 
I was never fully aware of until after I had left. The tremen- 
dous sweep of the country, the majesty of the imposing Big Horn 
Range, snow-topped, even when I left there in June; the Pryor 
mountains to the berth and the miscellaneous peaks to the west, 
in or near the Yellowstone Park, all combined to make a series 
of vistas enticing in their beauty. Reading of "The Virginian" 
by Owen Wister, a few years or so later, tended to crystallize 
in my thoughts a wish, till then lying latent, to revisit and thor- 
oughly examine that great valley. 

I recall Jack Morris telling me on that drive that when he 
first came to this country, I forget how many years before, he 
could see, in almost any direction, great bands of antelope, 
their rumps flashing in the sunlight. We saw none at all in 
1901 . Jack also told me that there were a lot more rattlesnakes 
then than now. They were a recognized menace to the stock, 
and a stockman riding over the country, no matter how urgent 
his mission, would never fail to stop at any time to kill rattle- 

I shall not forget, either, that we drove over into the Clark's 
Fork valley just in time to see the one and only train departing 
for Billings, leaving me stranded until the following Monday. 

All this was forty years ago. I have never been back in 
the Big Horn country, yet it is the place of all others that I should 
like to re-visit and explore to its southern limit. Som.ehow, I 
still believe that I shall do it. 




One of Cheyenne' 8 First X alive Sons 
By Alice M. Shields' 

It has been seventy years since a little band of Pennsyl- 
vanians stepped off the train at Council Bluffs, Iowa, trans- 
ferred their belongings and their families into prairie schooners 
drawn by four-mule-teams, and headed west. For weeks they 
trekked over the many hundred miles of broad Nebraska prair- 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.— Alice M. Shields (Mrs. Jack T.) was born 
in August, 1893, in Atchison Countv, Kansas, and came to Chevenne, Wyoming, 
in July, 1929. 

Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas James Mathews, of Atchison County, 
Kansas, were married at Effingham of that State in 1886. 

For eighteen years before coming to Wyoming Mrs. Shields held positions 
as a bookkeeper, accountant and secretary in Kansas City, Missouri, and in 
1934 she taught commercial subjects in the Cheyenne High School summer 
and night sessions. She also was engaged on a Statewide Historical Project 
as a professional employee. 

She is a member of the Catholic church and of the Daughters of Isabella, 
a national organization of Catholic women; is executive secretary of a Chey- 
enne committee representing the National Organization for Decent Literature, 
and is a member of the Cheyenne Writers club, which is now inactive. 

Her husband has been associated with the Colorado and Southern and 
the Union Pacific Railroads since 1900, the date of his arrival in Cheyenne, 
and the couple reside at 415 West Twenty-fifth Street. 


ies, and as they traveled they noticed that the gentle slopes of 
the rolling plains country became more acute. Down the 
slopes and up the swells they plodded, always thinking that 
they would see a broad expanse at the top of the next swell, but 
as they entered what later became Wyoming Territory they 
found the huge ripples to be continuous. They camped each 
night and set out again in the early morning. One July day 
they gazed out upon the mountains in all their frowning-gran- 
deur. Soon the emigrants found themselves crossing a long 
flat with a creek (Crow Creek) flowing across it. In the clear 
atmosphere they seemed to be very close to the mountains. 
They knew that the railroad had been surveyed to pass within 
a stones throw of the little creek. Like wise they felt a certain 
security in the fact that they were to be in the shadow of Camp 
Carlin, United States Army Post, later Fort Russell and now Fort 
Francis E. Warren. So, considering all things, they elected to 
bring their journey to an end, and made camp on the banks of 
the creek. They tethered their mules and their cows and made 
pens for their fowl. That was on July 12, 1867. 

In the little group from Pennsylvania, was F. H. Castle, his 
wife, and his three children. To Mary Jane Castle, their oldest 
daughter, the new country was becoming a land of romance. 
She was soon to be married to one of their party, Benjamin 
H. Smalley, who hailed from Duchess County, New York State, 
where he had been released from the Union Army just the year 
before. He had joined the Pennsylvanians and had made the long 
journey to the West with them. So, in the early fall of 1867, 
Benjamin Smalley and Mary Jane Castle were the principals 
of the first marriage to take place in the new settlement, which 
later became Cheyenne. Judge Slaughter, who came West 
soon after the Pennsylvanians had arrived, performed the 
marriage ceremony. Among those present at the wedding 
were J. R. Whitehead and Judge Kuykendall, both of whom 
later became influential citizens of Cheyenne. 

Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin H. Smalley then joined the Castle 
family in the building of an adobe house on what is now Carey 
Avenue, between Seventeenth and Eighteenth Streets. Their 
land, which cost them four hundred dollars, now is the site of 
the new Todd Building. Soon the young married couple took 
up a homestead on Middle Crow Creek. Theirs was one of 
the first homesteads to be granted in what later became Laramie 
County, Wyoming, and it is now known as the Ferguson ranch. 

On June 27, 1868, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin H. Smalley 
became the proud parents of their first born, Edwin John. Smal- 
ley; who came to them at their temporary home which stood on 
the present site of the Crown Oil Company on Eighteenth and 


Capitol Avenue. There was great rejoicing at his birth, be- 
cause the boy was not only their first born, but he was one of 
the very first male children to be born in the then fast-growing 

It was just one month after the birth of Edwin John Smalley 
that the bill providing for the temporary government of the 
Territory of Wyoming was approved by President Andrew 
Jackson, on July 25, 1868. The name "Wyoming" is supposed 
to be a corruption of the Indian name Maughwauwama, mean- 
ing large plains. In September of the same year Laramie 
County was organized, and Cheyenne, known as the Magic 
City, had grown to nineteen hundred population and was made 
the county seat. 

Ed Smalley, as he has always been known by the towns- 
people, has grown up with the town and when he was in the 
prime of life he served his community as one of its leading 
citizens. He served in the capacity of police chief, county 
assessor, and sheriff of Laramie County. Mr. Smalley said he 
could not remember when Cheyenne was not a small city. His 
two sisters, Virga Bell (Mrs. A. J. Gereke) and Eva G. (Mrs. M. 
Morris) were born in Cheyenne. 

''My father sold the homestead and went into the freigh- 
ting business between Cheyenne and Deadwood, South Dokota," 
Mr. Smalley related. "He had an eight mule-team and a ten 
mule-team, and hauled flour and sugar as a general thing. Of 
course he hauled the forage for the mules. The freight rate 
on commodities was one dollar per hundred pounds for a dis- 
tance of one hundred miles, and for greater distances, it was 
three dollars per hundred. In the winter season rates were 
higher. On one occasion, my father hauled a six thousand 
pound safe to Deadwood to be delivered to the county tr as- 
urer's office. He also freighted a load of flour and sugar on 
that trip, which was made in the winter time. He collected 
sixteen dollars per hundred on the shipment, but the expenses 
connected with the trip were so heavy, due to the fact that it 
took so long to make the trip, that he did not net on the deal 
what might be imagined. 

"I made several trips with my father during summer vaca- 
tions, and the rate of speed at which we traveled enabled me 
to learn every mile of that road, which was three hundred and 
fifty miles in length. We did not pass through any towns but 
went by way of the stage stations where the stage coach pas- 
sengers ate or stopped over, and where fresh horses were 
hitched to the stage coach. We, with the freight wagons, of 
course, didn't change our teams but stopped on the open range 


near a waterjholejfand fed and rested our animals. It was ne- 
cessary, however, to stop at the feed stables in the winter time 
and have our mules fed. 

We cooked our meals in a Dutch oven over a camp fire, 
which of course was great sport for me. We carried such 
provisions as ham, bacon, flour, Arbuckle's coffee, Borden's 
condensed milk, sugar, and butter. We had a free supply 
of wild game, especially antelope and sage chicken; also, we 
had all of the fish that we could eat. You have no idea how 
delicious the food is when cooked in a Dutch oven, and eaten 
out in the open. We made our own bread. The recipe used 
was about the same as that for biscuit, but the dough was baked 
in one piece. To bake bread or meat in a Dutch oven, we first 
got a bed of red coals, placed the oven on them, and also piled 
hot coals over and around the oven. In that way, the baking 
was slow and thorough and very good. 

"Yes, we turned our mules loose on the prairie and left 
them in care of the bell-mare, which was picketed out in a good 
feeding spot. We brought the bell-mare along for the express 
purpose of using her for a herder for the mules. Due to some 
strange paradox of the mule nature, that beast of burden has 
from time indefinite considered the mare his guardian. Often 
when we stopped at a water hole at noon, we were met by 
droves of range cattle and horses which had come there for a 
drink, too. The thing that bothered me most on those occas- 
ions was the water that Dad used for making our coffee. He 
would edge his way down to the stream and sink a little hole in 
the clay with the tin dipper and then step back and wait until 
it filled up so that he could ladle the water out and fill the coffee 
pot. Of course it was the same water hole in which the animals 
were stamping, but we never got sick after drinking it, as I am 
sure wo would, if we did such a thing in these days of hygiene. 

"The first stage station after leaving Cheyenne was nine 
miles out and was called the Sealy Road-house. It was opera- 
ted by Madam Sealey. The second station, Pole Creek Ranch, 
was eighteen miles out and was operated and owned by Fred 
Schwartz. The stage stations were regular eating houses, with 
meals served at all hours, and were eguipped with a bar, and 
with a stable for the horses and mules. The third station out 
was Horse Creek Station which was twenty-seven miles from 
Cheyenne. Chugwater was the fourth station and was fifty- 
two miles out of Cheyenne. It was eguipped with the usual 
bar, and with stables for seventy-five horses. Horses were 
hayed for seventy-five cents a span. The fifth station was 
Hat Creek Ranch, operated by lack Bowman. It had the usual 
accommodations . ' ' 


Asked for an account of one of Cheyenne's famous bliz- 
zards, Mr. Smalley referred to a storm which occurred when 
he was about twelve years old. "'That, was about the worst 
blizzard, which I can recall. Snow fell for days and before long 
it was six feet deep. I remember that we coasted off the Carey 
Block Building. That was the storm in which we brought 
some of the mules into the kitchen to save their lives. My 
father's mule-shed was at 306 East Twentieth Street. The 
weight of the drifted snow broke the roof of the shed in on the 
mules and suffocated five of them. We had a rather long lean- 
to kitchen and I remember we cleared out the furnishings and 
led ten of the mules in there out of the storm. It was July be- 
fore all of the snow was gone. Thousands and thousands of 
head of cattle and sheep were lost in that storm. 

''About forty years ago we had a blizzard in October. It 
was a beautiful day when the storm broke and it started to 
thunder and lightning. Soon the snow started and it fell for 
two days. It seemed to be falling in great wet clumps and clung 
to anything which it struck on its way down to earth. A great 
many of the famous Percheron horses at P. O. Ranch were 
suffocated in that storm. The animals were out in corrals and 
breathed the heavy fluffs of snow which smothered them." 

Mr. Smalley explained that the first school in Cheyenne 
stood on the corner of what is now Nineteenth and Carey Ave- 
nue on the present site of the Cheyenne Hardware Company. 
The first school which he at+ended was on the site of the present 
Masonic Temple at Nineteenth and Capitol Avenue. 'Tt was a 
three room house and the teacher, Mrs. Ellis, lived in the two 
rear rooms and conducted the school in the large front room." 

Luxurious Homes on 'Cattlemen's Row ' 

Since it is true that E. J. Smalley has lived in Cheyenne all 
of his life, and all of the life of Cheyenne as well, it is obvious 
that he knows all of its buildings; also, +hat he knows who has 
occupied them. Cheyenne was his childhood world and he, 
being a typical American boy, knew almost everything of 
importance that happened in his home town. He watched 
each building as it was erected, knew who became its occu- 
. pants, and when its ownership changed hands. When asked 
about some of Cheyenne's old residences in what was famous 
as Cattlemen's Row, he said, "You might take a walk down 
Carey Avenue beginning : with the corner of Twenty-fourth 
Street, just across from the Capitol Building, and try to imagine 
that it is forty years ago and that Carey Avenue is Ferguson 
Street. The first large home on Twenty-fourth and Ferguson* 

*Now Carey Avenue. 


with the imposing entrance on Ferguson and the friendly south 
veranda, was built over fifty years ago. The stables west of the 
residence held an array of fine horses and carriages. The home 
was built by Hi Kelly, stockman and ranch owner, for his wife, 
an Indian girl from the Sioux Nation, and their family. They 
moved into the new home when they left their ranch in the 
Chugwater district." 

The house is now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Fred Boice, and 
on being shown through the hne old home by Mrs. Boice, 
gracious Cheyenne hostess, one is impressed by the spacious 
drawing rooms, the chandeliers of blazing lights, the fine old 
cherry woodwork, hand-carved and decorated wi^h real brass 
knobs and hinges, solid plate-glass windows through which 
soft light creeps past Venetian-shutters. The old black walnut 
staircase, hand-carved, winds its way up to the third floor. A 
stained glass window high above the steps admits mysterious 
and varied hues of light. Friendly fireplaces, wood-burning, 
and framed with pictorial English tile are surmounted with rare 
old wood mantles, each made differently to harmonize with the 
room in which it is placed. One of English tile is inlaid with 
gold-leaf. One, a series of Shakespearean pictorial tiles, de- 
picting his immortal characters posing there in familiar scenes 
set in misty blue, carries the imagination to far away foggy 
England. There, too, by way of contrast, is the head of Bryant, 
beloved Americam poet. 

Off the second drawing room is the dining room which 
opens onto sunny verandas and sun porches. The floor is a 
masterpiece of exguisite parguetry showing oak, walnut, white 
maple, and cherry in multiform designs. A door leading to 
the sun porch is a carving of Norway patterns in rare old wood, 
mounted on clear plate-glass. 

The house, built in 1884, was heated with steam, the pipes 
being concealed in the side walls, It is apparent that the steam 
heat was not sufficiently warming, since almost every room in 
the house is supplied with a fireplace. The butler's pantry 
and huge kitchen bring visions of loaded tables, savory odors, 
and sparkling wines. 

The wrought-iron fence, a silent expression of the white 
man's devotion to his Indian wife, is a combination of arrows 
and tiny tomahawks and encloses the house and grounds. 
Outside the bay window to the east, grows a horse-chestnut 
tree, planted by the Indian woman. She planted the apple 
and pear trees which grow in the side yard, and the white lilac 
bushes have grown tall since she placed them in the ground a 
half century ago, but for years they have not bloomed. The 
story is that the Indian woman, when she was not permitted to 


remove the bushes after her home was sold, placed her curse 
upon them and said they would never bloom again. 

"~On the opposite corner of the same street intersection 
stands the red pressed-brick mansion with turret windows and 
castle-type entrance. The building east of the residence was 
the stable where fine driving horses and carriages were kept. 
Mr. M. Idleman, wholesale liquor dealer, built the home and 
it is still owned by his son, Samuel Idleman. The height of the 
old pine trees on the lawn proves its age. The house is now 
under lease by the Schrader Funeral Home. 

The wrought-iron fence, enclosing the fine old brick 
home, is embedded in a red sandstone retaining wall and forms 
a fitting border for the picture. The house consists of three 
stories and has twenty-one rooms. The complete third floor 
was a ball room and has wall seats, covered with red plush 
cushions, all around the room. The second floor, composed 
of bed rooms, has full length massive mirrors built in the walls. 
There is a fireplace in each of the important rooms, and a few 
of the rooms are furnished with marble top dressers. There 
are four bath rooms in the house, and wide halls run through 
the second floor. A cedar lined closet room, at the rear end of 
the hall was probably used for storing furs and woolens. A 
dumb-waiter, which obviously carried breakfasts to late sleepers 
and refreshments to dancers, starts from the kitchen. A broad 
and winding stairway leads to the first floor, which is spacious 
and beautiful with paneled halls and solid walnut doors and 
woodwork. A sun room on the south was made for a flower 
room. The rich massiveness of the place is fascinating. 

''One block down Ferguson, and on the corresponding 
corner stands the old home of the Whitcomb family built by 
E. W. Whitcomb, prominent Wyoming stockman. Mrs. Whit- 
comb was the daughter of a Sioux Indian woman." said Mr. 
Smalley. The architecture of the old house shows a liberal 
amount of ginger-bread style decoration, hand carved stair- 
case, parquetry floors, high ceilings and massive doors. Parts 
of the old wrought-iron fence are left standing and the stable 
which is in advanced stage of ruin, was in keeping with the style 
of the residence. The air of the place gives an impression of 
dainty parasols and petticoats. The old home is used now as 
a rooming house. 

' 'One block down the street, where the Presbyterian church 
built of white stone now stands, was the home of E. P. Johnson, 
cattleman and real estate dealer. He, at one time was in partner- 
ship in the real estate business with the late Charles Riner. 
In later years the home belonged to C. P. Organ, cattleman. 

''Directly across the street on the north-east corner of the 
intersection of Twenty-second and Ferguson is a rambling old 


buff brick, which with its lawn, occupies a quarter block. It 
has stood hard usage in recent years having been a rooming 
house, a hospital, and again a rooming house. It was built 
by George Seawright, cattleman and it was the home of the 
Seawright family for many years. Later it belonged to M. E. 
Post, prominent stockman and banker. The interior of the old 
home retains an air of its former style with its winding stairways 
and open fireplaces. 

"Across the s^"reet south from the Seawright home and on 
the south-west corner of the same street intersection, stands 
a massive old brick with high windows and dark doors. Re- 
cently it has been converted into a rooming house. It was built 
by T. A. Kent, and banker, and af^er many years was 
sold to J. Arp, early-day hardware merchant of Cheyenne. 

"Just across the fence to the south of the Arp home is 
another red brick, tall, rambling, and dignified. It was built 
by George A. Draper, cattleman and grocer, and was the 
home of the Draper family for many years. Later it was pur- 
chased by George H. Gilland, cattleman. Mrs. Gilland, his 
widow, lives there now. The bulk of the Gilland fortune, built 
up in the cattle industry, was lost a number of years ago. How- 
ever, the old home is maintained in dignity and beauty, with 
its rare pieces of furniture, its many books, cut glass, old silver- 
ware, and hand-painted China (the work of Mrs. Gilland), 
adding their charm to the large, high-ceilinged rooms. 

"On the south-east corner of the same intersection, Twenty- 
second and Ferguson, facing the Arp home, stands the old 
Carey mansion. It was built by Joseph M. Carey, — Governor 
of Wyoming (1911-1915), and has since remained in the Carey 
family. Mrs. Carey lived in the home until her death. The 
Carey children were born and reared there, one of the sons 
being the late United States Senator from Wyoming, Robert 
Carey. The late Charles Carey, second son, was one of Wyo- 
ming's foremost cattelmen. The house, a beautiful testimonial 
to early Western grandeur, with its fine old stable and carriage 
house in the rear, now belongs to the Carey heirs, and is under 
lease as a home for business and professional women." 

The Carey home, of red brick and red sandstone with a 
wrought-iron fence around the yard, is three stories high and 
contains twenty-five rooms. The imposing entrance with the 
electric knocker on the massive door gives an atmosphere of 
grave dignity, and when the door is opened one is met with 
a sweeping view of open drawing rooms, walnut wood blended 
with highly polished cherry and oak, rose-point lace and 
Nottingham lace glass curtains, brilliant chandeliers of spark- 
ling crystal, fireplaces of pictorial English tile, broad polished 
stairways, and parquetry floors. The fireplace in the bedroom 


where Joseph M. Carey slept on the second floor is bordered with 
pictorial tiles showing ranch scenes and wild animal life. 
Marble top dressers and a massive wooden bedstead grace the 

"Across the street and down to Twenty-first and Ferguson 
on the northwest corner of the intersection, stands the modern- 
istic Federal Building. The home of James W. Hammond, owner 
of the Cheyenne Packing House forty years ago, once stood 
there. Likewise, the home of Luke Voorhees, cattleman, stood 
there. The latter a hugh white frame building was moved from 
the site when the Government bought the ground, and was 
taken to the corner of Thomes Avenue and Twenty-seventh 
Street where it was divided and made into two apartment 

""H. G. Hay, cattleman and grocer, built his home on the 
southwest corner of the intersection of Ferguson and Twentieth 
Street. It is now known as the Shingle Apartment Building. 

''Directly across Ferguson to the east, was the home of 
L. Murrin, wholesale liguor dealer, who also was at one time 
county treasurer and probate judge. 

"'Jay Joslin, jeweler and stockman, built the house where 
the Wayne Daniels Filling Station is now. Mr. Joslin later 
opened the Joslin Dry Goods Store in Denver. 

"The castle-like building of gray stone on Twentieth and 
Ferguson was built by D. D. Dare who was one of the early 
day hardware dealers. The house was known as Castle Dare, 
and after it changed ownership a few times, it became the 
Club House for the Odd Fellows Lodge." 

Water Supply Hauled From Crow Creek 

The water supply for the best homes was kept in water 
tanks concealed in the attic and then piped through the house. 
Mr. Smalley pointed out, however, that water for the greater 
number of homes was stored in barrels which had been sunk 
in the ground in the back yard for use as a reservoir. The 
water was hauled from Crow Creek in barrels by a man named 
Bates. He charged twenty-five cents for a barrel and five cents 
for a bucket of water. 

The water used for irrigation purposes and fires was 
pumped from Sloan's Lake into shallow ditches on the sides 
of the streets. Cisterns were sunk at certain street corners for 
the purpose of storing the water to use in case of fire, 

'The volunteer hook and ladder and hose sguad fought 
the fires. The Alerts were a company of Fire Fighters who had 
their headguarters on Capitol Avenue between Seventeenth 


and Eighteenth Streets. John M. St. John of Camp Carhn came 
in with his "Steamer', used for pumping water into the hose 
from the cisterns, when the fire broke out." 

Asked about the race tracks in Cheyenne, before betting 
was outlawed, Mr. Smalley said, "The first race track was on 
the present site of the Carey Dairy east of town. My father 
drove in one of the first races there for an officer of Camp 
Carhn, Major Wooley. The second race track was opened out 
near Sloan's Lake, the third at Pioneer Park, and the last one, 
at which free for all betting was done, was in Alta Vista Ad- 

Since the 'Vound-up" is a part of Wyoming, Mr. Smalley 
was asked to explain the meaning of the term. "'I worked on 
the B. S. PJopkins ranch for awhile when Mr. Hopkins, a trot- 
ting horse fan, was away. That is the same ranch on which my 
father homesteaded. It was not large, but contained about 
four thousand acres open range (unfenced land) . When round- 
up time came in the spring, it meant catching and branding the 
new calves. A cowboy with a string of horses, six or seven 
saddle animals, and a pack horse for his blankets, started 
out across the country in search of the owner's cattle. The 
cowboy was known as a Vep', representative for his ranch. 
Sometimes he rode fifteen or twenty miles before he found a 
bunch of cattle. Reps from all different ranches went out the 
same way with the understanding of where the round-up was 
to be held. All of the cattle were driven to that spot. The 
chuck wagon and the cook were headed toward that point also. 
Each cow-boy followed the cattle in and then each one roped 
his owner's calves for branding. After the branding they were 
turned loose on the range again until fall, when the beef round- 
up took place, at which time the beef cat+le were cut out and 
sent to market. The reason for the cowboy having six or seven 
hourses, was that cutting out cattle is very strenuous work." 

Exciting Childhood Incidents 

Mr. Smalley's very early childhood was spent on his father's 
ranch and he said with an extra draw at his pipe, 'There is one 
incident that has remained outstanding in my memory. My 
mother was taking my sister Virga Bell, aged three, for a ride 
in her perambulator, and I, six, was following along. We 
were going through the prairie to our nearest neighbors, the 
Robert Bishops, when Smokey, a steer which was known as a 
'bunch guitter', because he would not stay with the herd, came 
toward us on the run. Mother saw him coming and called 
to me to hurry and get under the rail fence. We all got under 
the fence in time to see Smokey gore the little buggy to bits. 


I was somewhat frightened. Within the next day or so Wash 
Callahan, a big negro, rode the steer, just in fun, when he was 
taking him over to Carey's ranch, but his weight was too great 
and he injured the animal's back. Smokey was shot then and 
his horns were mounted. I recently disposed of the horns 
to a curio hunter. 

''One of the excitements of my day as a boy was to watch 
the stage coaches come in from Deadwood. I admire the 
drivers' skill in handling the four and six-horse teams and used 
to wish that I could grow up and take part in what appeared 
to me to be a thrilling adventure. Some of the famous Western 
characters, whom I saw when they came in by stage from 
Deadwood, were Wild Bill Hickock, Calamity Jane, Buffalo 
Bill, and a few others not so widely known. Bill Hickock and 
Buffalo Bill often visited with Major Talbot at his homic west of 
town. It was their favorite pass-time to shoot at targets with 
their pistols. Major Talbot usually proved to be the best sho^ 

'T used to enjoy a visit to the I X L ranch, particulatly so 
because Charley Terry, the owner, raised a great many good 
saddle horses. Charley Terry sold the ranch later to the War- 
ren Live Stock Company, who changed the I on the brand to 7 
which made their brand as it is today, 7 X L. Terry and his 
partner had a feed stable in Cheyenne on Sixteenth Street, 
known as Terry and Hunter I X L Feed Stable." After a mo- 
ments thought in which he went back to his school days, Mr. 
Smalley said, 'There was a Clara Terry who went to our school 
— not from the same Terry family as Charley Terry. She was 
guite good looking and had a lovely singing voice, in fact, 
she was known as Wyoming's nightingale. I remember how 
the boys at school considered her to be the model girl of the 
school. She had two dresses, one was blue, I think it was 
flannel, and the other one was brown flannel. She wore low 
heels and never used powder, but always had a red geranium, 
in her hair. One of the lakes in Lyons Park, Terry Lake, was 
named for her. The Terrys lived back of the Capitol Building 
at 2514 Capitol Avenue. 

"That house has a little story," he said. 'Tt was the home 
of Mr. and Mrs. William Vanice before the Terrys lived there. 
One evening Mr. Vanice was down town in his buggy, and 
when he got home at about dusk, his wife told him that a man 
had been there and that he had been insolent in his reguest 
for food. Mr. Vanice fetched his six shooter and went out to 
look for the man. When her husband did not return home 
that night, Mrs. Vanice notified the police. A posse went on 
the search for him and found his horse and buggy out near 
Round-Top. The lines were wound around the hub of the 
buggy but there was no sign of Mr. Vanice. After a while 


they discovered an abandoned well, and there they found 
his body. He had been shot. They never found the killer. 
There was a great deal of lawlessness then. The first legal 
hanging was made by Jeff Carr, acting United States Marshal, 
in the Government Building at Twentieth and O'Neil Avenue. 
The criminal was a half breed Indian. Before that time the 
hanging was done by 7edge Lynch". 

A humorous incident of the horse and buggy days was 
related with a chuckle. 'The regular Sunday afternoon band 
concerts held at Fort Russell were the reason for a real turn out 
by the towns-people. The finest horses and buggies in the 
land were to be seen there. Cheyenne was a wealthy town, 
and much wealth was on display on those occasions. The 
ladies were beautifully dressed. One of Cheyenne's most 
popular women was Mrs. M. E. Post, wife of the banker and 
the owner of the P. O. Ranch. Mrs. Post drove a fine pacing 
horse which she called Ledger, and every Sunday afternoon 
she showed the horse's style by racing him down the Boulevard 
(now Pershing Boulevard). It was Mrs. Post's delight to urge 
Ledger in a race against the pole-team belonging to A. R. Con- 
verse, her husband's banking partner. She usually won the 
race too. And then, as regularly as clock work, she was 
caused to appear before the Police Judge on Monday morning 
to pay her fine for speeding. T don't care about paying the 
fine,' she would declare, "just so I beat old Converse in the 
race, I'm happy!' It got to the point where everyone looked 
for the weekly race." 

Incidently, Mr. Smalley explained that the only transporta- 
tion from Fort Russell to Cheyenne for several years was an 
old ambulance driven by Fritz. Fritz charged twenty -five cents 
per ride. 

Mr. Smalley said that he never saw Indians on the war 
path, but related that the town of Archer, a few miles east of 
Cheyenne, was named for a United States Army Captain by 
that name, who was killed near that point by the Indians. 

He also revealed that Hillsdale, Wyoming, twenty miles 
east of Cheyenne, was named for a civil engineer by the name 
of Hill, who was surveying the Union Pacific railroad, when he 
was killed by Indians. He was an uncle to the Reverend Hill, 
one time Presbyterian minister of Cheyenne. 

As Sheriff, Arrested Notorious Tom Horn 

When Edwin Smalley was seventeen years old he stood 
six feet, one and one-half inches tall and weighed one-hundred 
and sixty pounds; so he decided, since he was a man's size, 
that he would cut high school and go to work and do a man-size 


job. His first work was clerk for the Leiby Grocery Company. 
One year later he found that he could earn more money at the 
A. C. Snyder meat market. He was with that firm for some 
time when he took a job with the Union Mercantile Company. 
He had been with that company for five years when in 1901 he 
received an appointment from the county commissioners to 
fill the unexpired term of the Laramie County Sheriff, John P. 
Shaver, who died while in office. 

There was much activity in the life of a sheriff in those 
years when the county was yet new. The breaking up of the 
extensive operations in cattle rustling was one of the major 
duties for the sheriff. Likewise the catching of horse-thieves 
was a major chore. Mr. Smalley said that on different occas- 
ions he had ridden horseback for one hundred or more miles 
before running down a horse theii. He was serving his first 
year in office as sheriff of Laramie County when he arrested 
and took as his prisoner, Tom Horn, the outstanding criminal 
and subject of Wyoming's most publicized hanging, and at 
one timie noted cattle detective. 

When asked to give a synopsis of that much written up 
affair so that his point of view on the subject might be recorded, 
Mr. Smalley, the sheriff in the case, took another draw from his 
pipe, and said with ever so slight a guickness in his voice, 
"'Horn had been suspicioned of the murder of Willie Nickell, 
son of an Iron Mountain rancher, for six months before his 
confession was secured. One Sunday morning in January 
1902, Joe LeFors, deputy United States Marshal, got Tom Horn 
to go to the office of the United States Marshal with him on the 
pretext of hiring him to do a ''job" in Montana. It had been 
arranged for Charley Ohnhaus, stenographer, and Les Snow, 
a deputy sheriff, to hide in the adjoining office where they 
could listen to the conversation berween Joe and Tom. Ohn- 
haus was prepared to take the conversation down in shorthand. 
The boys, were lying on the floor on the other side of the door 
on a buffalo skin overcoat. There was a crack an inch wide 
at the top of the door, so they could easily hear what was being 
said in the other room. LeFors and Tom got to talking about 
the new "job" that Tom was to do in Montana, when Tom said 
T have never got my employers in any trouble yet' LeFors said, 
'I know you are a good man for the place, Tom. You are the 
best man to cover up your trail that I ever saw. In the Willie 
Nickell killing I could never find your trail; and I pride myself 
on being a trailer.' Tom said, 'No by — I left no trail. Joe 
LeFors said, 'Have you got your money for killing the kid?' 
Tom Horn said, 'I got that before I did the job. That was the 
best shot I ever made and the dirtiest trick I ever done!' 

"After Horn's confession was recorded, I was given the 
warrant for his arrest. I learned that Tom was in the lobby of 


the Inter-Ocean Hotel, where he was stopping, so I with my 
deputy, R. A. Proctor, went on down there. We found him 
sitting on one of the leather settees in the lobby and talking to 
a Union Pacific Special Agent by the name of Wheeler. Tom 
usually wore his coat and his vest unbuttoned and carried his 
gun thrust into his trousers, fastened, of course, to the trouser 
belt. The butt of his gun rested right at the pit of his stomach 
which made it easy for him to draw in guick time. I called 
'Hello Tom,' and he got to his feet and put his hand out to greet 
me and said, 'Hello Tommy'. He called me Tommy. I shook 
hands with him with my right hand and at the same time grabbed 
his gun with my left. He was mildly surprised at my taking 
his gun but showed no inclination to fight. I said, Tom, I have 
a warrant for your arrest.' The h— you have! What for?' he 
demanded. I then read the warrant to him and said, Tou'll 
have to come along to the jail with me Tom.' 'All right,' he 
said, 'but say Tommy, leave my gun at the desk and ask them 
to take care of it for me, will you?' 'No, I'll put it in the safe 
up at the jail, Tom, for safe keeping,' I told him. He came 
along with me without any protest whatever. I didn't even 
put the cuffs on him. As we were walking along I asked, 
'How much do you weigh Tom?' 'I weigh about two-hundred 
and one pounds,' he said. 'How old are you Tom and what 
is your height?' I asked. 'I'm forty-four years, forty-four 
months, forty-four days, forty-four hours, and fourty-four seconds, 
and I'm six foot one inch tall,' he answered with his usual joking 
manner. After I locked his cell he asked to see LeFors. He 
smelled a rat, all right, (It was Joe LeFors, Deputy United States 
Marshal who secured Tom Horn's confession through a ruse.) 
I telephoned LeFors who was down at Walter Stoll's office. 
(Walter Stoll was the County Prosecuting At+orney.) LeFors 
said he didn't want to see Tom, but I suggested he might come 
and talk to him for a little. He did, but only talked for a few 
minutes. Horn said to him, 'They got me in here for killing 
that kid.' Joe said, 'the H— they have'. There was not much 
said between them. Judge Lacey took the defense for Tom 
Horn, and that was the first criminal case he had bothered with 
for a long time, as he was always overly busy with bigger things 
in the civil courts. T. Blake Kennedy, R. N. Matson, T. F. Burke, 
and Mr. Corthell from Laramie City were also attorneys for 
his defense. Those men represented the outstanding legal 
power in the state. Well, as every one knows, it was a long 
drawn out affair. After all was said and done and after a great 
many of Wyoming's most prominent cattlemen had interceded 
for him, Tom Horn was hanged on November 20, 1903. He 
had steadfastly denied his guilt and swore that the afore-men- 
tioned confession was secured when he was drunk. I am sure 
that he was confident to the last minute of his life, that the Gov- 


ernor of the State, Chatterton, would commuteThis sentence. 
I am also sure- that he was guilty of the murder of -Willie Nickell 
for which ; crime he hanged. However, I think that it was '"a 
case of. rriistaken identity, and that Tom Horn had intended to 
kill the -Senior Nickell instead of his son Willie Nickell. I be- 
lieve that hei was paid to commit the crime just the same as 
he was paid to commit similar crimes which occurred through- 
out the state. Several months after he was hanged, a ranch- 
man riding the range found Tom Horn's coat. The letters 
found in that coat not only verified his confession but implica^"ed 
others. The names, if they had been known, would have bank- 
rupt the county in making prosecutions." 

Mr. Smalley's efficiency in the office of Sheriff was main- 
fested by his re-election for five successive terms of two years 
each. In 1911 he was appointed to the office of chief of police. 
He also served as county assessor for five years, and in 1917 he 
was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Pat Hayes, a sheriff 
who died in office. In 1919 Mr. Smalley again returned to 
private business by becoming the dealer for the Shutiier Wagon, 
the Champion Mowing Machine, and other agricultural im- 

It was on June 3, 1902, that Edwin John Smalley and Edith 
A. Sloan, daughter of one of Cheyenne's earliest pioneers, were 
married. By their marriage two of the oldest families of Chey- 
enne were united. Edith A. Sloan is the daughter of the late 
Mathew Sloan, pioneer from Pennsylvania, who was Mayor of 
Cheyenne in 1872. He ov/ned and operated the Sloan Dairy 
north of town for many years, and it was in his honor that Chey- 
enne's well known lake Sloan's Lake, was named. 

Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Smalley: Alice 
Smalley, school teacher near Baggs, Wyoming; Edwin Ben- 
jamin Smalley, business man in the neighboring state of Neb- 
raska, located in the town of Gering; Edna Smalley, business 
girl, Cheyenne; Robert Smalley, business man, Cheyenne, and 
Mary Jane Smalley, nurses Training School, Memorial Hospital, 
Sheridan, Wyoming. 

Mr. and Mrs. Smalley and their family have lived in their 
present home at 624 East Twenty-second Street, Cheyenne, 
for the past twenty-six years. 

Mr. Smalley, now nearing the age of seventy, is hale and 
hearty and thoroughly enjoys talking of the old days in Wyoming. 

NOTE. — This article was written in March, 1937, preceding the death of 
Edwin J. Smalley, on November 21, 1937, at Cheyenne, Wyoming. Mrs. Smalley 
resides in Cheyenne. — Editor. 



By Nora Moss Law* 

I can see a mud-chinked cabin 
Where the old Uintah flows 
Down from out the Rocky Mountains, 
Through the deep Wyoming snows. 

I was born in that log cabin 
'Way out yonder in the West 
Where the scenery is rugged, 
In the State that I love best. 

Out at famous old Fort Bridger 
With the soldiers and the Utes, 
The Shoshones and the cowboys — 
'Midst the stockmen's loud disputes. 

There were then no fancy diets. 
No vitamins to choose; 
My mother gave me sweet sage tea, 
And aged sguaws made my shoes. 

I can see my father drilling 
All his soldiers on parade; 
The cannon and the Army mule — 
O, what a dust they made! 

Still I love the smell of sagebrush. 
Love the cactus and the grouse; 
That wee cabin with the dirt roof 
Is my fancy's Magic House. 

So in * 'Wonderful Wyoming" 
Where rare charm meets every quest. 
Is my Dream House most enchanting. 
In the State that I love best. 

*NOTE. — Mrs. Law, a California teacher, was born on a ranch near Fort 
Bridger, Wyoming, and though absent from the State many years, still en-'oys 
being known as a Wyoming "rustler." She is a member of the California 
Writeis' Club and her articles have appeared in university publications, as 
well as in California and Wyoming newspapers. 

Her father, William Cartier Moss, was an early Wyoming pioneer. 





Chapter X 
Laramie County 

Acts Passed by Dakota Legislature to Establish Laramie 
County Boundaries and Grant Charter to Cheyenne — 
First Election Under Charter Held January 23, 1868. 

Without reference to other important events that trans- 
pired during the years 1868-1869, the writer will at this point 
undertake the difficult task of tracing step by step the various 
changes in county and municipal affairs, which eventually 
had their outcome in a legal and permanent organization of 
the city and county under the laws of Wyoming Territory. To 
do this intelligibly it will not only be necessary to retrace our 
our steps for a short distance, but the story now to be told 
will bring the reader down to a period of time, somie two years 
later than the date of the murder of Mead and Hazlett in No- 
vember, '67, so that at the end of the present chapter, or rather 
at the beginning of the one to follow, the reader will again be 
invited to go back for a period of two years — beginning where 
we left off with Mead and Hazlett — from which point +o the con- 
clusion of the history of Laramie County and Cheyenne, the 
reader will find everything which space will admit recording, 
mentioned substantially in chronological order. 

For the reason that at present (1886) there is not a single 
record in the county clerk's office in Laramie County to show 
that anybody was ever elected to an office in the county prior 
to the year, 1874. (Through no fault of the county clerk, how- 
ever, the task now to be undertaken is an exceedingly difficult 
and perplexing one.) 

It has already been seen that on the 10th day of August, 
1867, a provisional city government was organized in Cheyenne 
and that on October 8th of the same year a provisional county 
organization was also effected. With these two facts as a 
corner stone or a starting point let us see what followed. 

As before stated, what is now Wyoming was but an outlying 
portion of the territory of Dakota, although the western part 
of what is now Wyoming was originally detached from the 
territories of Utah and Idaho and for some time was called 
''Carter County." 

Judge J. R. Whitehead, who was elected at the provisional 
election in 1867 as a member of the Dakota House of Repre- 
sentatives, in due time proceeded to Yankton, S. D., to fulfill his 


mission. Though not regularly elected, he was admitted as a 
member of the 1867 session of the legislature. The Judge had 
at least two objects in view and he successfully accomplished 
both, and it has always been considered exceedingly fortunate 
that the people of Cheyenne and vicinity had so faithful and 
able a champion of their rights to guard their interests at that 
time. One of these objects was to get a bill through the legis- 
lature organizing and defining the boundaries of what is now 
Laramie County, and another was to get an act passed granting 
a charter to the City of Cheyenne. The first of these acts was 
passed and approved December 27, 1867, and the latter shortly 
after, and the legislature having adjourned. Judge Whitehead 
hastened back to Cheyenne bringing duly certified copies of 
both bills with him. 

The bill designated who should constitute the first set of 
county officers. Some of them were among those elected under 
the provisional organization while others were not, so that the 
first set of county officers Laramie County ever had under and 
by virtue of competent legislative authority were as follows: 
Sheriff, J. L. Laird; County Clerk, W. L. Morris; District At- 
torney, E. P. Johnson; Judge of Probate and Treasurer, W. L. 
Kuykendall; Superintendent of Schools, J. H. Gildersleeve; 
Coroner, D. G. B. Johnson; Surveyor, S. H. Winsor; County 
Commissioners, Benjamin Ellenger, P. McDonald and John 

Under the laws of Dakota the official year commenced on 
the second Monday of November in each year and such being 
the case, the new officers gualified and entered upon the dis- 
charge of their respective duties at once to serve until the next 

On the 23rd day of January, 1868, the first election was held 
under the charter granted by the Dakota legislature. A meeting 
was called and Col. Luke Murrin was nominated for the position 
of mayor. Politics, however, so far as the Republican and Demo- 
cratic j:)arties were concerned, was not much regarded in those 
days. A number of citizens, however, thought there ought to be 
two candidates in the field and circulated a petition asking W. 
W. Corlett to run as a candidate. When signed and presented it 
was more than a yard long. Mr. Corlett consented to run, but the 
result was the election of Colonel Murrin for Mayor amd Messrs. 
N. A. Hodgerman, William Wise, John F. Hamilton, P. Mc- 
Donald, J. C. Liddell and Charles Steinberger for members 
of the city council. As the charter then provided that the 
marshal, clerk and treasurer should be elected by a direct 
vote of the people, Messrs. D. J. Sweeney, Edward Orpen and 
R. K. Morrison were respectively elected to these positions 


almost without opposition. The new city council convened 
January 30, 1868, Mayor Murrin in the chair. The new 
membei's of the council were sworn in and proceeded to elect 
a city attorney — Wm. H. Miller being chosen — he having 
received four votes, J. W. Cook, two, and Chord, one — the 
mayor at that time being entitled to a vote. Thus were the 
county and city governments transformed from mere provi- 
sional affairs to governments established by competent legis- 
lative authority, and put in working order under the laws 
of Dakota territory. 

To trace the two governments to this point to those estab- 
lished in their stead under the laws of Wyoming will be next in 
order and here it might be mentioned that the Dakota legisla- 
ture also provided that Laramie County should constitute the 
Second Judicial District of that territory and Hon. Asa Bart- 
lett then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Dakota, was 
assigned as the presiding Judge who commenced the holding 
of a term of court in Cheyenne on the second Monday in March, 
1868, with J. W. Hutchinson, Clerk of Court; J. L. Laird, Dep- 
uty U. S. Marshal; E. P. Johnson, Assistant U. S. Attorney, and 
at about the same time J. P. Barlett arrived in Cheyenne and 
entered upon the discharge of his duties as U. S. Commissioner. 

Not until the first Monday in September, 1868, was there an 
election held under the Dakota laws for County Officers. The 
result was as follows: For delegate in Congress, S. L. Spink, 
709; D. J. Toohy, 683; W. A. Burleigh, 643; S. B. Todd, 381; 
J. P. Kidder, 29. 

On the county ticket the vote was Sheriff, D. J. Sweeney, 
1,290; E. P. Snow, 1,102; Register of Deeds, W. W. Slaughter, 
1,198; Wm. Morris, 1,140; Knox, 96; Judge of Probate, W. L. 
Kuykendall, 1,543; N. P. Cook, 876; County Attorney, E. L. 
Kerr, 1,391; J. E. Palmer, 1,015; County Superintendent of 
Schools, M. M. McKay, 1,175; H. P. Jensen, 1,066; Coroner, 
J. H. Douglas, 1,371; H. Finfrock, 876; Surveyor, S. F. Watts, 
1,446; S. H. Winsor, 946. From the foregoing, it is easy, of 
course, to see who the county officers were in the year 1868. 

At the same election the following was the result so far as 
Justices of the Peace and Constables were concerned: Justice, 
M. O'Brien, 1,004; W. H. Hinman, 1,000; S. W. Curran, 875; 
J. Keenan, 950; Constables, J. S. Sullivan, 1,278; J. W. Allen, 
960; John Garrett, 837; George H. Harding, 734; M. Hall, 946; 
Messrs. O'Brien and Hinman being elected Justices, while Sulli- 
van and Allen became the Constables. It should be stated here 
that at that time, and for some years later, Justices and Con- 
stables were elected by the vote of the entire county. 


Chapter XI 

Laramie County 

Next Municipal Election December 28, 1868 — Wyoming 
Created a Territory, July 25, 1868 — First Legislative 
Assembly, October 12, 1869 — Supreme Court Rules 
"Appointive Power Vested in Governor." 

The next municipal election in the City of Cheyenne was 
held December 28, 1868, with the following result: Mayor, 
Washington W. Slaughter; City Clerk, Edward Orpen; City 
Marshal, John Burrough; City Treasurer, Chas. Thurman; 
and for Councilmen, F. H. Barrall, Benjamin Gallagher, H. A. 
Eilfelder, H. J. O'Brien, J. R. Whitehead and A. P. Sanford; 
H. Garbaniti was chosen City Attorney. When the council 
organized and the newly elected mayor took his seat, Ex- 
Mayor Murrin made a neat little speech and expressed thanks 
to the retiring members of the council for courtesies extended. 

On the 25th day of July, 1868, the Act of Congress cre- 
ating the Territory of Wyoming was approved and shortly 
afterwards the following named officers for the territory were 
nominated and confirmed; Governor, John A. Campbell; Sec- 
retary of the Territory; Edward M. Lee; Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court, John H. Howe; the Associate Justices, Wm. 
T. Jones, John W. Kingman; United States Attorney, Joseph 
M. Carey; Surveyor General, Silas Reed; U. S. Marshal, Church 
Howe; Assessor of Internal Revenue Collector, Thomas Harlan; 
Register of Land Office, C. C. Crowe; Receiver of Public Money 
Frank Wolcott. 

Governor Campbell and Secretary Lee arrived in Cheyenne 
during the latter part of July, 1869, and on the 3rd of August, 
the Governor issued his proclamation directing that an election 
be held on the 2nd day of September for delegate in Congress 
and members of the council (Senate) and House of Representa- 
tives of the First Legislative Assembly. 

Within sixty days after Governor Campbell arrived in 
Cheyenne, he issued as many as nine separate proclamations on 
various subjects, one of them directing that the First Legislative 
Assembly should convene at Cheyenne, October 12, 1869. 

The Legislature of Dakota as early as December 27, 1867, 
had made a geographical sub-division of the then portion of 
that territory subseguently included within the boundaries of 
Wyoming, and had given them names, etc., so that the proc- 
lamation of the Governor of August 3, 1869, did not undertake 
to define the boundaries of any of the elective districts, except 
where more than one county comprised the same district — but 
designated them by the respective names conferred by the 
Dakota Legislature. 


Under the appointment made by the Governor, Laramie 
County, comprised of all the territory east of Dakota and Ne- 
braska and between Montana on the north and Colorado on the 
south and extending as far west as what is now Buford 
station on the Union Pacific Railway, was given three members 
of the territorial council and four members of the House of 
Representatives. The election in Laramie County resulted as 
follows: Members of the Territorial Council, F. D. Murrin, 553 
votes; L R. Whitehead, 549; F. W. Poole, 546; A. R. Converse, 
388; H. J. Rogers, 392; J. D. Wooley, 365; House of Represen- 
tatives, J. C. Abney, 580; Howard Sebree, 580; Posey S. Wilson, 
588 — the result electing Messrs. Whitehead, Murrin and Poole 
to the Council and Messrs. Abney, Sebree and Wilson to the 
House — all Democrats. 

Under the organic act of Wyoming, the county officers elect- 
ed under the laws of Dakota in 1868 were to hold over until such 
time as the legislature of Wyoming should provide for the ap- 
pointment or election of their successors. 

One step further will bring the reader through to the point 
designed to be shown in this chapter, namely: To the establish- 
ment of municipal and county governments under the laws of 
the Territory of Wyoming, although as the seguel will show, 
there are yet to be rival organizations in the case of the latter 
before the result is reached — rival organizations in which two 
sets of county officers, each claiming to be the legal one, came 
in conflict, disputed and clashed for a time. 

It will be remembered that the last municipal election was 
held December 28, 1868, and that at that election, Washington 
Slaughter was elected mayor of the City of Cheyenne. A new 
''dispensation" occurred before the one of which mention is 
about to be made. 

The First Legislative Assembly of Wyoming Territory con- 
vened at Cheyenne, October 12, 1869, and on November 20th, 
by joint resolution, extended the time of its sitting from forty 
to sixty days, which, under the organic act, it was authorized 
to do. On December 10th it enacted and granted to the City 
of Cheyenne a charter which, of course repealed and sup- 
planted the old one containing a provision that the officers 
elected at the last preceding municipal election should remain 
in office until their successors should be elected and gualified 
according to law. 

The new charter divided the city into four wards and pro- 
vided that a Board of Trustees, consisting of five members, one 
of whom should be chosen president and should be ' ex-officio" 
mayor of the city, should be chosen annually by a vote of the 
gualified voters of the city, and which Board was vested with 
the power of appointing all other city officers. 


The charter failed to provide for an election in December, 
1869, but nevertheless one was held and Messrs. J. H. Martin, 
G. W. Corey, I C. Whipple, H. H. Ellis and B. L. Ford were 
elected as members of the Board of Trustees — the first under 
the new charter. The new Board convened at the office of Dr. 
G. W. Corey on the evening of December 30, 1869, and organ- 
ized by the election of John H. Martin, President, who thereby 
became Mayor and Dr. Corey, Vice-President. The following 
city officers were then appointed: Marshal, S. M. Preshaw; 
Treasurer, C. D. Sherman; Clerk, F. E. Addoms; Attorney, 
G. W. Cook; Fire Warden, R. H. Kipp; Policemen, G. S. Ray- 
mond and J. H. Slaughter. 

As no guestion appears to have been raised in regard to the 
legality of an election which was not provided for in the char- 
ter, the City of Cheyenne then had an undisputed municipal 
organization and government under the laws of Wyoming. 

Let us now see how it was with the first set of Laramie 
County Officers under the laws of Wyoming. It will be remem- 
bered that the last election for county officers had been held on 
the 2nd day of September, 1868, and the officers then elected 
were under the organic act to hold over until the Legislature of 
Wyoming should provide a new set by appointment or elec- 

As the first session was drawing to a close it occurred to 
the Laramie County members that something must be done 
regarding this matter and the result was the passage of a bill 
in both branches of the Legislature appointing a full set of 
officers for Laramie County. Governor Campbell vetoed the 
bill on the ground that it was taking away from him his con- 
stitutional and rightful prerogative. As the Legislature, poli- 
tically considered, was of a different complexion from the 
Governor, the bill was promptly passed over the veto by not 
only the reguired two-thirds vote, but unanimously, and was 
proclaimed to be a law. 

The officers named in this bill were as follows: County 
Commissioners, L. Murrin, H. J. Rogers, Geo. D. Fogelsong; 
Sheriff, T. Jeff Carr; Judge of Probate, W. L. Kuykendall; County 
Clerk, John T. Chappin; Coroner, C. C. Furley; Surveyor, S. 
H. Winsor; County Attorney, H. Garbaniti; County Superin- 
tendent of Public Schools, H. P. Peck. Justices and Constables 
in various portions of the County were also named in the bill. 

Not to be outdone in the generous work of supplying Lar- 
amie County with a full set of officers without putting the people 
of the county to the inconvenience of expressing their will in the 
matter through the medium of the ballot box, Governor Cam- 
pbell made haste to appoint officers of his selection. They 
were as follows: Sheriff, S. M. Preshaw; County Clerk, F. E. 


Addoms; Judge of Probate, etc., Daniel McLaughlin; Assessor, 
J. K. Jeffrey; Superintendent of Schools, Rev. J. D. Davis; Coro- 
ner, S. Hurlbut; County Commissioners, A. R. Converse, H. J. 
Rogers and B. Gallagher. 

With two sets of county officers and two rival organiza- 
tions with which to commence its career as one of the counties 
of the new territory, a striking contrast was presented as com- 
pared with earlier days when, ignoring party ties and affiliations, 
the parties and founders of Cheyenne and Laramie County had 
stood side by side, en unbroken phalanx to battle and contend 
for the common welfare of all against the comimon enemy of all — 
the Sioux and Arapahoes, the hoodlums and the desperadoes. 
But in this instance, however, the partisan strife (always an 
impediment and a foe to progress and good government) did 
not succeed in working disastrous results. The good sense of 
many of the people who had, however, been practically ignored, 
inasmuch as they had not been consulted in the matter of county 
officers, prevailed, and public sentiment ordained that the 
dispute should be settled amicably in the Courts, which was 
done. The Supreme Court of Wyoming holding, when the 
question was brought before it, that the appointing power was 
vested in the Governor and not the Legislature. This officially 
disposed of the Legislative appointees, and whether right or 
wrong the decision was jointly acquiesced in by a vast majority 
of the pr'ople of the county. 

(To be Continued) 


A letter from Miss Martha M. Turner newspaper librarian 
of the Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska 
calls attention to an error in the C. G. Coutant History of Wyo- 
ming, Chapter 8, at page 326 of the October, 1940, issue of 
the Annals. Reference is made to '"O. F. Williams," early day 
editor of the "Rocky Mountain Star" at Cheyenne in 1867, 
whereas Miss Turner belives him to be "Oliver T. B. Wilhams" 
who earlier edited a newspaper in her home town of Columbus, 
Nebraska, and whom her father followed in the publishing bus- 

Miss Turner's identification of the "Star" editor coincides 
with L S. Bartlett in his History of Wyoming, and Douglas C. 
McMurtrie in his article, "Pioneer Printing in Wyoming," 
published in the January, 1933, issue of the ANNALS OF WYO- 
MING. Both Mr. Bartlett and Mr. McMurtrie refer to the 
"Star" editor as "O. T. B. Williams." 


Oxen Were First Tenderfeet 

'Tendertoot," popular western appellation attached to 
unitiated travelers from the east, first referred to oxen pulling 
west-bound covered wagons, and originated about 90 years 
ago during the gold rush to California. The story is related in 
the October, 1939, issue of 'The Pony Express Courier," pub- 
lished at Placerville, California. 

Headed for California in 1850, one of the gold-rushers, 
''Pop" Haver, paused during the summer, in the wearisome 
journey, at hot springs near Humboldt, in order that his stock 
might recuperate for the remainder of the trip. Before the 
trek was resumed, however, he took advantage of an oppor- 
tunity to increase his wealth certainly and guickly by trading 
his 22 head of "trail -ready" stock for more than three 
that number from another western bound caravan. This type 
of procedure continued through the following winter and 
proved to be highly profitable, "so that by the time spring 
arrived. Haver owned more than 200 head of stock, 20 wagons 
and more goods and personal property than he could haul. ***" 

Thus +he station became a fixture, and was dubbed the 
"tenderfoot" station, where tenderfooted animals were disposed 
of and fresh ones obtained. As a new caravan approached 
the place, a freguent rem.ark was, "I wonder how many tender 
feet in that outfit?" 


October 1, 1940, to December 31, 1940 

Pictures — Gifts 

Smalley, Mrs. E. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Three tinted photographs in oval 
frames. Edwin J. Smalley; Benjamin H. Smalley; Mrs. B. H. Smalley 
(Mary Jane Castle) 

Logan, E. A., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Postcard picture of first Frontier Days 
Queen, Miss Helen Bonham. 

Haas, Charles C, Box 222, Whitewood, South Dakota. — Picture of "Cere- 
monial Rocks" ridge in South Dakota (3'2"x5i.;); Picture of planetable 
map of "Ceremonial Rocks" in South Dakota, (3i2"x5i2")- 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. through J. E. Graf, As 
sociate Director.' — Photographic print 4i2"x6^2". entitled "The Photo- 
grapher's Assistants," being early day pack outfit of W. H. Jackson. 

Adamsky, Mrs. Ralph, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Painting of Chief Lone Wolf, 
on leather 28" x 35". 


Pictures — Purchased 

Photograph, Wyoming State flower, Indian Paintbrush, hand-tinted 
(10" X 141 2"). 


Smalley, Mrs. E. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming.' — Receipt of David McLaughlin, 
Deputy Treasurer, Laramie County, to J. H. Castle, for $6.75, dated Jan- 
uary 20, 1870, Territory of Wyoming; Quit-claim Deed, dated September 
30, 1867, from Mrs. John A. Borger to Frank Castle in consideration of 
$400.00 for a parcel of land in Lot numbered Four (4) in Block numbered 
Three hundred and fifty-five (355), in the town of Cheyenne, DAKOTA 
TERRITORY, at the corner of Ferguson (now Carey) and Eighteenth Streets. 
Executed by J. A. Borger and Mrs. Matilda Borger, and svrorn to before 
J. N. Slaughter, a jusHce of the peace, on October 12, 1867. The site 
is now occupied by the Todd Jewelry Company. 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Brock, Elmer, Buffalo, Wyoming. — Buffalo hump bone, an unusually large 
specimen found in cave west of Moyoworth, Johnson County, Wyoming. 

Office of Secretary of State, by Secretary L. C. Hunt, Cheyenne, Wyoming.- — 
One Wyoming 1941 automobile license plate. 

Adamsky, Mrs. Ralph, Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Booklet, report of Cheyenne 
Board of Trade, July, 1887. Program folder of inauguration of Governor 
DeForest Richards, * 1899. 

Atherly, Clyde W., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Spear point of guartzite, 4^2" 
X 8" found on the Sweetwater River near the Oregon Trail in southern 
Fremont County; good specimen; used by Indians in attacking buffalo 
at close range; evidently made at the "Spanish Diggings" in east Central 

Logan, E. A., Cheyenne, Wyoming. — Notarial seal of M. A. Arnold, from 
Territorial Days. Full page clipping from Post-Standard, Syracuse, New 
York, July 25, 1920, concerning Miss Helen Bonham. 

Thompson, Mrs., Ena Crain, 1602 Carey Lane, Silver Spring, Maryland. — 
Piece of wood 44" long from Sacajawea's grave, Fort Washakie; three 
Indian stone mauls and two Indian rubbing stones for tanning hides; 
two pieces petrified wood, all from the collection of Mrs. Thompson's 
father, the late Harry E. Crain, Cheyenne pioneer. 


McCreery, Mrs. Alice Richards, 550 Pacific Avenue, Long Beach, California.- — 
Map of the United States 24^2" x 34", showing routes of principal ex- 
plorers and early roads and highways, published, 1908. 


5 8 I,- ] 


nnais o 




olume 13 

April, 1941 

No. 2 


"Bedlam," Quarters of the Single Officers arid Social Ceiiter of Fort 
Laramie, at the Height of its Glory. Photo, probably about 1880. 

Published Quarterly 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Volume 13 April, 1941 No. 2 




By Jess H. Lombard 

THE LIFE OF NANNIE CLAY STEELE, In which Southern Girl Becomes 

Western Ranch Woman 93 

By Alice M. Shields 

JOHN W. MELDRUM (Continued) 105 

By Joseph Joffe 

Chapters XII, XIII and XIV 141 


Fort Benton, Montana, in 1878 156 

ACCESSIONS to the Wyoming Historical Department 157 


(Front Cover) 






Published Quarterly 




State Librarian and Historian 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Board and the State His- 
torical Department assume no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion 
expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation of 
museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of Wyoming 
citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those familiar with im- 
portant and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyoming 
and the Nation a true picture of the State. The ANNALS OF WYOMING 
magazine is one medium through which the Department seeks to gain this 
objective. All communications concerning the Annuals should be addressed to 
Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming Hisotrical Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
State Departm.ents, members of the State Historical Advisory Committee, 
Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Supscription price, 
$1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1 94 1 , by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President 
Lester C. Hunt . 
Wm. "Scotty" Jack . 
Mart T. Christensen . 
Esther L. Anderson . 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary 


Secretary of State 

State Auditor 

State Treasurer 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

. State Librarian & Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, RawHns 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byran, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Alton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairviev/ 

William C. Doming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Bert Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilton, 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorpe, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 


State Museum 

Gladys F. Riley State Librarian & Historian 

Inez Babb Taylor Assistant Historian 

Views of "Old Bedlam," showing the building in its former sad 

state of disrepair in 1938, and its reconstructed appearance on 

August 15, 1941, occasion of the dedication of Fort Laramie as 

a National Monument. 


0/^ l^e^Um 


By Jess H. Lombard* 

On the low plateau between the wide and shallow Platte 
River and its turbulent branch, the Laramie, stands a two- 
storied frame building, Old Bedlam — the Queen of Fort Laramie. 
Scattered about are the ghostly remains of fifteen other build- 
ings, dilapidated reminders of the once great military fort that 
guarded the old Oregon Trail. 

Ninety-two years have passed since the curly, buffalo-grass 
sod of the wild, high plains of what is now southeastern Wyo- 
ming was broken for Bedlam's foundation. But Bedlam was not 
in existence in 1821 when the legendary character, Jagues 
LaRamee, an intrepid French trapper, gave his name in death 
to the river now known as the Laramie. Indians boasted of 
killing him and stuffing his body under the ice of a beaver 
pond in the river near Sybille creek. In 1834, Messrs. Robert 
Campbell and William Sublette of the Rocky Moun+ain Fur 
Company built a trading post-fort of cottonwood poles and mud 
near the junction of the Platte and LaRamee' s Fork calling it 
Fort William. This was the progenitor of Fort Laramie. The 
very next year, 1835, the more powerful American Fur Company 
bought the fort and subseguently replaced it with a more sub- 
stantial structure of adobe brick. This new fort was maned 
Fort John at first but popular usage dubbed it Fort Laramie. It 
was approximately 132 teet wide by 169 feet long with a stockade 
reported to be four feet thick, twenty feet high, topped with 
sharpened stakes and with bastions on two opposite corners. 
This fort was laid out without regard to north or south, but rather 
to conform to the lay of the land. Although all vestiges of this 
old adobe stockade had disappeared by 1862, its influence is 

'BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Jess H. Lombard was born in Cripple Creek, 
Colorado, September 11, 1905. Subsequent to his graduation from the forestry 
school of the Colorado State College at Fort Collins, he worked for a short time 
in the gold mines at Cripple Creek, Colorado, and the copper mines in Bisbee, 
Arizona. He obtained a position with the United States Forest Service in 1930 
and was located at the Old Colorado National Forest until 1939, when he 
entered upon his duties with the National Park Service as Acting Custodian 
of Fort Laramie National Monument, Fort Laramie, Wyoming. 



still evident in that all except one of the buildings remaining 
were aligned with it. The new Guard House alone is sguare 
with the world. 

Captain Fremont came to Fort Laramie in 1842 and re- 
ported favorably on it as a possible military outpost. Then, to 
properly protect the passage of increasing numbers of emigrants, 
on the California and Oregon Trails, the army purchased this 
adobe fort from the American Fur Company in 1849. 

Work was started immediately on several buildings. An 
old report of the Engineering Department of the U. S. Army 
dated August, 1851, showed thirteen buildings including Bedlam 
besides the old adobe fort as already built by that date. Bedlam 
may have been the first army building constructed at Fort 
Laramie and, for that matter, the first in what is now Wyoming. 
Construction was begun in 1849, according to the annual re- 
port of that year by the Quartermaster General of the army. 
It was probably not finished until 1851. Some sources of informa- 
tion have it that the lumber for Old Bedlam was hauled overland 
from Atchison and For+ Leavenworth, Kansas. It is undoubtedly 
true that some of the materials were brought from the East, 
but a great deal of the rough lumber in the building came from 
our own, locally grown, native pine. Some of it was whip- 
sawn, as evidenced by irregular saw marks, a process wherein 
the logs were hewed sguare and ripped into lumber with a 
large, pot-bellied, two-man rip saw. The square timbers were 
set on high saw horses with one man working underneath and 
one on top the stick. The underman, of course, got all the saw- 

lohn Hunton, the last Post Trader at Fort Laramie, reveals 
in his notes that Old Bedlam was designed by an officer from 
Virginia, Lt. Richard Garnett, and cost $36,000 to build. The 
original building had two wings at the back, which were re- 
moved about 1882, leaving the structure much as it is today. It 
is of frame construction with adobe bricks stuffed in between 
the inner and outer walls for insulation or for protection from 
arrows and rifle balls. In the main part of the building there 
were eight large rooms, each with a fireplace. A lime-concrete 
addi+ion with rooms for kitchen was built in the rear about the 
time the wings were removed. 

In its hey-day. Bedlam was +he center of the gay social 
whirl that enlivened the periods of inactivity for Fort Laramie's 
upper crust. In its wide halls and spacious rooms, the gallant 
moustached captains and lieuienants gracefully stepped to the 
latest tunes from the ''States". 

It was on Christmas Eve, 1866, while a gay ball was in 
full swing, that lohn ''Porlugee" Phillips staggered into Old 
Bedlam with the tragic news that Captain Fetterman and his 
command of eighty men had been completely wiped out. 


Phillips had just completed one of the most daring and difficult 
rides in history — 235 miles thorugh bitter cold over trails in- 
fested with vengeful Indians, to bring a plea for help for the 
depleted garrison at Fort Phil Kearny. His splendid horse had 
literally run its life out for it dropped dead in front of Bedlam. 

During the hot summer days when the plains shimmered 
in the brilliant sun, ladies with their parasols rested on Bedlam's 
vine clad porch and gazed across the cool green of the tree- 
fringed parade ground, or chatted with the lucky officers who 
happened to be off duty. 

The Indians were finally subdued and were placed on 
reservations as wards of the White Father. The Union Pacific 
Railroad missed Fort Laramie by nearly a hundred miles to the 
South. By 1886 Fort Laramie had lost its military significance, 
and in 1890 the army lowered the Stars and Stripes for the last 
time, abandoning the fort to the mercy of the elements and 
private exploitation. Even in abandonment, Fort Laramie was 
able to serve the people of the vicinity, the buildings being sold 
at public auction for as little as $2.50 in some cases. Many 
of them were razed and the lumber used for building homes up 
and down the valley even as far away as Scottsbluff, Nebraska. 
During the days the army held sway at Fort Laramie, there were 
excess of ninety buildings constructed, including those replaced 
from time to time, and there were over sixty in existence at one 

After abandonment by the army in 1890, Old Bedlam was 
variously used as a school house, a stable and a pig pen. Its 
fireplace mantles were pried loose and hacked to pieces for 
souvenirs, the black walnut stair rails, newel posts and balusters 
removed to make souvenir furniture. The foundations of soft 
sandstone crumbled; the heavy timber sills settled and the 
porch posts fell out or were used as gate posts, letting the proch 
fall and hang at a drunken angle; the roof ridge sagged like a 
sway-backed horse. 

Old John Hunton loved Fort Laramie and while he lived 
did his best to preserve what he could of it — Old Bedlam especi- 
ally. When a visitor once remarked to him that Bedlam was a 
stable, Hunton's reply was, "Yes, this is now a stable but General 
Charles King immortalized it in one of his novels as Bedlam, a 
social gathering place for army officers where there were fre- 
quent high] inks with sparkling champagne that was hauled 
across the wilderness by ox-teams." Mr. Hunton was referring 
to the romantic novel, '"Laramie, or the Queen of Bedlam", 
written in 1889 by Captain Charles King, a story that has truly 
made Bedlam famous. 

There is some question as to the origin of the name '"Bed- 
lam". Some say it was called thus because it was constructed 
of sawed lumber known as ""bedlom", while others claim it 

*- o 


was dubbed ''Bedlam", in recognition of the noise generated 
by the high spirited young officers guartered in this bachelor 

For many years, public spirited citizens of Wyoming have 
felt the importance of Fort Laramie and wished they could do 
something to preserve it. This feeling was crystal] zed into 
action in 1937 when the State of Wyoming appropriated funds 
for the purchase of 214 acres at Fort Laramie. Title to the area 
was conveyed to the United States Government, and in July, 
1938, President Roosevelt proclaimed it a National Monument. 
The National Park Service was assigned the job of protecting 
and preserving the remains of this historic old army post so 
that it might live, for the present genera+ion, and for those to 
come, as a monument to the pioneers who opened up the West. 

While Bedlam has seen better days, there is cause to hope 
that she has seen worse. Things are now looking up for her. 
Since 1939 stabilization and restoration work has been progres- 
sing steadily. Rotted and broken timbers have been measured, 
removed and replaced. Utmost care has been exercised to see 
that the pieces put back are duplicates of ihose removed, 
even to species of tree from which the lumber came. No modern 
wire nails have been used in this restoration; all are old-hme, 
sguare-cut nails, even to these used for laying the special, 
native pine shingles. The larger timbers are pinned with oak 
dowels. The sag has been taken out of the ridge, the porch 
repaired, the rcof restored and the foundations are now (1941) 
being repaired. Much has been done toward restoration of 
Old Bedlam, but much more remains to be accomplished be- 
fore she will be completely restored to her former splendor. 


The first "stone" building in Laramie, Wyoming, was con- 
structed in the fall of 1869 by Dawson Brothers, on South A 
street, at a cost of Five Thousand Dollars. (History and Direc- 
tory of Laramie City, Wyoming Territory, by J. H. Triggs, pub- 
lished in 1875.) 

The first meeting of the old Wyoming Historical Society 
was held at Cheyenne on July 30, 1895, 'pursuant to a notice 
issued by Governor William A. Richards reguesting the trus- 
tees to meet at the executive office for the purpose of more 
fully organizing said society and placing it on a working basis." 
The society had been created by an act of the Legislative As- 
sembly of 1895. Governor Richards was appointed president, 
and Robert C. Morris, secretary of the board of trustees, Other 
board members present were John Slaughter, librarian, and 
B. B. Brooks. (Wyoming Historical Collections, by Robert C. 
Morris, 1897.) 


Photo taken in about 1876. 
Gown made in Virginia. 



In Which Southern Girl Becomes Western Ranch Woman 

By Alice M. Shields 

At the venerable age of ninety, Nannie Clay Steele, sitting 
erect and poised in her favorite low rocker, made a wholesome 
picture. Her room, accented with touches of bric-a-brac, old 
portraits, and a small marble-topped table, was faultlessly in 
order. It was January and the Wyoming sun sparkled through 
the west window of her Cheyenne home and complemented 
her warm personality. 

Her customary gray linen dress, fashioned with a close 
fitting bodice and full skirt, was becoming to her tall well- 
rounded figure. She usually wore an apron tied around her 
waist, freshly ironed and with ample fullness to fall neatly to 
her feet. 

She wore her shingled white hair parted in the center and 
combed smoothly behind her ears. Her face, lined by the years, 
bore that invisible mark which tells of a character both strong 
and gentle. Unassumingly she portrayed the transition from 
a sheltered Southern girl to that of a pioneer woman of the 
rigorous West. 

Sixty-one years in Wyoming gave her authority for her 
claim to "pioneer". She had spent one, and almost, an ad- 
ditional one-half decades in the Territory before Wyoming was 
admitted to the Union, 1890. 

Thomas Clay, her great-great-grandfather came from 
England in ihe reign of Queen Elizabeth. Clay's two sons were 
John and Charles. John was the father of Henry Clay, Statesman. 
Charles became an Episcopalian minister, and had three sons 
to bear his name, Junius, Odin, and Paul. The last named was 
Nannie Clay Steele's father. Her mother was Louise (Watkins) 
Clay, of Welsh blood. 

When the Reverend Clay died he left great wealth and 
begueathed a Virginia plantation to each of his sons. 

Nannie Clay was born on January 20, 1847, on her father's 
plantation near Lynchburg, Virginia. She, the fifth child of 
her parents, with her four sisters and two brothers, was second 
cousin to Henry Clay. 

Vividly and with a trace of sadness, Nannie Clay Steele 
recalled her childhood in the South. She told of her father own- 
ing a great many slaves who worked in his wheat, corn, and 
tobacco fields. 

'~None of the negros," she made clear, ''worked on Sunday 
or after sundown — with one annual exception, and that," 
she emphasized, 'was corn-shuckin' time." 


She explained that her grandfather, being an Episcopalian 
minister, had made the rule in the Clay family that "no slave 
should work on Easter Monday, Good Friday, or Christmas 

She was delighted to accommodate by opening her old- 
fashioned trunk and to display her keepsakes which so readily 
told of her ancestors and iheir place in the early history of 
America. She picked up a bundle of letters, guite yellowed, and 
deftly selected two from the lot. "These", she said, "are letters 
written by Thomas Jefferson to my grandfather, Charles Clay. 
They were warm personal friends." The letters, one a hundred 
and twenty-two years old and the other a hundred and fifty- 
nine years old, were in Jefferson's own hand. Mrs. Steele ex- 
plained that Jefferson had dipped his quill pen in ink made from 
dyes produced from his plantation in Virginia. The letters: 

"Th J. to Chas Clay." 

"I propose to set out tomorrow if ready, certainly next 
(A) day, and therefore send the bearer for the Cape of my coat. I recollect 
an opportunity I shall have of sending for your spectacles by a gentle- 
man going to Philadelpjia. I charge myself therefore with that com- 
mission, perhaps by writing myself to McAlister he may pay more 
attention to the quality. 

'The wild rye seed you gave me before was sowed in a 
place to which the sheep had access and they destroyed it, if you 
will give me some more I will sow it within an inclosure, as I am 
desirous of trying it. (the bearer brings the bag) health and happiness 
to you." 
"Top. For. Nov. 12. 16. (1816)" 

"Parish of Saint Anne, Alber marie. 

"The Reverend Charles Clay has been many years rector 
(B) of this parish, and has been particularly known to me, during the 
whole course of that time his deportment has been exemplary as 
becomes a divine, and his attention to parochial duties unexception- 
able, in the earliest days of the present contest with Great Britain 
while the clergy of the established church in general took the adverse 
side or kept aloof from the cause of their country he took a decided 
and active part with his country-men, and has continued to prove his 
whigism unequivocal and his attachment to the American cause to 
be sincere and zealous. As he has some thought of leaving us I feel 
myself obliged, in compliance with the common duty of bearing 
witness to the truth when called on, to give this testimonal of his 
merit, that it may not be altogether unknown to those with whom he 
may propose to take up his residence. Given under my hand this 
15th day of August 1779." 

"Th Jefferson." 

Another valuable keepsake was a map on parchment of 
the United States of America, dated 1813. The seventeen 
states and some territories were vividly colored with ink cooked 
on the Clay plantation. All territory west of the Mississippi 
was shown as unexplored. 


Life on a Virginia Plantation 

Memories of every day life on her father's plantation were 
awakened: 'The darkies singing around their cabins after their 
day was done was the most charming music I have ever heard. 
The natural harmony of their voices — they usually sang Spiritu- 
als — accompanied by their banjos and 'tin-pans' was more 
nearly perfect than often is that of the trained voices and stringed 
instruments of the white people. The darkies had never been 
taught anything about music. They were born with a sense of 
it. They were happy too, and sang as they worked in the field. 

'Tes, the women worked in the fields as well as the men 
unless the weaiher was bad. They stayed in then and worked 
at the carpet-loom, the spinning wheel, or knitted stockings 
and other clothing for us. 

'The negros lived in one-family cabins and led good clean 
lives, as a general thing. A doctor was hired by the year to 
watch their health. But mind you! The darkies were special- 
ists. Each one had his own line of work. A cook couldn't sew; 
a seamstress couldn't cook. Neither of them could wash, and 
a washer woman wouldn't do anything else," she smiled. 

"In the fall at corn-shuckin' time, the slaves from different 
plantations came with their masters, and the whole crop was 
shucked in one day and night. The next day would be a holiday. 
We would have a feast at the house and the darkies feasted in 
their cabins. 

"O, yes, I had a 'nigger mammy'. Every one had a 'mammy'. 
Mine was Paulina. The regular 'mammy' for the rest of the 
children was Doshia. Doshia had a baby at the time I was born, 
so mother had to bring Paulina in for me. 

"My mother died when I was seven. Charles, the oldest 
of the children, was sixteen, and the baby, William, was only 
three months old. 

"We had a governess to care for us and to teach us our 
lessons, but I never ceased to miss my mother. The companion- 
ship of other girls with their mothers was always most interesting 
to me. 

' 'Mother taught me to ride, and I learned farther back than 
I can remember. It was mother's custom to put her litHe ones 
back of her side-saddle, and to tell ihem to 'hold on, and not be 
afraid.' In that way we learned to ride while we were yet too 
young to be conscious of it." With a show of fire, Mrs. Steele 
added, "You have to sit firmly on your horse and balance your 
body to ride well!" Her erect posture and easy movements 
spoke with what grace she must have sat her horse when a 
young woman. Following the hounds in the fox hunt was one of 
her favorite pastimes, she revealed. 


Three years after her mother's death, her father sold the 
plantation and with his seven children removed to Fredricks- 
burg. There he enrolled his family in a private school. 

"The school building was a small two-room structure, and 
was owned by the lady who, with her son, taught us. We were 
compelled to commit our lessons to memory. In addition to the 
regular course, I studied guitar, voice and French. 

* 'After mother was gone, father was both parents to us 
and reared us as a man would. He taught us fire-arms; how to 
take care of them and how to shoot them. He said he taught 
us girls the use of fire-arms for our self -protection. He often 
posted a playing-card on a tree, and kept us shooting at it until 
we could hit it sguarely. There was plenty of need for self-pro- 
tection in my younger years. The poor-white-trash', as they 
were known, gave some of the negros bad ideas. Everyone 
around knew that the Clay girls were not timid and that they 
could take care of themselves; which probably is the reason 
we were never molested. I was often glad in later years that 
father taught me to use a gun. 

'Tes, father tried to give us a well rounded education. 
He freguently took us to the theatre, and saw to it that his 
daughters saw only the best. We saw most of the Shakespearian 
plays, and I remember seeing the 'Wonder of the South', a 
'nigger' known as 'Blind Tom'. He was from North Carolina. 
His mother, a slave, said the boy was blind from birth. It was 
said he could play any piece of music he had heard. I was not 
old enough to recognize some of his selections, but I remember 
he played 'Yankee Doodle' with one hand and at the same time 
played Fisher's 'Horn Pipe' with the other. It was Mrs. Oliver, 
his mistress, who discovered his talent. 

"We were entertained with dances in our home and in the 
homes of friends. The steps in vogue then were the Virginia 
reel, the polka, and the schottische. The musicians, contrary 
to many stories, were always white people, and the music was 
by the piano and the violin." 

After the Civil War broke out, and Virginia seceded, that 
state became the chief battle ground. A state of chaos existed. 
Paul Clay, with his children, left Fredricksburg and removed 
to Richmond, the Confederate Capitol. 

"Father kept us in pretty close, and we didn't see anything 
which he thought we shouldn't see," Mrs. Steele explained. "I 
remember one day when my sister Sally and I were with father 
on the Capitol Sguare in Richmond. We met General Lee. 
Father introduced us to the General. He and Father had been 
friends when they attended the University of Virginia in Charlot- 

"Yes, I knew several distinguished military men of the 
South: 'Stonewall' Jackson; Jefferson Davis; Stephens; Beau- 


regard; General Pickett, of the battle of Gettysburg, and others. 
Our family was very well acguainted with Jeff Davis. He 
'learned' war on the Mexican Border, and was a 'hard' man. 
He, his wife and son, attended the same church with the Clays." 

With a twinkle in her eye, Mrs. Steele told the following 

'It was before the battle of Manassa; Jeff Davis was riding 
down the road on his handsome mount on his way to review 
the troops stationed on the other side of a bridge. He was 
hailed by a picket: 

The Picket: "Halt, and give the counter sign before you 

Jeff Davis: "I am Jefferson Davis!" 

The Picket: "I'll be dammed if you don't look more like a 

postage stamp, than any man I ever saw. Get down off that 

horse, and mark time until the guard comes!" 

"The picket then gave the proper signal for the guard, 
who came and was horrified at the sight of the Southern General 
whose likeness adorned the postage stanps of that day, marking 
time. He, of course, affected Jefferson Davis' release." 

After a minute, Mrs. Steele said he had since come to the 
conclusion that the picket in guestion, knew Jeff all the time, 
and probably had a grudge to settle. 

She then recalled that "Stonewall" Jackson met his death 
from an identical occurrence. The picket in the case of Stone- 
wall Jackson, however, really did not know Jackson, and shot 
the General when he could not give the countersign. The 
picket was taken into custody to prevent his self-destruction, she 
said. She then hastened to explain that the picket was only 
obeying the orders of his Commander, and that "Stonewall" 
Jackson had evidently forgotten the countersign. 

The Clay girls did not see everything that happened, but 
there was one highlight in Mrs. Steel's memory, and that was 
the most important event in the Civil War, namely: Lee's re- 
treat from Richmond. "I was close enough," she said, "to dis- 
tinguish the musketry from the cannon as the ar.y marched 
through the valley about a mile from where I was safely perched 
in the top of a cherry tree." 

She then told of an incident in which Ulysses Grant be- 
friended a member of her family. "It was after the surrender 
at Appomattox when the Northern General was marching from 
Richmond to Lynchburg. He stopped at the home of my sister 
Edith, Mrs. Henry Thornton, whose husband was desperately 
ill. The General asked Edith for her permission to use her home 
as his headguarters. Owing to the feeling of all Southern people, 
Edith naturally refused the General's reguest, but she told 
him of her husband's condition. Grant then begged her to 
permit his physician to see her husband. This she was loath 
to do. But her husband heard the reguest, and bade her to 


let the doctor in. The Doctor did everything he could to make 
Mr. Thornton comfortable, but told my sister her husband 
would last only a short while. Two weeks later Mr. Thornton 
died. Edith's son, Henry, was born shortly after the death of 
his father. 

''Grant placed guards around all of the homes in the South 
to protect them from pillage," and with a grimace, she added, 
''two guards placed at our home went up stairs, locked the door, 
and went to bed. Fine guards!" 

The Clays Migrate to Wyoming 

Post-war years brought many changes to the South and to 
the Clay family. Paul Clay, Mrs. Steele's father, had invested 
heavily in Confederate bonds, and lost drastically. Charles, 
the eldest of the Clay children, had served through the Civil 
War and like many young men of the South went "West" to 
start anew. He settled in Cheyenne and took up the bull-train 
freighting which was a highly profitable line of business. The 
youngest, William Clay, arrived in Cheyenne in 1875. He was 
connected with the cattle business in Wyoming for many years 
before his death. Sally Clay was the only one of Mrs. Steele's 
four sisters to settle in Wyoming. She married Alva W. Ayres 
of Douglas, Wyoming. Mr. and Mrs. Ayres made their home 
in Douglas, until her death in IQH. 

The early death of Charles' wife left him with three mother- 
less little girls. Charles persuaded his father and his sister, 
Nannie, to come to him. He buill a new home in Cheyenne for 
them. The house is still standing, and is located at 114 West 
21st Street. 

Paul Clay with his daughter Nannie left Virginia and mi- 
grated to Wyoming in September, 1876. They arrived in 
Cheyenne on the Union Pacific, after a long and weary trip. 
The Southern girl was fascinated with the frontier town — out- 
post of the West. Her father, however, could not adapt himself 
to the western life where the cowboy was a king, and the 
vigilantes were the chief justices. He returned to his beloved 
Virginia, and died, after four years, on September, 9, 1880. 

Nannie Clay and John Steele Wed 

Two years after her arrival in Cheyenne, Nannie Clay 
married a young Englishman, John Steele. Steele had come 
from England in 1887. Mrs. Steele, with a show of flash, said 
"I had ever promised myself never to acguire a mother-in-law. 
Therefore, the fact that John Steele was an orphan, was one 
of the reasons I decided to become his wife." 


They were married in Cheyenne, at the Dyer Hotel, 
fashionable hostelry of the West, by the Reverend Claxhan on 
January 1, 1881. 'There were a great many present at our 
wedding," she said. 

Cheyenne was the nucleus of a vital pulsating population, 
made up of cattlemen grazing great herds on the range; of gold 
miners daring enough to brave the Indian country in their 
determination to reach the Black Hills where vast fortunes 
could be had for the digging; of army officers and men stationed 
at Fort Russell, (now Fort Francis E. Warren) three miles west 
of Cheyenne, under orders to guell the Indians; and of trades- 
men who served townsmen and travelers, and who, in turn 
were piling up wealth the like of which they had never known. 

John Steele was connected with the Swan Land and Cattle 
Company ranch, located near Chugwater, Wyoming. The 
newlyweds made their home on the ranch for two years, after 
which they took up a ranch of their own on Mule Creek, sixty 
miles northwest of Cheyenne. 

"We worked hard, and saved toward enlarging our herd, 
and were very happy making our home. We had a great many 
cowboys in our employ. All was open range those days. 

""No, I was never lonesome; I suppose I was too busy, and 
the time passed guickly. The summers were short, and there 
were round-ups' in the spring and "round-ups' in the fall. 
Thousands and thousands of cattle grazed on the prairie then. 
There was branding time and shipping time. It took about 
three days to load. The cattle were herded to Cheyenne or +o 
Laramie, and later, to Diamond for shipment. Shipping weeks 
we went to town. The winters were long and severe, and, as 
every ranch owner was accustomed to do, we bought our food 
in large guantities, for there was no way to get out after the 
winter had once set in." 

She then gave an account of the blizzard of 1878. ""We 
were having beautiful weather, when on March 6, the snow 
started to fall, and kept it up for three days and three nights. 
My brother and a Mr. Ramsey happened to have gone to help 
another rancher in building a dam, and of course, they were 
snowed in. My brother's children, my sister Sally, and I were 
alone. When we awakened the second morning we could not 
see thru the windows because of great snow drifts. The house 
was completely buried, with the exception, luckily, of the back 
door. The wind had whipped the snow away from the door 
and left it clear for us. It had also been considerate enough to 
leave the well and wood-pile clear. However, there was very 
little wood chopped. The children were crying; they were cold 
and hungry too. I couldn't cook without a fire. I had told them 
to stop crying and to go to bed. Just then I heard a thud against 
the door, and supposed it to be snow sliding against it. But to 


our delight and relief of mind, il was my brother and Mr. Ramsey. 
They chopped the wood and we managed all right. It was June 
before the drifts were all gone. 

Blizzard is Tragedy of 1896 

'The blizzard in which the three Johnson brothers were 
lost happened in April, 1896. They had left their home on a 
bright April day with a load of hogs which they were hauling 
to Cheyenne for market. It was evening, and they had almost 
reached the town, when they camped for the night. They 
unhitched their team and went to bed. The horses strayed 
away during the night, and the blizzard was raging before 
morning. One brother went out to look for the horses, and when 
he didn't return the second brother went out, and then the 
third followed. They were found many miles apart. Two of the 
bodies were located without much difficulty, but the third 
brother's body was found ai^er two weeks' search, thirty miles 
away from camp. He had drifted with the storm. One of the 
boys had worked on our ranch and we were very fond of himi. 

''Blizzards were the cause for heavy cattle losses. The 
animals would become blinded with the snow and would drift 
with the storm until they were exhausted, or until they walked 
off a cliff and perished." 

Asked what the people wore to keep warm, Mrs. Steele 
explained, "Well everyone wore red flannels," and added with 
disgust, "the people who don't wear anything now wouldn't 
last long in a blizzard. 

"YeL, we had good times. We went to dances occasionally. 
It took two days for a dance which included going and coming. 
We rode horseback to the neighbors, about thirty miles, which 
took the first day. Then we danced all night. Hiram Davidson 
who now lives in Cheyenne was the fiddler." She smiled in 
recollection. "In the morning we had breakfast, mounted our 
horses, and rode back to our ranches. 

"The cowboys? They were respectful gentlemen. There 
were not many white women in the country then, and the men 
respected us. They treated me like a gueen on her throne. 
They made me the official custodian of their valuables — watches, 
jewelry, and money — when they went on the 'round-up.' I 
recall one occasion on which my husband had to go away on 
business. I went with him. We left the valuables in the trunk 
and left the latch-string out. Keys were unheard ot in the range 
country. Locks made honesi people steal anyway," she asserted, 
and to bear out her theory, she added: "We returned after a 
week, and found everything as we had left it." 

She told of a dance at Fort Fetterman where a cowoby made 
a disrespectful remark about one of the girls present. Another 


cowboy took up her defense, and they battled it out with their 
guns until they killed each other. 

Neighboring ranches to the ''HP" ranch, the brand reg- 
istered by the Steeles, Mrs. Steele pointed out, were: the 
Nickell ranch, only two miles away; (Willie Nickell was killed 
there years later. His accused assailant, Tom Horn, after trial, 
was hanged); The Parker ranch was six miles distant; the Jordan 
ranch, nine miles away, and the Hi Kelly ranch, thirty miles 
from the Steele ranch. 

Chugwater station, where the ranchers went for their mail, 
was twenty-five miles from the Steeles. ''Chugwater", Mrs. 
Steele said she had been told, "received its name from the 
Indians because of the cliffs north of the town. The Indian 
hunters chased herds of buffalo to the edge of a cliff, and 
chugged them over to their death. 

"Chugwater was the half-way stop between Cheyenne 
and Fort Laramie on the Cheyenne-to-Deadwood Stage route. 
The little stopping point consisted of a hotel, telegraph station, 
and saloon. 

Tom Horn Nursed by Mrs. Steele 

"Many travelers, stranded or sick, stopped at the ranch 
homes for aid, and we never refused them shelter and care. 
One time, a man, who had been wounded came to us. We took 
him in and gave him the proper care until he was able to be 
on his way. He was most gentlemanly in his manner and had 
suffered a lot so we did what we could for him." She smiled, 
"Later, we heard that he was THE Tom Horn." 

"Yes, there were schools where there were children. 
Classes were taught by teachers hired by the State. The school 
rooms were in the ranch homes. We had no children — there- 
fore, no school." 

Nannie Clay and John Steele had been married ten years 
in 1891, when the dreaded La Grippe struck the country. John 
fell ill, and died in a short while. 

Outwits Cattle Rustlers 

Left alone on the ranch ii was up to Mrs. Steele to get 
along as best she could until the estate could be settled. "The 
first thing I did was to set about to take stock of our herd, both 
cattle and horses. I hired two men and agreed to pay them two 
dollars and fifty cents for each head of cattle or horses that 
they would bring into my corral. I knew how many head we 
owned, and of course, all of the stock was branded with our 
HP. Each evening the men returned to their supper and bunks, 
which was in the agreement, but they brought no stock home. 
After this had carried on for several days I guestioned them. 


'Why don't you bring in some cattle?' I asked. Tour horses 
are winded and I know you've been traveUng far, what is the 
matter?' They told me they were unable to find any of my 
animals. So I decided to follow them the next day. I waited 
until they were out of sight of the house and then saddled my 
horse and started after them, and I kept behind them all day. 
I found out for myself what they were doing. The next day I 
went out again, and discovered a corral built in a draw. It 
was filled with cattle. I got down off my horse and examined 
their brands, and found that they were not my cattle. So then 
I knew what the men were up to and where they were hiding 
their catch. I opened the gate and let all the cattle go free. I 
then rode back to the house. That evening the men came in 
and I met them at the door — but didn't let them in. They didn't 
try the door; they knew I could use firearms as well as they 
could, and they didn't know whether I was armed or not. I 
told them to get off the ranch and not to ever let me see them 
about again. They didn't tarry long. Rustlers' 

'T then made up my mind to round-up the stock myself." 
To picture the lone woman mounted on her side-saddle, scour- 
ing the praiiie range day after day, until she had found all of 
her herd, is to realize her dauntless courage. But she said, 
'T had no trouble. I had a good 'cattle' horse and we accom- 
plished the task." 

Mrs. Steele's brother, William Clay, bought her ranch, 
and she stayed on with him for about six years. In 1896 she re- 
turned to Cheyenne, and took up sewing. She followed that 
work for thirty-four years, when she retired. 

She witnessed the growing of Cheyenne. The State Capitol 
building and the Colorado Southern Railroad shops are amongst 
the outstanding structures that she recalled seeing in the build- 
ing. Churches at that time were: Catholic; Congregational; 
Methodist; Presbyterian and Espiscopalian, the church to which 
Mrs. Steele belonged. The Reverend Tillotson was the first 
minist(?r of her church. 

'There was one school", she said; ''Mr. Stark was the 
principal in charge. I happened lO be present at the first grad- 
uating exercises, in 1877. There were only two in the class, 
Ella Hanna and Frankie Logan. The flowers for the girls' 
graduation were brought up from Denver. 

"The Cheyenne Opera House booked some of the best 
shows, including some Shakespearian plays." 

Mrs. Steele was one of the first women to vote, and was 
acguainted with Mrs. Morris, originator of the woman's vote in 
Wyoming. She gave her opinion of "Woman Suffrage" in the 
following statement: "It is a good thing, I believe, for women 


to take an interest in politics, but I do not think they should 
neglect their home life for politics." 

AUTHOR'S NOTE— This story of Mrs. Steele's life was 
written from notes made during an interview of several visits. 

Mrs. Steele possessed a rare memory, as well as a full 
portion of humor and tolerance; all of these gifts made her a 
charming woman. 

January 20, 1940, marked the ninety-third and final birth- 
day celebration for Mrs. Steele. She was ill at the time and was 
unable to take her place at the table. Death came ten days 
later, on January 30, 1940, and burial rites were conducted 
by the Reverend Mr. C. A. Bennett, Episcopal rector, on Febru- 
ary 1, 1940. Interment was made in Lakeview Cemetery, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 


The first ranch in the county, ''if not in the state, where 
a foundation for a claim house was laid and for which a patent 
from the government was obtained," was that of Judge W. L. 
Kuykendall, as related in his book, ''Frontier Days," published 
in 1917. "It is where Uncle Sam has located his dry farming 
experiment station, a mile or two east of Cheyenne." 

First authorization for a "Great Seal of State" for Wyo- 
ming was an act passed at the first session of the State Legisla- 
ture, approved on January 10, 1891. From several designs 
submitted, the one presented by Hugo E. Buechner, representa- 
tive fromi Laramie County, was selected, as recorded by Bartlet^" 
in his History of Wyoming, page 22 1 . The first seal was com- 
pleted and turned over to the state about March 1 , 1 89 1 , but was 
the subject of considerable uproar from the press and others 
because "Victory," the central figure of the design, was in the 
nude. At the second Legislature, Governor John E. Osborne, 
in his message, recommended a slight change, with the result 
that the figure was "draped in classic robes." The Legislature 
took further advantage of its opportunity by creating practi- 
cally a new seal. 

The first hotel in the world to be lighted with an electric 
lamp in every room was the old Inter-Ocean hotel, Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, of which John Chase was the proprietor, according 
+o Bancroft's Works, Vol. XXV, pg. 801 . He came to Cheyenne 
from Denver, Colorado, in 1873, having come to that city from 
Atchison, Kansas, in 1863. He was born in New York in 1842. 

The Two United States Commissioners Who Have 

Served Yellowstone National Park from 1894 to the 

Present Time (1941)— John W. Meldrum and T. Paul 

Wilcox — Both of Wyoming. Picture 

taken July 30, 1930. 


By Joseph Joffe 

Chapter V Continued 

Appointed Chief Clerk to Secretary of State 

Getting back to 1890 the Judge informed me that he was 
Secretary of State when Wyoming was admitted into the Union 
and from then until the first election, that the Proclamation of 
Election was dated July 15, 1890, that the election was held 
September 11, 1890, but that those elected didn't takr office 
until January 1, 1891. He was Secretary until January 1, 1891, 
when Amos W. Barber assumed the duties of Secretary of 
State. Speaking of this time the Judge said: 

"I absolutely refused to accept the nomination of Secretary 
of State. My friend Gramm, * * *, was in the convention and 
was candidate for State Treasurer in the first election, I told 
Gramm it would never do for two to be nominated from Albany 
County. I told him he wanted the treasurership. He told 
me that that was all right, there wouldn't be any trouble about 
that, but 1 felt differently about it. 1 told him to get the nomina- 
tion, that I really didn't want the Secretary of State nomination 
anyhow. It only paid two thousand dollars a year and the 
expense would take all the salary to keep up one's end of the 
social business. 1 knew what I was doing. Barber was elected 
Secretary of State. The Legislature met and they elected Warren 
as the United States Senator. Warren had been elected Gover- 
nor. He was Governor under appointment of the President 
when the territory was admitted, when he was elected the first 
Governor. The Legislature met and elected Warren as Senator 
and that left Barber as Governor. 

''So Barber came to me and said he wasn't going to qualify. 
He was a prominent physician and had a splendid practice. 
He said that he couldn't afford to take the position. Well, I 
urged him to qualify and he did. The Legislature didn't make 
any provision for a Deputy Secretary of State. They passed a 
law giving the Secretary of State authority to appoint a chief 
clerk who could assume all the duties of the office of Secretary 
of State in the absence of the Secretary. Barber appointed me 
as Chief Clerk. He told me that if the salary wasn't sufficient 
to pay me he would pay me out of his own pockel if 1 would 
stay there. So 1 stayed on as Chief Clerk and really managed 
the Secretary's office. He never came near it. He was Acting 
Governor then. Well, soon after that, on came the cattle war 


in Johnson County. We don't pay much attention to those 
things when they are in some other state but when they come 
home to your own baihwick it is different. Well, we will just 
pass over that for the present. 

Compiles "Journals and Debates of the 
Constitutional Convention." 

''During my service there as Chief Clerk I had absolute 
charge of the Secretary's office. I compiled a book while I was 
Chief Clerk, from the worst manuscript you ever looked at. 
It is called: 'Journals and Debates of the Constitutional Con- 
vention, Wyoming, 1889.' Printed in 1893. (Judge has a copy 
of the book, which he showed to me) . Compiled it all with one 
clerk. Had to copy it from the stenographer's report of the 
Constitutional Convention. 

Organized First State Land Board 

"I organized the first State Land Board while I was Chief 
Clerk. The Legislature didn't make any appropriation to estab- 
lish a land board for the state. We had an old territorial land 
board, of which I was a member, as Secretary. I went to Gover- 
nor Barber and said: 'Governor, we must establish a land 
board.' All the people who had leases under the old territorial 
regime were clamoring for new leases under the state and 
they were besieging us every day. Barber told me I could 
do what I wanted to about it. So, I went to Denver, a+ my own 
expense, spent a week there in the Colorado Land Office 
studying up their maps and records. I came back, and there 
was a young lawyer there by the name of Clark. I said to 
Clark: 'Do you want to help me out to the extent of two or three 
hundred dollars service and take your chances on getting 
your pay?' He said he would. So I employed Clark and we got 
together and we got some forms drawn up, some forms for maps, 
had them printed, and, by golly, we established the Land 

Chapter VI 

Appointed Park Coininissioner 
While Studying Law 

"While I was Clerk of the Court I read law under the 
tutelage of different judges, and it was a sort of a school, every 
day listening to the best lawyers in the country. I just absorbed 
it all and that is where I got my legal knowledge. I was reading 
law, a kind of resume of the whole business, when I was ap- 
pointed Commissioner of Yellowstone Park. I was reading law 
under the very man who appointed me. I steered him into 


court more than once when he was an attorney. I said to him 
one day, 'Judge, you know my capabihties. I would like to go 
to Yellowstone Park,' and I got the appointment. That's all 
there was about my appointment. So I came to the Yellowstone 
Park. The Judge was John A. Riner, U. S. District Judge, acting 
as a Circuit Court Judge. I was appointed on June 20, 1894, as 
United States Commissioner of the Circuit Court. 

"A rather marked coincidence happened in connection 
with my appointment. There was a Judge of the Circuit Court, 
Judge Caldwell, whom I knew when he was at Little Rock. 
Ultimately he was United States District Judge for the District 
of Arkansas, and sat on the bench when I was made Com- 
missioner of the Yellowstone Park." 

Judge Meldrum showed me his original certificate of 
appointment as U. S. Commissioner for Yellowstone Park, 
from which the following is quoted: 

"Pursuant to the authority of an Act of Congress, entitled. 'An Act to 
Protect Birds and Animals of Yellowstone National Park and to punish crimes 
in said park, and for other purposes', approved May 7, 1893. 

"It is ordered by the Court that John W. Meldrum of Albany County, 
Wyoming, be and he is hereby appointed Commissioner of the Circuit Court 
for the District of Wyoming, with jurisdiction and powers authorized in said 
Act of Congress. 

"It is further ordered that said Commissioner shall reside in the Fort 
Yellowstone National Park. 

"And it is further ordered that before said Commissioner shall enter 
upon the duties of his office he shall take and subscribe the oath required by law 
abd file the same with the clerk of this court. 

■ Approved June 20, 1894. (Sgd.) JOHN A. RINER, JUDGE 

(Sgd.) Louis Kirk, Clerk." 

Asked about his knowledge of the law. Judge Meldrum 

"T never had to pass the bar examination. I was just pre- 
paring for the law at the time I was appointed Commissioner 
of the Yellowstone. I didn't like the law. I saw so much wrang- 
ling and contention and hair-pulling between the lawyers and 
court that I really didn't like it, but I said this was the only thing 
I could do. The time had come when I had to do something else 
and I was reading law then. I was reading under Judge Riner 
at the time. He appointed me up here. While I never did pass 
the bar examination I knew the Statutes of Wyoming from 
'a to izzard' and I knew the general practice a darn sight better 
than a lot of lawyers did." 

Forty Years in the Yellowstone 

While Judge Meldrum was appointed June 20, 1894, he 
did not reach the park until July of that year and he remained 
in the position of United States Commissioner of the Wonder- 


land until June 30, 1935, when he resigned because of his 
advanced years, being ninety-one years old at the time. His 
years in the Yellowstone were eventful and happy ones although 
during his last few years he complained of his arms bothering 
him, due, he thought, to a fall which he experienced while 
riding in a street-car in Los Angeles a few years before. For 
many years he was authorized to use a rubber stamp for his 
signature as he was then unable to write because of the con- 
dition of his right arm and hand but he guarded this stamp as 
he did his life and took particular pains whenever he affixed it to 
a legal document. 

The Trip to the Yellowstone 

Relating incidents of his Yellowstone days the Judge said: 

''I didn't get to the park until July, 1894, although appointed 
on June 20. It was the year of the big railroad strike. At every 
station that I passed going from Cheyenne to Salt Lake, Utah, 
there was a company of soldiers. They were seeing that nobody 
interdered with the trains, you know. Well, I got to Salt Lake 
and went over to see the attorney for the road from Salt Lake 
to Butte, Montana. It seems to me that there was a part of that 
road under some other directorship than the Oregon Short 
Line. The Oregon Short Line didn't strike Salt Lake; it left 
the main line at Green River and went up through Pocatello, 
Idaho, to Portland, Oregon. Anyway, the roads were all tied 
up. This attorney for the road, an old Wyoming lawyer whom 
I knew, when I asked him about getting to Butte, told me that he 
couldn't tell me when I could get into Butte, that they weren't 
going to attempt to move a train until they got troops enough 
to make those fellows get out of the way. He told me that if I 
wanted to get to the Yellowstone he would advise my going 
overland. He told me I could get up as far as Beaver Canyon 
and that there was a stage line from there into the park. So I 
went to Beaver Canyon. The stage line, what they called a 
stage line, was owned by Bassett Brothers. 

'"So I went to the office of Bassett Brothers and made 
arrangements to come to the park. They had an old pair of 
horses, old patched-up harness and a spring wagon. We 
started out. I had a trunk, box of books, typewriter and other 
stuff and in addition to these there were several trunks belong- 
ing to people who had preceded me into the park a day or 
two before. I was the only passenger on the coach. Mrs. 
Meldrum didn't come up to the park until later, after the house 
was built. Of all the mosguitoes and flies I ever saw, they ac- 
companied this wagon on that trip. 

'There was a station about ten miles out of West Yellow- 
stone called Dwellie. Mr. Dwellie had a very fine road house, 
the building were fine and the accommodations first-class. We 


were three days getting from Beaver Canyon to the Fountain 
Hotel. I spent my first night in the park at the Fountain Hotel. 
When we got to Dwellies the fellow driving said he would 
have to have four horses from there on because the road was 
pretty rough. Well, I asked him if he had the horses and he 
said he did, so he went out and found two old horses and harness, 
and that harness was tied up with strings and ropes. He had 
a whip, one of those old long stock whips, with a little lash, 
but he couldn't reach the leaders. So I got a pole and walked 
on the ground and encouraged the leaders going up hill. 

"Then we struck a piece of corduroy road and we were 
going along and down went the whole works. The king-pin 
broke, the front wheels followed the horses out and the rest of 
it stayed. I asked the driver what he was going to do. He 
didn't seem to have the sense of a child. Well, I told him what 
we would have to do. I showed him how to pry the wagon up. 
We got it up, put some stones to block up the wagon. I asked 
him if he had a bolt of any kind in the wagon. He said he 
believed there was a bolt in the wagon. Well, I told him to 
find it. We had to unload the whole business. We finally found 
it. It was an ordinary half inch bolt. The original king-bolt was 
three times as large in diameter. Anyway, we put the bolt in 
and it was just long enough to barely reach. So we started on. 
I told him that he would have to drive carefully or we would 
have a recurrence of the trouble. So we drove along. 

"We got in sight of the Fountain Hotel. There was a 
blacksmith shop a mile or so away from the hotel. The man 
stopped at the blacksmith shop to have the wagon fixed. I 
told him to have it fixed and I would walk on to the hotel. I 
was so bitten up with mosguitoes and flies I was just in misery. 
I went in and got a bath and cleaned up. About the time I 
was finished a coach drove up and in came two women. I took a 
look at them. I thought I knew them. They were so bitten up 
by mosguitoes I had to take a second look at them. One of 
them was the present Senator Carey's mother; the other was 
a Mrs. Helmar of Cheyenne. It was their baggage that was in 
the wagon I was riding in. They had come in the day before. 
So they hopped out of the coach and a man in civilian clothes 
got out, dusty, and he had a little old gray hat about as big as a 
tea-cup on his head. He blew in through the door and the 
ladies stopped to talk with me. I asked them who he was. They 
said he was Captain Anderson, Superintendent of the Park. So, 
of course, I knew who he was. I had never seen him and he 
had never seen me but he knew I was coming. So at the first 
opportunity I went up to him and introduced myself. He said 
right off the bat: 'Good to see you, let's have a drink!' So, we 
went in and had a drink. Every hotel had a barroom in those 
days. We had dinner and they struck out the next morning for 


Mammoth. I resumed with miy conveyance and got down as 
far as Norris. Larry Mathews kept the station there. The super- 
intendent of transportation for the Yellow Line happened to 
be there. He had a good team and a light buggy. He asked me 
to ride with him, he was going to Mammoth. I saw my man 
and told him I was going on with Mr. Humphrey, the superin- 
tendent of transportation. I told him he could find me when he 
got to Mammoth. 

Arrival at Mammoth 

''As I drove in to the Mammoth Hotel I can just see who 
was sitting there on the porch. Jack Haynes' father, F. Jay 
Haynes, was one of them. Matt Stewart was the head porter. 
M. W. Downey was the auditor. The hotels were owned by 
the Northern Pacific road. That was my introduction to Mam- 
moth. I looked it over, and with the mosguitoes I believe if the 
railroad had been open I would have taken the train the next 
morning and gone back to Wyoming. It didn't look like it was a 
fit place to live in. 

'T went over and talked with the manager of the hotel; 
he was the manager of all the hotels. I told him I had to have a 
place to stop. I told him what I wanted, a room large enough 
to use for an office and a place to sleep. I told him that if he 
would furnish me such accommodations and not charge mie 
more than the Government pays me, all in all, I would stop 
with him. He said he guessed he could make arrangements 
that would be satisfactory. So, I had that big room right on 
the first floor. There was a bay window in it then; there was 
a tower on the hotel. I could just open the window off the porch 
and walk right into my guarters. On the other side of the hall 
was the barroom. There was music every night until midnight 
in that barroom. The chief trumpeter in there would always 
be Captain Anderson. That is the way I put in the first summer 

Building a Residence 

''Provisions had been made to erect my house, plans had 
been drawn, sent to Washington, approved, and returned to 
the Superintendent cf the Park. He advertised for bids. Nobody 
bid on account of the strike, they couldn't get any material 
in here. So they had to re-advertise after I got here. Finally 
they got the railroad trouble settled and we never got started 
with the work until the last of August, or early part of September. 

"The plans had been drawn by a private soldier down 
here and when they came back and started the building, 
Anderson made this soldier superintendent of the work. He 
had- drawn the plans and had the specifications and knew how 
it ought to be done. So the soldier became the superintendent 


on the job. Well, knowing something about building myself I 
used to just loal around and see what they were doing. Ander- 
son told me to look over the plans and specifications. I stayed 
around until they got the foundation in and they were just 
putting in the wall along those windows there. I told the man 
that he was not building that wall according to specifications. 
He just kind of looked at me. I told him that I expected to occupy 
this building when it is completed and I was going to try to 
have it built according to specifications. Well, he looked at me 
as if to say 'Who the devil are you, I'm doing this!' When this 
scldier would come around to inspect they would fill him up 
with beer and he didn't know whether they were putting the 
stones upside down or not. I told Captain Anderson they were 
not putting the building up according to specifications. Ander- 
son was a very profane man. It probably wouldn't pay to put 
down what he said. But he did tell me what to do. I told him 
if he would give me authority to erect the building I would see 
that it ws done right. He told me to go ahead. In the meantime 
he wrote to Washington. The letter was referred to Senator 
Joseph M. Carey, the present Senator's (Robert D.) father. 
The letter was put up to Senator Carey, and he said he knew 
me and that I was thoroughly competent to superintendent the 
erection of that building. So I received a letter from Washing- 
ton, through Anderson, to put me in charge of the building, and 
from that time on I was the real boss. Well, it was just a fight 
the whole summer. They were building that outside door, 
laying up the rock, and I went out and said to the man who had 
charge that it was not according to specifications. He told me 
that he couldn't afford to put the building up according to speci- 
fications, they were losing money every day. He wasn't the 
contractor, he was just the foreman. I told him it had to be built 
according to specifications. I told him that if he didn't tear that 
out and build it up according to specifications he could just 
quit, that they would never get a dollar tor what they did here. 
So they all quit. They went to the Cottage, boozed up for two 
or three days, and then went back to work. And that is the way 
it went. I told the foreman that there were a lot of things they 
were doing which were not according to specifications, and 
that he knew it, but that they were slight and didn't make much 
difference, but I didn't want him to think for a minute I was 
overlooking them." 

All of the foregoing which I obtained from Judge Meldrum 
was secured during the interviews in November and December, 

1933. The last interview I had with him was on October 23, 

1934, and on this occasion he was rather hesitant at first about 
talking as he said he had not been feeling well, that his left 
arm, which had been his good arm, had been bothering him 
for several weeks then, and he was not able to lift either hand 
over his head. This had made him feel quite miserable. 


Chapter VII 

The 1897 Hold-Up 

I told the Judge I was anxious to get several of his stories 
about his park life, as I had not secured much regarding his 
Yellowstone days, and also regarding his acquaintance with 
Bill Nye, the famous humorist, whom the Judge knew very well. 
I asked him about some of the interesting cases which he had 
handled and he told me he had them all recorded in several 
books. He said one of the most interesting cases was the hold-up 
of 1897, about four miles west of Canyon, in which ''Little Gus" 
and 'Morphine Charley" took part. He told me he had a 
written account of this trial and that he would give me a copy, 
which he did. He stated that this was the case in which Lieu- 
tenant Elmer Lindsley, brother of Chester A. Lindsley, took 
part and proved to be the best witness he had ever had. (As 
a coincidence in passing, Chester A. Lindsley arrived in the 
park and went to work for the Government in 1894, the same 
year Judge Meldrum came to the park, and they both left the 
Government service on June 30, 1935.) Judge Meldrum 
further stated that this hold-up was really the first big hold-up 
in the park, that there had been two or three others but that 
this was the first important one. Because of its importance 
among Yellowstone cases tried before the Judge as United 
States Commissioner, and due to the impression it made upon 
him I am relating it as taken from the records prepared by him. 
It follows: 

"The title of this case was United States vs. Gus Smitzer, 
alias Little Gus; and George Reeb, alias Morphine Charley. 

"Between eleven and twelve o'clock on the morning of 
August 14, 1897, a message was received at the office of Colonel 
Young, then the Acting Superintendent of Yellowstone National 
Park, from Norris Basin, stating that all the coaches, together 
with one government ambulance that left the Canyon Hotel 
that morning, and due at Mammoth Hot Springs in the after- 
noon, were held up by robbers about four miles west of the 
Canyon Hotel. There were four or five coaches and one govern- 
ment ambulance. The ambulance was occupied by Colonel 
Hawkins, Dr. Guy M. Godfrey, and I think two other Army 
officers. I do not remember their names. 

"The description of the robbers was, that one was a tall 
man; that the other was a short man; that one of them spoke 
with a German accent; that one of them carried a gun in a 
sling over his back, and revolver in his hand; that the other 
one carried a repeating rifle in his hands and had a white 
handled pistol in a wide leather belt. 

"On the arrival of the coaches at Mammoth Hot Springs, 
further particulars were obtained to the effect that the pistol 
or revolver used by one of the robbers had a piece of fair or 


russet leather around the muzzle — sewed around the muzzle; 
that both men had their faces and hands blackened; that they 
wore masks and had their feet wrapped with gunny sacks 
which extended up their legs to the bottoms of their coats. 

"'At the time of the holdup, after robbing the first coach, 
the driver was instructed to drive ahead a hundred yards and 
stop until they notified him to proceed, which they would do by 
firing three shots; that if he moved before they gave him that 
signal they would shoot his leaders. When they had finished 
their work they did fire three shots. 

''Each and every passenger was questioned as to what was 
taken from them and a memorandum made. The sum taken was 

"Between the time of the arrival of the coaches at Mammoth 
Hot Springs and the following morning, Colonel Young sent 
officers and scouts to every road leading out of the Park. Deputy 
U. S. Marshal Morrison was sent to the scene of the hold-up. 
Lieutenant Lindsley and Frank Scott went out on the road 
towards Yancey's. Ed Howell, who had been a notorious 
poacher in the Park, was sent in another direction. 

"Morrison reported that he could find no tracks, whatever, 
leading in any direction from the scene of the holdup, except 
there were places where the grass was tall, which would indi- 
cate that something had traveled over it. It might have been 
men; it might have been bears. There were, however, no signs 
of human footprints. 

"The day following the holdup, Sunday, it was reported 
from Gardiner that two men, leading their horses, had passed 
through the horse camp of Charles B. Scott at about two o'clock 
that morning; that the man on night herd, David Hudson, 
approached them; that the first man he met turned out of the 
trail and declined to speak; that when within thirty or forty 
yards of the second man Judson asked him if he had seen any 
loose horses, whereupon he shied out of the trail and moved 
away. Hudson followed repeating his question about the loose 
horses. The man answered by say^ng that he had not seen 
any loose horses and told Hudson to go about his business; 
that he had no time to talk to him. The horses led by these 
men were dark bay or brown in color; and cowboy saddles with 
guns attached. The man in the rear was the shorter of the two 
and wore a belt with a six-shooter therein. Hudson saw these men 
go up to the gate of Forsyth's ranch. This camp was about two 
miles north of Gardiner. 

"Upon receipt of this report, W. W. Humphery, who was 
then superintendent of the Yellowstone Park Transportation 
Company, and some soldiers went to Scott's camp and made 
inguiry about these men and followed their trail to their camp, 
which was about four miles northwest from Gardiner. As the 


men in camp were Little Gus and Morphine Charley, whom 
everybody in the vicinity knew, no suspicion was directed 
toward them. Upon being asked what they were doing there, 
they said they had been out prospecting. 

' 'While all the parties sent out by Colonel Young had been 
making diligent search for a trail, nothing was discovered until 
Thursday, August 19, when Lieutenant Lindsley and Frank 
Scott struck a trail of two shod horses on the slopes of Observa- 
tion Peak leading into the Park. The trail they followed in a 
southerly direction to within one mile north of Grebe Lake 
where they found a camp that had evidently been occupied 
for a period of several days, and among other things found was 
a piece of russet grained leather, two pistol shells of govern- 
ment make, Frankfort Arsenal, calibre 38, one Winchester 
rifle shell, 30-30, one empty milk can, the label of which read 
'St. Charles Cream.' The two pistol cartridges were inside of 
this can and all were secreted in a squirrel hole at the base of 
a tree and covered with pine cones. The piece of leather, 
which they at once concluded was the one that had been around 
the muzzle of the pistol used in the holdup, had been cut from 
the pistol, leaving intact the seam that had been sewed when 
it was put on. They also found in that camp a piece of saddle- 
blanket which had evidently been used in cleaning fire arms, 
as it was more or less greasy and smelled of powder. Retracing 
their steps they found another trail paralleling the one on which 
they went in — the same horse tracks going in an opposite 
direction, namely, out of the Park. They now minutely examined 
the tracks on the trail going in and that going out and became 
satisfied that the same two horses had made the two trails, as 
one horse had a long slim foot and the other a very round foot. 
This trail they followed for a distance of 15 or 18 miles until 
within a half mile of the wagon road leading from Mammoth 
Hot Springs to Yancey's; here the transportation company had 
a herd of loose horses, and of course, obliterated the trail. 
They abandoned it at that point and came into the post. 

'"About the 25th of the month Ed Howell reported that he 
met Little Gus and Morphine Charley at Reese creek, between 
Gardiner and Horr. Having been well acquainted with both 
for a number of years, he commenced discussing the matter 
of the holdup with them. He was wearing a pair of government 
leggings which they looked at in a suspicious way and asked 
him if he was working for the government. He said he was and 
asked them where they had been and where they were going. 
They replied that they had been out prospecting and that they 
were then going to an old camp of tneirs up above Aldridge. 
At the same time he noticed that the shoes had been very 
recently pulled ofi their horses and had asked them why they had 
pulled off the shoes, to which they made some evasive reply. 
Not wanting them to think that he suspicioned them, he engaged 


them to hunt up some loose horses he had lost which he be- 
lieved had gone in the direction of the camp they were then 
going to. He immediately reported to Colonel Young's office, 
and Lieutenant Lindsley and Scott having reported about the 
finding of the carlridger, Howell at once remarked: '1 can tell 
you whc held up the coaches. It was Little Gus and Morphine 
Charley. I know where they procured those government 

"A complaint was then entered, charging them with the 
crime and a warrant was issued to the marshal. He was, how- 
ever, directed not to make the arrest unless the defendants 
should attempt to leave the country, but to shadow them. 

'In the meantime Lieutenant Lindsley and Scott went back 
to the camp near Grebe Lake and made further investigation. 
They found where the occupants of the camp had had their 
bed on a pile of pine boughs. They took these boughs one by 
one, laid them aside, and among the leaves at the bottom they 
found a ten cent piece and two fishing rod plugs. They again 
inspected the trail leading out of the park above referred to, 
and at some little distance from said trail they found a part of 
a gun cover which had evidently been taken off the gun in a 
hurry as it was split open with a knife. 

"Howell had discovered that Morphine Charley had been 
at the store of W. A. Hall in Cinnabar two days prior to the 
holdup, and that he had purchased two cans of St. Charles 
Cream and some other articles; that he did not pay for them, 
saying that he was broke and as Mr. Hall had freguently trusted 
him for like articles, the sale was charged on the books by one 
of his clerks. Howell also discovered that subsequent to the 
holdup Morphine Charley had sent a le+ter containing an ex- 
press money order from the station at Horr to the A. L. Babcock 
Company of Billings, such money order being for the sum of 

With this rather meager evidence the Park authorities 
concluded to direct the arrest of these men, which occurred 
on August 30th. They were found in their camp at the point 
where they previously told Howell they were going. The 
arrest was made by Deputy Marshal Morrison, accompanied by 
Frank Scott, Ed Howell and one other person. 

''At the time of the arrest Reeb had a white handled pistol, 
calibre 38, and a fair or russet leather cartridge belt, in which 
belt were several empty shells and five or six cartridges, which 
being compared with the shells found by Lindsley and Scott 
in the camp near Grebe Lake, it was at once concluded that 
they were identical. Smitzer has a 30-30 Winchester rifle. 
They were taken to Ft. Yellowstone and confined in the guard- 
house. Reeb, who was an inveterate morphine fiend, after 
being confined for a couple of days was in a state of collapse. 


They both protested their innocence, claiming all the time 
that they had been prospecting in the vicinity of their camp 
on Trail Creek. 

''At the time of their preliminary hearing before the Park 
Commissioner, which occurred on September 10, they brought 
six or seven witnesses from Aldridge who swore positively that 
Reeb was in Aldridge the night before the holdup; that he was 
there during the day preceding the holdup; that he was quest- 
ioned by the road supervisor about paying his road tax. The 
secretary of the union swore positively that Reeb paid his dues 
to the lodge the night preceding the holdup, and that he was 
there until after eleven o'ckock. The shells found in the camp 
and those found in the cartridge belt which Reeb wore at the 
time of his arrest being critically examined, it was discovered 
that the indenture made in the base of the shells by the firing 
pin of the revolver were of an irrigular shape. An examination 
of the firing pin of the revolver evidenced that it had been filed. 
It was further discovered that the end of this cartridge belt had 
been cut off and sewed over with a thread very much coarser 
than that used in the rest of the belt. Comparing the piece of 
leather found in the camp near Grebe Lake with the belt it 
was discovered that the same stamping which followed both 
outer edges of the belt was on the outer edges of this piece of 
leather; that the thread used in sewing the piece of leather 
onto the pistol and the thread used in sewing over the end of 
the belt, were identical. 

' 'During the hearing before the Commissioner the evidence 
of passengers and drivers was so conflicting that it was impos- 
sible to identify either man from the description given. One 
witness said the taller man was very slender, had narrow 
shoulders and would weigh about 140 pounds. Another witness 
said that he had medium shoulders, was a litle stooped and would 
weigh about 175 pounds. One witness said that he wore a light 
soft hat; another said that he wore a dark slouch hat; another 
said that he wore a grey felt cap; another that he wore a jersey 
cap. One witness said that he wore a dirty coat; another that 
he wore a linen duster; another that he wore an ordinary cloth 
coat. One witness said his mask was made of a gunny sack; 
another that it was made of a flour sack; another that it was made 
of a checked stable jacket; another that it was made of light 
cloth. One witness said that he wore blue overalls and carried 
a Winchester in his hands, and another gun in a sling across 
his shoulder. One witness said he had a six-shooter in his hand 
and another in his belt. One witness said he had blue eyes and 
was quite young. One witness said that the shorter man was 
heavy set and weighed about 160 pounds and that he had brown 
eyes. Another witness said 1hat he had blue eyes; another that he 
had gray eyes. One said he wore a linen duster with a gunny 


sack over his shoulders and reaching nearly to his knees. An- 
other said that he did not wear a coat but that he had on a light 
colored ahirt. Another said that he wore a short linen duster and 
carried a sack of some kind fastened to his clothing in which 
he deposited the money taken from the passengers. One wit- 
ness said he wore a dark slouch hat; another that he wore a 
light skull cap; another that he wore a brown knit cap; another 
that he wore blue overalls and a dark buttoned up coat. One 
witness said he carried a gun in a sling and a repeating rifle 
in his hands. One witness said that he had a revolver in one 
hand and another in his belt, that the belt was a wide one, that 
the revolver in the belt had a white handle, and that he had a 
heavy coarse voice; and one witness said that he saw a scar on 
his left hand near the base of his thumb. They all agreed, how- 
ever, that one of the robbers carried a pistol with a piece of 
leather around the muzzle. Some said it was light leather; 
some said it was russet leather; some said it was red leather. 
One of the drivers, Pierstorff, testified most positively that he 
ate dinner at the Canyon Hotel with these two men the night 
before the holdup about half past six; that he was late in getting 
in; that the dining room was empty wheh he went in for his 
dinner, and that just after he was seated these two men came in 
and sat down directly opposite him at the table. 

''With this testimony before the Commissioner he bound 
them over to the U. S. Court at Cheyenne. Just as the piisoners 
were being taken from the presence of the Commissioner, after 
his decision in the case, a Mr. Van Blaricon, a newspaper 
reporter who had been spending some time in the Park, re- 
marked that he saw those men at the Canyon Hotel the night 
before the holdup. 

'The trial before the District Court at Cheyenne was not 
reached until the following May. In the meantime the Park 
authorities had been collecting additional evidence. One of the 
victims of the holdup, Mr. D. M. Massie of Chillicothe, Ohio, 
had reported that in his purse taken by the robbers were two 
fishing rod plugs. As these were the only articles taken that 
could be identified, Mr. Massie and his wife were the only 
coach passengers summoned as witnesses before said court. 

'In presenting the case to the jury the prosecution establi- 
shed, in substance the following facts: 

"First, by Robert Duff, James Hawk, Charles Fox and L. S. 
Pierstorff, drivers of vehicles when the robbery was committed, 
at the time and place alleged in the indictment, August 14, 
1897, in the Yellowstone National Park, that the robbers, a 
tall man and a short man, were completely disguised by having 
their hands and faces blackened and wearing masks, and 
their feet and legs covered with gunny sacks; that one of them 
carried a repeating rifle in his hands and wore a light colored 


leather belt, in which was a revolver; that the other carried 
a gun in a sling and had a revolver in his hand, around the muz- 
zle ot which was a piece of light colored leather; that the gun 
in the sling was covered with some kind of cloth; that the driver 
on the leading coach was ordered by one of the robbe s to 
remain at a certain point in the road under penalty of having 
his horses shot until he should receive a signal to drive on, 
which signal would be the firing of three shots; that three shots 
were fired when the robbers were ready for the coaches to move 
on; that such robbery took place about four miles west of the 
Canyon Hotel, and that the robbers immediately disappeared 
thereafter in the timber. 

"'Second, by Lieutenant Elmer Lindsley and Frank Scott, 
that on August 19, they discovered a trail of two shod horses 
on the slopes of Observation Peak leading into the Park, which 
trail they followed in a southerly direction to a point about one 
mile north of Grebe Lake where they found a camp that had evi- 
dently been occupied by men and horses for a number of days. 
In this camp they found a 30-30 Winchester shell and a small 
piece of light colored leather, with a seam near one edge and 
a small hole near the center; also a strip of an ordinary gray 
blanket which was more or less saturated with grease and had a 
distinctive odor of powder. Under a pile of pine boughs which 
had been used for a bed, they found a silver ten-cent piece 
and two metal fishing plugs. In a hole under a tree near the 
bed of boughs, they found an empty can which at some time 
had contained condensed milk or cream, the label on which 
bore the words 'St. Charles Cream.' In this can they found 
two 38 calibre pistol shells, which from the initials thereon 
were recognized by Lieutenant Lindsley as being of U. S. 
government manufacture. The hole in which the can was found 
had been carefully covered with pine cones. Lindsley and Scott 
then circled the camp and found the tracks of two shod horses 
leading north. The tracks bore evidence of being made by the 
same horses which preceded them on the trail coming in. One 
set of the tracks was made by a horse with very round feet, 
while the other tracks were rather narrow. At some little dis- 
tance east of this trail they found a part of a gun-cover which 
had been cut open from end to end. The material was of ordin- 
ary blue overall cloth. They followed this trail north for a 
distance of 15 or 18 miles and within one-half mile of the wagon 
road leading from Mammoth Hot Springs to Yancey's, at which 
point it was obliterated. Scott, however, subseguently redis- 
covered the trail near Gardiner, in a low piece of ground, 
leading in the direction of the point where the defendants were 
in camp on the date following the robbery. (Piece of leather, 
can, empty shells, strip of blanket, fishing rod plugs and part 
of gun cover produced and admitted in evidence.) 


"Third, by Lafe Lemay, Northern Pacific agent at Cinnabar, 
and W. W. Humphrey, then superintendent of the Yellowstone 
Park Transportation Company, that they saw the defendants in 
camp on Trail creek, about three or four miles northwest from 
Gardiner, Montana, on the day following the robbery; that 
Smi+zer was asleep in the tent, and that he had on his feet a^ 
that time a pair of hob nail shoes. 

''Fourth, by David Hudson, that on the night of the 14th 
and morning of the 15th he was night herding horses for C. B. 
Scott at a point two miles north of Gardiner; that at two o'clock 
on the morning of the 15th, he met two men, one behind the 
other and separated by some considerable distance, walking 
and leading their horses in the trail leading up to Forsyth's 
ranch; that the mian ahead turned out of the trail as Hudson 
approached him, and that he declined to answer when Hudson 
spoke to him; that when within thirty or forty yards of the 
second man Hudson asked him if he had seen any loose horses, 
whereupon he shied out of the trail and moved away, Hudson 
following him repeating ^he guestion about the loose horses. 
The man then answered by saying that he had not seen any 
loose horses and told Hudson to go about his business as he had 
no time to talk to him. The horses led by the men were dark bay 
or brown and had on cowboy saddles with guns attached. The 
man in the rear was the shorter of the two and wore a belt with 
a sixshooter therein. Hudson saw these men go up to the gate 
of Forsyth's ranch and they rode away in a northwest direction. 
Subseguently examining the tracks where the rear man shied 
out of the trail he discovered that they were made by hob nail 
boots or shoes. Hudson further said that he recognized Smitzer's 
voice as being that of the man who told him to go about his 

'Tilth, by Ed Howell, that he was well acguainted with 
both of the defendants; that he knew Smitzer was familiar with 
the country in the vicinity of Grebe Lake as they both used to 
poach in there before the passage of the law for the protection 
of the Park; that he had met the defendants some ten days 
after the robbery occurred, between Cinnabar and Horr, and 
conversed with them for some time. He took particular notice 
of their horses, saddles, eguipment, etc., Smitzer having a 
30-30 Winchester and Reeb a white handled six-shooter in a 
light colored leather belt. He noticed that their horses' feet 
indicated that their shoes had been recently removed and called 
defendants attention to the fact. Howell was wearing a pair of 
government leggings and was guestioned by defendants as to 
how he came by them, and when he answered that he was in 
the employ of the Superintendent of the Park, they seemed to 
want to end the conversation and get away; that he, Howell, 
had been keeping a saloon at Aldridge and as Reeb lived there, 


he saw him frequently in his place of business; that Reeb had 
procured government pistol cartridges through a discharged 
soldier who was in his, Howell's, employ. 

"Sixth, by Carl Woods, a clerk in W. A. Hall's store, that 
he sold defendant Reeb two cans of St. Charles Cream two days 
before the robbery; that he was about the only customer he had 
who used that brand; that Reeb said he was broke, and that the 
cream was charged to him on the books of the store. (Book con- 
taining charges placed in evidence.) 

"Seventh, by Deputy U. S. Marshal Morrison, that he took 
the defendants into custody near Aldridge, Montana, August 
30, 1897, together with their horses and camp equipage and 
brought them to Mammoth Hot Springs; that at the time of his 
arrest the defendant Reeb had on his person a light colored 
leather cartridge belt with scabbard attached; that the scab- 
bard had in it a white handled 38 calibre Colt's revolver, and 
that the belt contained a number of cartridges and empty shells 
of same calibre as revolver; that there was a 30-30 Winchester 
rifle in their tent which was claimed by Smitzer; that they had 
two dark bay horses, unshod, two saddles and saddle blankets; 
that one of the blankets had a strip torn off from one edge of it. 
(The belt, revolver, cartridges, empty shells, gun and torn 
saddle blanket produced and admitted in evidence.) 

"Eighth, by D. M. Massie, that he was a victim of the 
robbery and that in a coin purse taken from him by the robbers 
were two metal fishing rod plugs. Mr. Massie produced his fish- 
ing rod which he had with him at the time of the robbery, and 
while he would not swear positively that the plugs in the camp 
near Grebe Lake were the ones that were taken from him, it 
was shown to the jury that they perfectly fitted the rod, and 
that there could be no question about their being the identical 
plugs that Mr. Massie purchased with the rod. Mrs. Massie 
testified that she sat in the same seat with her husband; that the 
robber laid his pistol over her lap and told her husband to dig 
up; that the pistol then used by the robber had a piece of light 
leather around the muzzle. While she would not state positively 
that either of the defendants was the robber, she said that she 
believed that Smitzer was the man who robbed her husband. 

"Ninth, by the bookkeeper of the Babcock Hardware 
Company of Billings, Montana, that Reeb had sent their firm an 
express money order for the sum of $20.00 two days after the 
date of the robbery for the purchase of a revolver and ammuni- 
tion. (Reeb's letter containing such order produced and ad- 
mitted in evidence.) 

"At the conclusion of the direct evidence for the govern- 
ment, it had been made plain to the jury that the piece of leather 
found in the camp near Grebe Lake had, at some time, been 
sewed around the muzzle of the revolver found on Reeb at the 


time of his arrest or one of the same size barrel, and that it 
had been cut from the end of the cartridge belt which he at 
that time wore; that the strip of blanket found in said camp had 
been torn from one of the blankets found in the defendants' 
camp at the time of their arrest; that the Winchester shell found 
in said camp was of the same calibre, an unusual size, as that 
of Smitzer's rifle; that the portion of gun cover found near the 
trail by Lindsley and Scott had been made for a gun of the 
exact size of Smitzer's, the one in evidence; that the empty 
milk dr cream can found hidden under the tree in said camp 
was in every particular the same as those sold defendant Reeb 
by the witness Woods; that the two pistol shells found in said 
can bore the same initials as those found in Reeb's belt at the 
time of his arrest; that all were of U. S. government make; that 
all had been exploded by a firing pin or hammer of irregular 
shape; that the firing pin or hammer of the revolver in evidence, 
Reeb's, had been filed and was of such irregular shape, that not 
one of 36 other shells of the same make as those in guestion and 
which had been exploded by six different revolvers of the same 
pattern as Reeb's, showed any irregularity in the indentation 
made by the hammer or firing pin; that the fishing rod plugs 
found in said camp were the same that were taken from Mr. 
Massie at the time of the robbery; that Reeb said he was broke 
at the time he bought the milk from Woods two days before 
the robbery, and that two days after the robbery he sent $20.00 
to the Babcock Hardware Company at Billings, Montana, to 
purchase a revolver and ammunition; that three shots were 
fired as the signal for the coaches to move on after the robbery 
and that the three empty shells had been found in the camp 
near Greke Lake; and that no other cartridges or shells had been 
found in or near said camp, at the place of the holdup, or on 
the trail leading out from said camp. 

'The only direct evidence offered by the defendants was 
their own statements as to their whereabouts on the day of the 
robbery and the day preceding it. They claimed that they were 
in their camp on Trail creek near Gardiner; that Reeb spent 
the evening of the 13th at Aldridge, Montana, and that he was 
there until eleven o'clock that night; that they had been pro- 
specting for minerals for several weeks prior to their arrest. 
Smitzer claimed that the money sent the Babcock Hardware 
Company was the proceeds of a sale of some bear skins, but on 
cross-examination he got badly mixed. Their counsel attempted 
to convince the jury that the piece of leather picked up in the 
camp near Grebe Lake might have been a part of some other 
belt than the one found on the person of the defendant Reeb, 
as there might be a thousand belts of the same kind. To streng- 
then this theory they produced two belts exactly alike which 
had been made for this special purpose, and cut them in pieces 


in presence of the court. They then submitted part of each 
belt to the jury with the contention that the same would match 
as perfectly with each other as did the pieces of a like nature 
put in evidence by the prosecution. Their demonstration was a 
complete failure as an aid to their line of argument and only 
served to make the evidence of the prosecution more convinc- 
ing. They also put an expert gunsmith on the stand and through 
him exhibited a number of revolvers, the hammers of firing 
pins of which had been filed, but this very evidently had no 
weight with the jury, as it would have been a very simple matter 
to have doctored any number of revolvers in such manner. 

'Tn rebuttal the prosecution proved by Deputy Marshal 
Morrison, Frank Scott and Ed Howell that there was nothing 
whatever in the shape of prospecting tools in defendants' pos- 
session at the time of their arrest, and by the witness Pierstorff 
that the defendants ate dinner with him, at the same table, at 
the Canyon Hotel, between six and seven o'clock on the evening 
of August 13th. Also by Mr. Van Blaricon, the newspaper 
reporter referred to, that the night before the holdup, just at 
dusk, he was sitting on the porch of the Canyon Hotel; that these 
two men passed him; that he positively identified Reeb under 
the following circumstances. He had two small fox terriers 
which accompanied him at all times; that as these two men 
passed the dogs jumped from his lap and snapped at them. He 
got up, apologized for the dogs' conduct, and while so doing 
he noticed that the taller man was very pale, and that he. Van 
Blaricon, said to himself, that fellow is in the same boat that I 
am, he is suffering with lung trouble. 

'This closed the case. The jury retired and after being 
out several hours returned a verdict finding defendants guilty. 
They were sentenced to serve three years in the penitentiary." 

Ed Howell, the Poacher 

I then asked the Judge how Ed Howell, who was reputed 
to be one of the worst poachers around the park and who had 
been in trouble with the park authorities, was aiding in the 
capture of the holdup men and was working with the govern- 
ment. The Judge said that F. Jay Haynes, father of Jack liaynes, 
was really responsible for Ed Howell helping out. He told me 
that F. Jay Haynes was really a character and gave me more 
information on Ed Howell, as follows: 

'^Haynes always contended that Ed Howell was not a bad 
man. He always stood up for him notwithstanding Howell was 
caught poaching buffalo. Haynes went to General Young, who 
was then superintendent of the park, and told him to get Ed 
Howell on the trail and he would find the hold-up men, that 
he knew all the bad men and poachers around the park. So 
General Young came to me and asked me if J could find Ed 


Howell. I told him where he was and he told me to go and see 
him. Ed was keeping a restaurant and saloon in a mining camp 
at Aldrich. There were some coke ovens around Aldrich at 
that time and he was doing quite a business. So I went and 
got a team from the transportation company and went to Aldrich. 
Ed wasn't in. He was away hunting horses. I waited all day 
until after dark for him to show up. When he came in I told 
him General Young wanted to see him. He wanted to go back 
with me but I told him it wouldn't do for him to be seen with me 
and that he should come up sometime during the night. When 
I returned to Mammoth, General Young was out to dinner. It 
was about eleven o'clock. I went to where I knev/ he was having 
dinner and told him Ed Howell would be in sometime during the 
night and that he knew where he would find the General. 
Before daylight Ed had come in and was on the trail of the hold- 
up men. 

''Lieutenant Lindsley resented having Ed Howell work 
with him in looking for the hold-up men so Ed went on his own 
hook and Lindsley and Frank Scott went together. 

'"While Ed Howell had been caught poaching in the park 
and had been denied admittance to the park except by order 
of the superintendent or the Secretary of the Interior, he had 
not violated a law — merely an order of the Secretary of the 
Interior. When we tried Howell he said: T never violated a 
law in my life.' Captain Anderson was Superintendent of the 
park at the time we tried Ed Howell and the Captain was just 
wild when Howell made this statement. Captain Anderson 
asked him what he called killing thirteen buffalo in the park and 
Howell merely told him that he had violated an order of the 
Secretary of the Interior. There was no law protecting the ani- 
mals of the park a^" the time Howell was on trial for killing 
thirteen buffalo and all they could do with him was put him out 
of the park. Then we got the rules amended to read that if a 
man was put out of the park he couldn't get back without the 
approval of the Secretary of the Interior or the Superintendent. 
During his trial Howell said: 'Captain Anderson, I have done 
more for the good of the park than you ever have.' He had refer- 
ence to his being responsible for the passing of the law which 
protected the wild life of the park. Howell was really a pretty 
good fellow — slow and easy going. 

"Ed Howell was the defendant in the second case I tried 
in the park — he had been arrested for poaching. That was the 
only case they ever reversed on me. After I kept Howell in 
jail for thirty days he went to Cheyenne and had my decision 
reversed. There were a lot of bad men around the park at the 
time Howell was caught poaching and they were waiting to 
see what the outcome of his trial would be. I was sort of 'on 
the spot'. I put him in the guard house. He appealed his case 


and went to Cheyenne and got me reversed. He had served 
nearly all of his thirty days in the guard house before he had 
his appeal perfected. 

""Nothwithstanding all the trouble Ed Howell had with the 
park authorities when he finally left this part of the country 
the reward for the capture of Little Gus and Morphine Charley 
had not been paid. The Government had offered a reward of 
five hundred dollars and the transportation company, two 
hundred and fifty, making seven hundred and fifty dollars 
in all. This was to be paid to the man or men responsible for 
the conviction of these two men. The guestion was unsettled 
for some time as to who should have the reward. They haggled 
and haggled over it, and finally it was put up to the superinten- 
of the park and myself to make the decision as to who was en- 
titled to the reward. 

'Tn the meantime General Young had been promoted 
and left here and Captain Erwin was made superintendent. So 
it was up to Erwin and myself to decide who should have the 
reward. So we got together and marked down the amounts 
we thought the different men should have. The only stumbling 
block in the way was Ed Howell. Lindsley, who was enUtled 
to a part of the reward, because he was an Army officer, wouldn't 
accept anything. He wanted Frank Scott, who was with him 
all the time he was on the trail of these men, to have his share 
of the reward. So that hung it up again. When we finally came 
to marking up the various amounts Captain Ervv^in marked 
Howell up as number one, as being entitled to the largest 
reward of them all. The matter was still unsettled when Howell 
left this part of the country. The Spanish War came on about 
that time and troops from here were ordered to Manila. Howell 
was full of adventure and went to Manila, where he operated 
a restaurant. When he went away he came to me and asked 
me to collect his part of the reward and keep it for him. He 
said: "Judge, if you say that I am entitled to only one dollar I 
will be satisfied, and if you say I am entitled to more I will be 
better satisfied, but whatever you say I will abide by.' I told 
him he better get somebody else and mentioned somie other 
parties and told him to get them power of attorney to collect 
the reward whenever it was paid. By golly, he went to Helena 
and had the Power of Attorney made out to me. I got his reward 
and sent it to Manila. He got one hundred and fifty dollars 
out of it. 

"There were others who knew what Lindsley knew about 
the whole affair but they couldn't go on the stand and explain 
it to the jury. Lindsley had a map of the park and he had a map 
of the trail he went over and a map of the camp and he pointed 
out to the jury how he found them, where he found them and how 
he followed the trail. Frank Scott was with him all the time but 


he couldn't go before the jury and explain it. Lindsley was really 
the star witness — but Ed Howell was a good second. 

'"Several interesting incidents occurred during the trial 
of Little Gus and Morphine Charley. The lawyer who defended 
the culprits was the best criminal lawyer Wyoming ever had. 
He was the same lawyer Ed Howell had to reverse my case. 
During the trial this lawyer asked Ed what his business was and 
Ed said he kept a restaurant and saloon and did a little freight- 
ing. Trying to embarrass Ed he asked him what his business 
was at such and such a time, designating the time he was caugh+ 
killing buffalo in the park. He said: 'Oh, I was freighting a 
little and I was poaching on the side.' The lawyer than said: 
'Now, what was the outcome of that poaching?' Ed said: They 
arrested me and brought me into the Yellowstone Park. I didn't 
violate any law and they couldn't do anything with me. I merely 
violated a rule of the Secretary of the Interior.' The lawyer 
said: 'Well, what did you do about that case?' And Ed replied: 
'You ought to know, I paid you two hundred dollars to get me 
out of it.' 

I don't know where he went after he came back here, and 
I never knew what become of him. Nobody seemed to know 
where he went and I have never heard from him. 

The Case of William Binkley 

"I remember the first case I ever tried after I came to the 
park in 1894. It was the case of John Reese, but it didn't amount 
to much. Reese was accused of stealing a watch. The United 
States Attorney came up and dismissed the case. In those days 
they never tried a case unless the U. S. Attorney came up and 
took charge. Now they don't think of sending the U. S. Attorney 
unless the Judge makes a special reguest for him. 

"Another interesting case which I recollect very well was 
the one when the prisoner jumped off the wagon. It was at the 
time they were putting dirt on the plaza out here. They had 
this fellow, William Binkley, out on the job from the guard 
house, and coming in one evening after it was getting a little 
dark, with a guard along walking behind the wagon, they got 
into this piece of brush behind the hotel. He jumped off the 
wagon and was never seen after that, though he later came 
back and held up some coaches. They never got him. 

"He was in the guard house the first time for poaching. 
He shipped to Los Angeles a half carload of elk heads and horns, 
and they arrested him on the way to California; prosecuted 
him in Idaho for going through there with contraband property. 
They convicted him there and in Los Angeles and sent him 
back here. They shipped that whole business to Gardiner. 
They shipped it to me but I wouldn't accept it. They brought 
Binkley back here, and after a long trial and witnesses from 


all corners of Los Angeles, Idaho, Jackson Hole and other 
places, all we could prove on him was that he killed one elk 
in Yellowstone Park. But he had poached a whole lot down in 
Jackson Hole that 1 couldn't take into consideration. The truth 
of the matter was that they were all afraid of him. The fellows 
down in the Jackson Hole didn't dare to arrest him. He was 
doing pretty nearly what he wanted to in the Jackson Hole, so 
they saddled it on to the United States to prosecute him. That 
case was in every newspaper in the country. In fact, the 
President of the United States took a personal interest in the 
case — the President was Teddy Roosevelt. 

''General Young, who was superintendent, was a personal 
friend of Roosevelt and he was just wild to convict these fellows. 
So he did convict them and I sent Binkley and another man with 
him, by the mane of Purdy, to the guard house. I knew they 
couldn't pay any fine, because they didn't have a cent. They 
had been skinned clean of everything they had. I had the whole 
business on my hands here. There had been such a furor raised 
about the case, everyone thought I ought to send those fellows 
to the penitentiary. There was a man here from the Biological 
Survey who was taking quite a part in it. In fact, everyone was 
against me, even the United States Attorney who I depended 
upon to help me. Even he came up. He said: 'After all the 
money we have spent and all the trouble we have gone to to 
convict them you give them ninety days in the guard house.' 

"Dr. T. S. Palmer, the Biological Survey man in question, 
said he would pay the freight on all the stuff if I would accept 
it. I told him I wouldn't have anything to do with it. So Young 
and Palmer between them paid the freight on it and brought it 
up here but I wouldn't accept it. They got this property; the 
case was concluded. I sent these fellows to the guard house 
for ninety days and cost, which was about a thousand dollars. 
Palmer and General Young were like the fellow who had the 
bear by the tail — they had the bear by the tail but they couldn't 
let go. They didn't know what to do. I said to Palmer: 'I will 
tell you how to get out of this mess. You can get an execution 
for the cost in this case and levy on that property to pay the 
execution and you can buy it.' So, I sent a transcript of the 
case to Cheyenne and got an execution issued by the Court 
and had it sent out here. Lindsley was deputy marshal at the 
time, Lindsley went down to levy the execution and he couldn't 
find a thing. Lindsley came up here and said he couldn't find 
a thing. He said the Quartermaster wouldn't let him in. I said 
we would just go down and see if the Quartermaster wouldn't 
let us open the door. I said to the Quartermaster: 'Here is a 
civil writ which gives Mr. Lindsley authority to look for the 
property. If you want to take the chances with the civil author- 
ities, say so, but I think you better let Mr. Lindsley go in there.' 


Lindsley went in there and only found one pair of old bleached 
horns. Well, I got a telegram from the Department of Justice, 
through the United States Attorney. It wanted to know what had 
become of the property. So I took this telegram to General 
Young and said: "Here is a telegram I can't answer without some 
information from you.' General Young had gotten so disgusted 
with me because I didn't send the fellows to the penitentiary 
that he hardly spoke to me. I asked him if he could answer the 
telegram and he said he could. He said the property was ship- 
ped to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. I asked by 
whose order was it shipped from here, and he said by his. I 
asked him to endorse the telegram to that effect. That was the 
last we ever heard about the matter. 

"Well, after it was all over and the next time the United 
States Attorney came here to try a case, I said: Well, what do 
you think of the Binkley case now?' Well', he said, "Judge, you 
were right. You are always right.' I thought that was pretty 
good to get that out of him." 

Chapter VIII 


When I found Judge Meldrum in a story-telling mood in 
my interview with him on October 23, 1934, I asked him to 
tell me the story of ""Big Nose George", which I had heard him 
tell before. While this incident happened during his days in 
Wyoming, in 1880, nevertheless it was an interesting one, and 
as the Judge played an important part in it and as a number of 
early Wyoming people participated I felt it should be included 
in this account of his life. He told me that he wrote an article on 
"Big Nose George" for the Union Pacific Magazine, which 
appeared in the November, 1926, issue. He gave me a copy 
of the magazine and I am guoting the story exactly as it ap- 
peared in this magazine: 


"Section Men, Sheriffs and all Available Citizens Combined to Checkmate 
'Dutch Charley', Sim Wan and Their Pals in the Early 80' s — A Silk 
Hat That Might Have Proved Fatal. 

By John W. Meldrum 

Commissioner, Yellowstone National Park 

"My first sight of the Union Pacific Railroad was in the early spring of 
1868, when Cheyenne was its western terminus. I came there to meet my 
brother, Norman, who was Cheyenne's first city treasurer and one of its first 
residents, having been an army officer on duty in that part of the country prior 
to that time. Accompanied by my bride of a few months, I was wearing a high 
silk hat, which my brother advised me to put out of sight before leaving the 
railroad station for the hotel, as it might be taken for a target by some of the 


When Cheyenne Was Wild and Woolly 

"Cheyenne at that time was surely the wild and wooly West, where people 
didn't go to bed until the "next day'. However, it was my privilege in later 
years to be a resident of that city when there was not another in the country 
of more orderly or better government, and when it was claimed that its wealth 
per capita exceeded that of any other place in the United States. 

"Going to Laramie in May, 1870, I built the fifth good house in the town 
on a lot purchased from the Union Pacific Railroad Company, the deed there- 
for being signed by Grenville M. Dodge, the distinguished Civil War general 
who was its chief engineer. On this lot was grown the first lawn, other than the 
native grass, in the (then) Territory of Wyoming. Here I continued to reside 
for nineteen years, during which period I met and became well acguainted 
with many of the officials and employes of the Union Pacific, among them Luther 
Fillmore, S. T. Shankland, J. T. Clark, Ed Dickinson, Larry Maloy, Robert 
Galbraith and his son R. M. Galbraith, Joe Edson, R. W. Baxter, Steve and 
Henry Mills and scores of others. Fully one-half of the population of the town 
consisted of railroad men and their families. 

"From September, 1872, to July, 1884, I was clerk of the Second Judicial 
District Court — Albany and Carbon counties — in which occurred many stir- 
ring events. Officers and employees of the Union Pacific were the central 
figures in some of them. 

"1 think it was in the spring of 1880 that a bunch of bad men — Frank 
James, 'Big-Nosed George', Sim Wan, 'Dutch Charley', and others — attempted 
to hold up a Union Pacific Passenger train between Rock Creek and Medicine 
Bow. The section foreman learned that the men were in the vicinity and had 
all their plans made for doing the job. He lost no time in reaching the nearest 
telegraph station, where he wired Ed. Dickinson, then superintendent of the 
Wyoming Division, whose headquarters were at Laramie. 

"It was after dark when Dickinson received the message, but before 
midnight he had assembled a posse with horses, headed by the sheriff of 
Albany County, ready to move by special train at the first sign of dawn. The 
posse did not succeed in getting any trace of the offending parties on the first 
day, and as it was found that the offense was committed in Carbon County, 
the job of further pursuit was turned over to Jim Rankin, then sheriff of that 

Hot Ashes as a Clew 

"In the meantime, two deputy sheriffs of Carbon County, George 
Widdowfield and Tip Vincent, took the trail on their own hook, going around 
Elk Mountain and up Rattlesnake Canyon, where they found the fleeing men's 
camp. Vincent got down from his horse and stuck his hand in the ashes of the 
fire, remarking to Widdowfield that it was red-hot and that they would soon 
have them. The robbers, who were concealed in a clump of bushes, fired when 
Vincent spoke, killing Widdowfield. Vincent made the best fight possible, but 
he, too, was shot down; it was weeks before the two bodies were found. 

"In the interim the muderers had escaped, but Jim Rankin kept on their 
trail, following them into 'Jackson Hole', at that time the rendezvous of out- 
laws, and on to Fort Benton, Montana. 'Dutch Charley' was the first one caught, 
but Rankin did not succeed in landing him in the Carbon County jail. When 
the train pulled into Carbon, a lynching party forcibly took Charlie from the 
sheriff and hanged him to a telegraph pole. 

"Big Nosed George' was the next one overtaken, and he, too, was met 
by a delegation of Widdowfield' s and Vincent's friends, when the train carry- 
ing him reached Carbon. Rankin did the best he could to protect his prisoner, 
but George was 'walking on air' in the shade of a telegraph pole soon after 
his arrival at the mining town. A participant in this affair — later a prominent 
United States official — told me that they 'elevated' George the fourth time in 
order to obtain the information desired, viz: the names of the other members 


of the murderous gang. George was indicted for murder at the September, 
1880, term of the District Court of Carbon County, and when arraigned on 
the indictment returned against him, he said he was 'guilty'. 

'Big Nosed George's Plea 

'The presiding judge, Hon. Jacob B. Blair, refused to accept this plea 
and remanded George to jail for a week, telling him to think the matter over. 
When George was taken from the court room. Judge Blair called me to his 
desk and said, 'I want you to go to the jail and interview the gentleman with 
the pronounced proboscis and ascertain whether or not he is compos mentis.' 
I found George sitting on the edge of his bunk with his head in his hands, and 
not inclined to talk. 

"However, after I had assured him that the Court would protect him 
during his trial, he said, 'Well I have made up my mind that this thing is going 
to cost me my life, and I would rather be hung by the sheriff than by a mob.' 
He was afraid that should he enter a plea of not guilty, a mob would take him 
from the sheriff and hang him. Later in the term of court he was found guilty 
of murder in the first degree and remanded for sentence. On December 15, 
1880, George was sentenced by Judge William Ware Peck to be hanged on 
the second day of April, 1881. 

"Judge Peck was a dignified and learned jurist, but somewhat eccentric. 
On this occasion he called in the governor of the territory, the county and 
city officers, and all members of the clergy, and, directing all persons in the 
court room to arise and stand at attention, he pronounced sentence. 

"I have the original draft of the sentence, prepared by myself, which 
was submitted to Judge Peck for approval before being entered on record 
in the court journal. 

An Early Day Hunger Strike 

"George, being remanded to the Carbon County jail to await execution, 
went on a 'hunger strike', which didn't bring the results he had hoped for. 
One evening when the jailer, Sheriff Rankin's brother, went to George's cell 
to lock up for the night, George had in some way gotten his shackles off and 
used them as a weapon with which he knocked Rankin senseless. Rankin's 
wife, hearing the commotion, sensed its cause and, rushing to the jail corridor 
with rifle in hand, said, 'George, get back into your cell or I'll kill you.' And 
George went back.* 

About an hour later George was climbing a ladder supported by a 
telegraph pole, one end of a rope around his neck and the other connecting 
with the cross-tree of the pole. You can guess what happened. , » » 

"During even those early days the Union Pacific carried many distin- 
guished passengers. Among them were Generals Grant, Sherman and Sheri- 
dan, Presidents Hayes and Arthur, the Emperor of Brazil, and other foreign 
potentates. It was my privilege in October, 1879, to be a member of a com- 
mittee appointed to escort General Grant and party from Laramie to Cheyenne, 
when on his way home from a trip around the world. The other members of the 

*NOTE. — On display in a glass case in the State Museum, Supreme 
Court Building at Cheyenne, Wyoming, is a beautiful gold watch, with key, 
in a handsome velvet-lined case, and a card bearing the following information: 

"Presented to Mrs. Rosa Rankin by the County Commissioners of Carbon 
County, March 22, 1881, for bravery in preventing the escape of Big Nose 
George from the Rawlins jail, March 20, 1881. Mrs. Rankin, wife of the jailer, 
came to her husbana's rescue when Big Nose George assaulted him in an at- 
temptea escape, before his hanging. 

The watch was given to the Wyoming Historical Department on October 
23, 1937, by Mrs. J. T. Williams, nee Wilda Rankin (now deceased), James 
Hayes Rankin, Robert Wilson ivankin and Elmer Lee Rankin, daughter and 
sons of Rosa and Robert Rankin." — Ed. 


committee were Col. John W. Donnellan, Hon. William H. Holliday and M. 
N. Grant, the last named being a distant relative of the general. I have the 
autograph which he gave me on that occasion, accompanied by a big black 

The Railway Like an Old Friend 

"It is more than thirty years since I was intimately associated with the 
Union Pacific, but I have noted its progress with as much interest as I would 
that of a personal friend, and when, at Hollywood, California, some time ago, 
I witnessed that marvelous movie. The Iron Horse', depicting the driving of 
the golden spike in 1869, I was moved to cheers and tears. I think it safe to 
say that I was the only person in that vast audience who had seen and known 
some of the real actors therein represented." 

Prized Letters, Appointments, Clippings, Etc. 

Judge Meldrum showed me about his house and displayed 
to me a number of chppings and letters which he said he prized 
very highly. He showed me the petition, dated February 10, 
1876, signed by ten of the leading lawyers of the state asking 
for his appointment as Clerk of the District Court. The names 
included W. W. Corlett, whom the Judge said was one of the 
best lawyers who ever appeared before the bar in Wyoming. 
He mentioned that none of the ten men were living today. He 
showed me an appointment signed by Jacob B. Blair, Associate 
Justice, County of Albany, Laramie City, dated March 14, 1876. 
It was written in longhand. He told me that he brought to the 
park with him in 1894 the first typewriter owned by the State 
of Wyoming. 

Letter of Recommendation from Henry T. Noble 

The Judge then showed me the letter of recommendation 
previously mentioned under his life in Little Rock, Arkansas, 
from Colonel and Chief Quartermaster Henry T. Noble, dated 
September 15, 1866. He told me that he prized this letter more 
than anything he has — that he was only 23 years old when he 
received it. Col. Noble seemed to have left a lasting impression 
on the Judge as he said: "He was noble in character as well as 
noble in name", that he was the cousin of John W. Noble who 
was Secretary of the Interior under President Harrison. Because 
of the value Judge Meldrum placed in this letter he allowed me 
to copy it and it is guoted below: 


"Little Rock, Arkansas September 15, 1866. 

"I take pleasure in commending Mr. I. W. Meldrum to the favorable 

consideration of all officers of the Quartermaster Department and to business 

men generally as a young man worthy of entire confidence, faithful, honest 

and of good habits. 

"He has been in the employ of this department since December, 1864 
and has always performed the duties assigned him, with the strictest fidelity 
to the Government. 


Col. & Chief Quartermaster." 


The Judge then took me upstairs to show me various docu- 
ments. On the wall in the hall on the second floor he had framed 
his commission as Surveyor General of Wyoming signed by 
President Arthur, July 3, 1884. 

He showed me his commission as Inspector General with 
the rank of Colonel in the National Guard of Wyoming signed 
by Governor Amos W. Barber July 3, 1891, for a period of three 
years, and also signed by Frank A. Stitzer, Adjutant General. 
The Judge said that although he was entitled to the rank of 
Colonel he never used the title of Colonel but that they used to 
call him by that title. 

He showed me a 'Vecess" appointment of JohnW. Meldrum 
as Secretary of State, vice Daniel G. Shannon, resigned, signed 
by Benjamin Harrison, President, dated May 20, 1889, and also 
signed by John W. Noble, Secretary of the Interior, the appoint- 
ment reading for four years. 

He also showed me an appointment issued to him later by 
President Harrison, dated January 9, 1890, as Secretary of 
Wyoming, which was also signed by John W. Noble, Secretary 
of the Interior, and was for a like period of four years. 

Certificate of Election to Council 

He then showed me the "Certificate of Election" Executive 
Department for the Territory of Wyoming and allowed me to 
make a copy of it. It follows: 


"According to the official returns of general election held in the Terri- 
tory of Y/yoming on the 2nd day of September, 1879, received and filed in 
the office of the Secretary of the Territory, and duly examined by the Board of 
Canvassers, according to law, it appears that J. W. Meldrum received a ma- 
jority of votes of the Council from the district consisting of the county of Albany 
and whereas the Board of Canvassers has certified to the Governor of the 
Territory of Wyoming that such is the fact, I, John W. Hoyt, Governor of the 
Territory of Wyoming, do hereby declare that J. W. Meldrum to be duly elected 
a member of the Council of the 6th Legislative Assembly of Wyoming Territory, 
which is to convene on the first Tuesday of November next. 

"A. Worth Spates, _^ (Sgd.) JOHN W. HOYT 

Secretary of Territory" Governor" 

He then showed me another appointment as a member of 
a Commission to reopen negotiations with the Shoshoni and 
Arapahoe tribes and allowed me to make a copy of it. It reads: 


"Know Ye, that, reposing special trust and confidence in the integrity, 
ability and truth of John W. Meldrum of Cheyenne, Wyoming, I do appoint 
him to be a commissioner to reopen negotiations with the Shoshoni and Arap- 
ahoe tribes in the State of Wyoming for the surrender to the United States of 


certain portions of their reservations in said state, and to negotiate with the 
Flathead and confederated tribes of Indians in the State of Montana, under 
the provisions of the Act of Congress approved July 13, 1892 (Pamphlet Laws, 
p. 120), with compensation at $10 per day when actually employed, and 
actual and necessary traveling expenses, exclusive of subsistence, and to 
authorize and empower him to execute and fulfill the duties of that office 
according to law, and to hold the said office with all the rights and emoluments 
thereunto legally appertaining to him, the said John W. Meldrum, during the 
pleasure of the Secretary of the Interior, for the time being. 


Secretary of the Interior" 

Heard Bob Ingersoll 

He showed me a number of scrap books containing clip- 
pings, pictures, badges, etc., and told me that Mrs. Meldrum 
was responsible for accumulating them. One of the clippings 
called to his mind Bob Ingersoll and that he was present when 
Bob Ingersoll made that wonderful speech nominating Jim 
Blaine, in Cincinnati in 1876, and was broadcast from pole to 
pole. It was when Ingersoll was dubbed the '"Plumed Knight." 
The Judge said tha! Bob Ingersoll was a great man and that his 
brother thought him the greatest man in the country. 

Newspaper Clippings 

The Judge showed me several newspaper clippings con- 
cerning himself which he allowed me to copy. They are guoted 
below for this record: 


He is Appointed Secretary of Wyoming by the President 

The News of the Nomination Reached Laramie 

at Noon Today — A Sketch of the 

Career of the New Secretary 

"WASHINGTON, D. C, May 21, 1889.— (Special to THE BOOMERANG) 
• — The President today nominated Hon, John W. Meldrum, of Laramie, to be 
Secretary of Wyoming. 

"The special dispatch announcing Mr. Meldrum' s appointment as 
Secretary was received by THE BOOMERANG shortly before noon Tuesday 
and was the first notice of it received in the city. The news soon became 
known over town and a delegation of those who first heard of it at once started 
for Mr. Meldrum' s residence. When he greeted them at the door he was 
addressed as 'Mr. Secretary' by County Attorney Groesbeck, and it proved 
to be his first notification of his appointment. The new secretary and his wife 
were heartily congratulated by their callers. All this time a dispatch to Mr. 
Meldrum, apprising him of his appointment, was being wildy clutched between 
the begrimmed fingers of a telegraph messenger who had become sadly tangled 
up in his efforts to find his man. 


"John W. Meldrum, Wyoming's new Secretary, is one of the territory's 
earhest settlers. He was born in Caledonia, New York, September 17, 1845, 
where he lived until the summer of 1862. He was then serving an apprentice- 
ship as a carriage maker, but the war had broken out and his country was in 
peril, and he was eager to go to the front. So he enlisted, being only 17 years 
of age at the time, but the medical examiner refused to accept him. In 1863 
he again enlisted and served in the army of the Potomac. Early in 1865 he 
went south, where he served under Colonel T. Noble, a cousin of the present 
secretary of the interior, where he was at the close of the war. The knowledge 
he acquired while serving his apprenticeship as carriage maker proved very 
useful, and when only 19 years of age he was appointed master mechanic of 
the department of Colonel Noble. He remained in Arkansas until 1867, when 
he was obliged to leave on account of his health, and the spring of 1868 found 
him in Cheyenne. He remained in Cheyenne only a short time, going from 
there to Fort Collins, where he was for two years upon a ranch. 

"After leaving Fort Collins he came to Laramie and has been a resident 
of this city ever since. He opened a meat market — the second in the city — and 
conducted it for some time, after which he worked at his trade in the Union 
Pacific shops. Leaving the shops he entered the employ of Hutton & Co. and 
not long afterward was appointed clerk of the district court, a position which 
he filled for eleven years. He has since served two terms as county clerk, one 
term as chairman of the board of county commissioners and one term in the 
territorial council. In 1882 he was placed in nomination by the republicans as 
their delegate to congress from Wyoming, but was defeated by M. E. Post, 
owing to the peculiar conditions which then existed. In 1884 he was a delegate 
to the national republican convention at Chicago and was made secretary of 
the notification committee which visited Blaine and Logan. The same year 
he was appointed surveyor general of the territory by President Arthur and 
held the position until the Cleveland administration came into power. He 
resigned in July, 1885, although his resignation was not accepted until Novem- 
ber of that year. Since that time he has held no official position, nor has he 
been actively engaged in business. He has been for some time one of the direct- 
ors of the Albany County National Bank. 

"Norman H. Meldrum, a brother of Secretary Meldrum, was lately 
lieutenant governor of Colorado, and was for two terms secretary of state. A 
younger brother, Gordon B., died in Libby prison. 

"Mr. Meldrum is one of Laramie's most popular citizens and his appoint- 
ment as secretary gives unbounded satisfaction. There was practically no 
opposition to his appointment, and his candidacy received a hearty endorse- 
ment from all portions of the territory." 


MuFter In of Company D, al Rock Springs, 
By Captain Stitzer 

"Captain Stitzer has just returned from Rock Springs, where under the 
instruction and authority of Adjutant General Meldrum, he mustered in 
Company D, of Wyoming National Guards. The company is composed of 
sixty-nine of the best citizens of Rock Springs, including two editors, Messis, 
Dresser and Smith, and is officered as follows. Captain, Horace E. Christmas; 
First Lieutenant, R. D. Woodruff; Second Lieutenant, C. F. Hamlin. The muster 
in was made at Swanson's hall, where the company has its headquarters and 
armory. When this official business was completed the company with invited 
guests repaired to the St. James hotel where a fine banquet was spread and a 
grand jollification indulged in. With speeches, songs and recitations the oc- 
casion was made delightful to all its participants. The officers from Camp 
Pilot Butte were present, including Colonel Burke, Captain Coolidge and 


Lieutenant Moore. Dave Miller was on hand with his entertaining talk and 
merry songs as well as other leading citizens of the town. 

"The people of Rock Springs take a just pride in the make up of Company 
D, which comprises the finest material in the state for a militia organization, 
and the members declare that they will soon compete with the Cheyenne 
guards for the honor of being the best drilled company in Wyoming. Captain 
Stitzer was the hero oi the day and received many kind attentions from the 
people in Rock Springs." 


Mr. Meldrum Resigns — Judge Blair's Letter of 
Acceptance — Mr. R. Butler Appointed. 

"At 7 o'clock last evening Hon. J. W. Meldrum, the recently appointed 
Surveyor General of Wyoming, tendered to the Hon. J. B. Blair his resignation 
as Clerk of the District Court for the Second Judicial District, a position he has 
held for many years with honor and universal satisfaction. Judge Blair accepted 
Mr. Meldrum' s resignation in the following letter, which is well worthy of 
careful perusal. 

Laramie, Wyoming, July 15, 1884. 

"Hon. J. W. Meldrum. 

"My Dear Sir.- — Your note of this date, tendering your resignation as 
Clerk of the District Court of the Second Judicial District, is before me. 
"When I say that 1 deeply regret that any necessity should have arisen 
rendering it imperative for you to take the action you have, I but express 
that which I feel, and mean just what I say. 

"Almost eight and a half years ago you received a reappointment as 
Clerk at my hands. In looking back over this long period of time, I cannot 
recall a single instance when an order was improperly entered by you, 
or which failed to state the facts as they occurred, nor a complaint of 
any member of the bar, or a citizen, either as to your competency or 
fidelity in the duscharge of your official duties, nor can I recall an in- 
stance when you failed to be present in court when the moment had 
arrived for business. This is indeed an extraordinary record; but no 
less extraordinary than true in every particular' — a record in and to which 
you may just feel and refer with manly pride. With such a record be- 
fore me, coupled with the fact that there has not been an hour of even 
coolness between us since our first acguaintance, you cannot fail to 
believe me sincere when I repeat that I accept your resignation with 
the greatest reluctance. 

"I congratulate you on the well-merited compliment paid you 
by the President, in appointing you to the responsible office of Surveyor 
General of this Territory — a compliment which I am guite sure will be 
shared by the whole people of the Territory of Wyoming. That you will 
bring to the discharge of the new duties that await you the same energy 
sense of responsibility, honesty of purpose, and conscientiousness of 
official trust, that you did while holding the position you have this 
day surrendered, no one who knows you will for a moment doubt. 

"With great respect, your sincere friend, 


Interview by Joe H. Mader 

On July 12, 1935, several months following my last inter- 
view with Judge Meldrum and after the Judge had resigned 
his position as U. S. Commissioner on June 30, 1935, I asked 


Joe H. Mader, a newspaper man and associated with the Depart- 
ment of Journalism, University of North Dakota, who was the pub- 
Ucity director for the park that summer, to call on the Judge for 
an interview, with the hope that he might be able to get some 
additional information on the Judge's life. Mr. Mader did this 
and following is his write up of the interview had with the Judae 
on July 12, 1935: 

'"RoAnewing the period of 41 years during which he has 
served in Yellowstone National Park as U. S. Commissioner, 
Judge John W. Meldrum believes the greatest impression on 
him has been the tremendous growth in the number of visitors 
to the park and the gradual but distinct change that has trans- 
formed this area frm the old West range where badmen sought 
refuge to the present wonderland area that provides a play- 
ground for a guarter million persons each summer. 

''Judge Meldrum's first picture of Yellowstone Park was 
a mental one formed from the accounts given him by John W. 
Hoyt, one-time governor of Wyoming. During the summer ot 
1881, the then Governor Hoyt was asked by the federal govern- 
ment to make an inspection trip through the park. This was 
before there was any trail or road reaching the park from the 
East. All travel at that time, except pack trains, came through 
the northern route which was then the only one served by a 
railroad. Governor Hoyt asked permission to secure a staff and 
detail of soldiers, cooks, etc., from the regular army, and about 
25 men were assigned to him. With this group he left Cheyenne 
for the long trek through the park. The party spent more than 
a month in the saddle, and returned to tell of their experiences. 
Governor Hoyt's son, Kepler, still a youngster, endured the 
hardships of the trip so manfully that the then Superintendent 
of the park, Norris, decided to name the Kepler cascades for 
the youngster. It is still so called. 

''Judge Meldrum was an intimate friend of Governor 
Hoyt, and from him he heard the finely woven tale of the 
wonders of the park area. From this time on, the Judge recalls, 
he formed a desire to visit Yellowstone, but his wish was not 
to be fulfilled until 13 years later when he was appointed to the 
office of commissioner. 

"The post to which he had been appointed was an entirely 
new office, created to meet the situation then extant over the 
3,000 sguare mile area. Prior to that time U. S. commissioners 
merely acted as intermediaries between the arresting officer 
and the prosecuting officer, taking no complete jurisdiction 
over a case themselves. Because of the conditions existing 
in the park, and the distances between the park and regular 
federal courts. Judge Meldrum was given authority to summarily 
try cases involving misdemeanors, and to dispose of the cases, 
imposing the punishment deemed fitting for the offense. Origin- 


ally he had full authr^rity over such misdemeanors calling for 
punishment up to $1,000 fine and two years imprisonment. 
Later this was changed so that the maximum punishment over 
which he had complete jurisdiction was $500 and six months 
in prison. 

"'Meldrum's appointment came through Hon. John A. Riner 
of the federal district court of Cheyenne. Of the hundreds of 
cases which have been brought before Judge Meldrum, only 
one has ever been appealed from his decision to the district 
attorney. Judge Meldrum recalled with considerable relish that 
his decision was reversed and that this reversal was made by 
the same Judge Riner who had appointed him. 

""Although in his 41 years as commissioner Judge Meldrum 
"sat in' on thousands of cases in which some infraction was 
charged, only 519 cases called for punishment either directly 
under his ruling or else were felonies which had to be punished 
under ruling from the District Judge at Cheyenne. The other 
infractions were usually minor, and the offender was given a 
severe lecture or detailed instructions on law observance. It 
was Judge Meldrum' s theory that much more good could often 
be done by a reprimand and an instructional talk to an offender 
than by antagonizing an individual who was likely not a law- 
breaker naturally. 

""Yellowstone Park in its modern development was never 
a haven for law-breakers, the judge pointed out. In the old 
days, he says, there were many deliberate law violators. Stage- 
coach hold-ups were not infreguent. The craze for gold turned 
many adventurous and carefree individuals into gun-toting 
badmen. Poaching was so common that many of those who had 
practiced it for years looked upon it pretty much like the steady 
drinker did in the days of prohibition — a necessity perhaps 
for others, but a nuisance law to be studiously broken by him. 
Strangely enough, the liguor problem was never as acute in 
the park as one might imagine, according to Meldrum. Up to 
the year 1916, liguor in all its forms had always been served at 
bars throughout the park. In a few instances the presence of 
the "spiritus frumenti' caused a rush of business in the judge's 
office on a Monday morning, he recalls, but it never was a 
serious issue. During all of that time the policing activities and 
administration of the park was in the hands of army men. One of 
the most stringent regulations was that which prohibited the sale 
of liguor to soldiers. This, the judge believes, kept the adminis- 
tration of liguor regulations a fairly simple task, and most park 
visitors had a high regard for rules of conduct and control 
around the bars. 

""During the World War the park operators voluntarily 
ceased dispensing liguor as a patriotic demonstration of con- 
servation. This year, 1935, the sale of liguor in the park again 


became legal. Asked about his opinion of the result of such 
legalization, the judge declared that he believed the problem 
would undoubtedly require more attention now because of the 
large number of automobiles now on the park highways, and 
because of the greater speed of travel. However, he feels that 
only a very small percentage of persons who come to the park 
have any interest in securing intoxicating liquor. 

"The advent of the automobile in the park in 1915 is respon- 
sible for perhaps the greatest change. Judge Meldrum believes. 
Today in one single day as many as five or six thousand persons 
come into the park, whereas during his first few years in the 
park, the entire travel for the season would be less than a 
single day's run today. This shift in travel methods has allowed 
millions of persons to visit Yellowstone Park who might otherwise 
not have been able to make the trip. Perhaps not a single 
property owned by the people of the United States has brought 
as much pleasure, educational value and inspiration to as many 
persons as Yellowstone, the Judge suggested. 

"The age of speed has had one influence on travel which 
the judge despaired. 

" 'People are going through the park too fast', he protested. 
'So many of them pride themselves on the fact that they have 
made the loop trip in one day. What have they seen? Some 
Come through so hurriedly that later if they are questioned as 
to whether or not they had enjoyed the Grand Canyon of the 
Yellowstone, they don't even remember whether they had 
seen it or not. In the stagecoach days peop^e couldn't go 
through faster than six or seven days. Many of them spent 
ten days or two weeks in the park. When they left, they really 
had a mental picture of the wonders that have been worked 

" "All the enjoyment and pleasure that is stored up in the 
park here for the public cannot be absorbed by anyone who 
has a craze for speed', he continued. 'When they dedicated 
that northern arch for "the benefii and enjoyment of the people" 
the government meant just that. You cannot benefit and you 
cannot enjoy the park if you hurry through.' 

"For the administrators of the park from the old-time army 
officers to the present-day uniformed men of the National 
Park Service, Judge Meldrum has nothing but praise. He feels 
that a great step was taken with the organization of the Service, 
and the building up of an efficient, courteous force of park 
rangers under Superintendent Horace M. Albright and later 
under Superintendent Roger W. Toll, prepared the park for 
the capable reception of the millions who have entered the park 
since they took over the reins. 

" ' 'A monument should be erected in the park to the memory 
of Hiram W. Chittenden', says Judge Meldrum. To him the judge 


would give great credit for laying the foundation for develop- 
ment of this vast area for the future enjoyment of the people. 
Nearly all of the early work of improvement in the park was 
done under the expert engineering eye of Chittenden. Judge 
Meldrum recalled how Chittenden laid out the road between 
Old Faithful and Yellowstone Lake, using only an ordinary 
spirit level for the work, crossing the continental divide twice 
and laying out a road which is still in use today. Also he re- 
called how Chittenden set as his goal the acguisition of greater 
appropriations for road construction than the $60,000 allowed 
by Congress. He went to Washington and spent long hours in 
conference with 'Uncle Joe' Cannon, who was then chairman 
of the Appropriations Committee. Finally he succeeded in 
getting "Uncle Joe' to come out to the park for a visit and tour 
of inspection. So impressed was the veteran legislator with 
Chittenden's presentation of the request and his earnest appeal 
that the following session of Congress appropriated $750,000 
to be spent over a period of three years in improvement of park 

'Many of the roadways in the park, many of the bridges 
including the now famous Chittenden bridge, and the great 
improvement of the parade ground at Mammoth tJot Springs 
came about as a result of this interview by Chittenden,' the 
judge recalled. Today only a few of us old timers and those 
in the employ of the National Park Service know how truly great 
a man Chittenden was.' 

''Not only has the judge observed great changes in the 
spirit of the Old West and in the mode of travel, but he has 
witnessed great changes even in the natural phenomena in 
Yellowstone Park. He has seen new geysers spring up and old 
ones cease eruptions. He has watched the continuous changes 
come over the terraces of the Hot Springs at Mammoth. At the 
time he first arrived he remembers Jupiter Terrace as a vast 
hill overflowing on all sides with water and massed with color. 
He has watched springs bubble up and die out, and others come 
up to replace them. He recalls periods when the highway 
running parallel with the terraces below the springs was in- 
undated by the rush of water and the settling of travertine that 
was left behind. The mystery and beauty of the park are never- 
ending, however, the judge feels. Always there is the same 
natural beauty, the same wondering power of a divine being 
who has tranformed on earth here a beauty spot that is the awe 
of nations. 

Speaking briefly of his family. Judge Meldrum pointed 
out that he and Mrs. Meldrum had never had any children. 
Thus, with the passing of Mrs. Meldrum, his nearest living re- 
latives are two nieces. One, Miss Susie A. Meldrum of Denver, 
has frequently made her home with the judge in Yellowstone 


Park. Often in the dead of winter he has left the park to spend 
a few months wi+h her in her Denver home. Another niece, 
Mrs. Evelyn M. Downie, now lives in Brainerd, Minn. She 
was married in the home occupied by the Commissioner here 
in the park, and her first child was born there. Her husband 
was at that time the auditor for the Northern Pacific railway 
when that company owned the park hotels." 

Last Days in Park 

For several years prior to his resigning his position as 
United States Commissioner, Judge Meldrum spent some time 
each winter receiving treatment at the Army & Navy Hospital 
at Hot Springs, Arkansas. He left the park on October 23, 1935, 
en route to Buffalo, Wyoming, to visit with his nephew. Jack 
Meldrum, and then he expected to go to Denver and visit with 
his niece, Miss Susie A. Meldrum. From Denver he planned to 
again go to Hot Springs for treatment at the Army & Navy 

Two nights prior to his departure from the park I visited 
with Judge Meldrum and witnessed his signature to his will. 
He had great difficulty in trying to write his name but he finally 
succeeded, using his left hand. He had practiced for some 
time to write his name with his left hand so that he would be 
able to place his signature on the will at the proper time. While 
his mental faculties apparently were as good as ever it was evi- 
dent that he was failing physically. His hearing had improved 
a trifle but his eyes were going back on him and there was a pos- 
sibility he would have an operation on his eyes when he got 
to Hot Springs. However, it was doubtful if the doctors would 
have attempted such an operation, because of his age. 

The Sunday prior to Judge Meldrum' s departure from the 
park. Reverend Lewis D. Smith, Episcopal Minister from Living- 
ston, Montana, conducted services at the Mammoth Chapel 
in honor of Judge Meldrum and Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Lindsley, 
who were also leaving the park, and the honor apparently 
pleased the Judge very much. This was the first service he had 
attended for some time and it was a thrill to watch him as he 
stood erect, like a soldier, and sang every word of the four 
stanzas of "AMERICA." 

The Passing 

Following his departure from the park the latter part of 
October, (1935) Judge Meldrum spent about three months 
visiting with his nephew in Buffalo, Wyoming and arrived in 
Denver late in January, 1936. From the time of his arrival until 
his death he had not been well enough to undertake the trip 
that he had planned to Hot Springs, Arkansas. He had, however, 


been more or less up and around. On February 24 he had in- 
sisted on going down town to the office of the Collector of 
Interval Revenue and a neighbor had driven him down, he 
following day he was very tired and was lying down listening 
to the radio when he heard a broadcast regarding the death 
of Roger W. Toll, Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park, 
in an automobile accident at Doming, New Mexico. Mr. Toll 
was a great favorite of the Judge and the news evidently greatly 
unnerved him and he became very much depressed by it. 
That evening he asked his niece to read him the twenty-third 
Psalm and he was displeased with her delay in laying her hands 
on the Bible. The next day the Judge was very depressed and 
was breathing laboriously. lie did not get up. Late in the day 
his niece called a doctor, who said that the Judge was suffering 
from shock and the only thing to do for him was to keep him as 
quiet as possible. The following morning, February 27, his 
niece went to see him before she got breakfast. He was breath- 
ing more easily and sleeping quietly. A little later she went 
into his room to see if he was awake for breakfast and found 
he had passed away — apparently without moving since she 
had previously observed him. 

Funeral services were conducted by Dean Roberts of St. 
Johns Episcopal Cathedral at the Rogers Mortuary in Denver 
on Saturday, February 29, (1936) followed by cremation. The 
pallbearers were all National Park Service men, in uniform, 
and consisted of Thomas J. Allen, Superintendent of Hot Springs 
National Park; El T. Scoyen, Superintendent of Glacier National 
Park; J. W. Emmert, Assistant Superintendent, Yellowstone 
National Park; Herbert Maier, Regional State Park officer; 
Ray C. Baxter, United States Commissioner, Rocky Mountain 
National Park; and Walter Finn, Park Ranger, Rocky Mountain 
National Park. 

The End. 






Chapter XII 

Laramie County 

Cheyenne Continued — Trains over the U. P. — Early Visitors 
— Geo. Francis Train — Taxes — Arnold's School Pro- 
ject — Dedication of the First School House, etc. — 
Troublesome Times Again — Organization of the Vigil- 
antes — Tim Dyer — Doings of the Desperadoes. 

Having traced the changes in municipal and county govern- 
ments down through their various stages from the provisional 
to legally established governments under the Laws of the Ter- 
ritory of Wyoming, the reader is now invited to go back to the 
beginning of 1868 from which date the history of events un- 
connected with governmental affairs will be resumed. 

As has already been seen, the Union Pacific Railroad was 
completed to Cheyenne on the 13th day of November, 1867, 
and on the day following the first passenger train arrived in 
the city. 

As mention has been so far as possible of those who first 
reached the site of the city by 'overland" or rather in wagons, 
horseback and on foot, it might be well to mention here some 
of the first arrivals by rail. Among those who reached Chey- 
enne November 14, 1867, by rail were Sidney Dillon, Major J. D. 
Wooley, Superintendent Street of the Wells Fargo & Co.'s 
Express, Freight Superintendent Snyder of the U. P. R. R., Col. 
J. L. Lewis, Edward Creighton, and many others. G. A. Wood 
was the conductor of the train and its arrival was made the oc- 
casion of a public demonstration at which much enthusiasm was 
manifested. The first freight train which arrived a day or two 
later, was brought through in charge of Conductor S. L. Smith. 

There were many visitors of note to Cheyenne in those 
early days, among whom were Generals Sherman and Sheridan, 
Chester A. Arthur, since President of the United States, Father 
De Smet, and many others of more or less note. While in 
Cheyenne in 1868 Father De Smet made mention of the fact that 
in 1838 he camped one night on the present site of the City of 
Cheyenne while on one of his periodical trips to the northern 

Geo. Francis Train also paid Cheyenne a visit very early 
in its history and conceived the project of building a mammoth 
hotel and even formed a company and commenced operations. 
The foundation for the new building having been put in and 


the walls (which were to have been of stone) partly built, but 
the project soon fell through for want of funds so that except 
in the prolific mind of Mr. Train the building never had an 
existence. It was to have been built south of the railroad track 
--a short distance from where the Railroad Hotel (now the Paci- 
fic House)* was eventually erected. 

It will, of course, be remembered by the reader thai at this 
time, there was no form of government in Cheyenne except the 
provisional one established by the people themselves. There 
were a few things which the provisional government could do 
and there were many things it could not do. Among the latter was 
the collection of taxes. A levy could be made and a proposi- 
tion regarding this was twice made and discarded by the city 
council but nothing came of it for no attempt was ever made to 
levy and collect taxes for municipal purposes. 

Fortunately, however, the law abiding citizens of Cheyenne 
were not averse to contributing to the support of any good and 
worthy enterprise, and such having been their sentiment when 
the proposition was made to establish and open a school which 
should be open to "'all rich or poor, black or white," they re- 
garded it with favor. 

Being encouraged by what appeared to be the public senti- 
ment, Mr. M. A. Arnold, then and now a resident of Cheyenne, 
assisted by his wife, Mrs. M. A. Arnold, a public spirited Chris- 
tian lady, undertook the task of raising funds by subscription 
among those who were willing to contribute for the purpose of 
building a school house, and opening a school. Although 
the task was in some respects not an enviable one, Mr. Arnold 
was successful, and at length the sum of $2,500 was raised. 
With this fund a school house of moderate size was built a short 
distance north of where the Charton livery stable at present 
stands, and preparations were at once made to dedicate it as a 
''free school where neither politics nor religion should cut any 

The services of W. W. Corlett, Esg., the rising and popular 
"favorite son" of Cheyenne, were secured to deliver the ora- 
tion, and Dr. Geo. H. Russell was engaged to read an essay. The 
dedicatory exercises were held on February 7, 1868,+ and 
were attended by many hundreds of people. 

'Immediately east of the present Union Pacific Station. 

JThere seems to be a discrepancy in Mr. Coutant's date of the dedication, 
as the following article from the CHEYENNE LEADER of January 6, 1868, 
verifies the date as being January 5, 1868. 

"A large assemblage of ladies and gentlemen of this city congregated at 
the new school building on Nineteenth Street, last evening, to witness the 
dedicatory exercises upon the occasion of the completion of the first school 
edifice in this city. The evening was bitter cold, the thermometer indicating 
twenty-three degrees below zero, but notwithstanding this, the large room 
was densely crowded with an anxious assemblage of our best citizens. We 
doubt not that nearly all present felt that it was good to be there,' and were 


In the oration delivered by Mr. Corlett on that occasion he 
favorably and eloquently impressed upon the minds of the 
people the fact that free schools ever had been and ever would 
be the enduring bulwark of our National liberties. 

The essay by Dr. Russell was somewhat in the same strain. 
The following Monday, February 9, Mr. Arnold, assisted by his 
wife, opened a school in the new building having nearly one 
hundred pupils in attendance. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the ''Committee of Safety," 
composed, as it was, of many of the best mien in the community 
(and of whom mention has been heretofore made) had all along 
since its organization been rendering the provisional government 
valuable assistance in preserving order in the city. The num- 
ber of desperadoes and ''thugs" had largely increased since 
the city was first laid out and established, so that early in 1868 
it is no exaggeration to say that they could be numbered by 
the hundreds. 

The members of the committee were in the main active 
business men who had their individual affairs to attend to and 
hence could not devote as much time to the interests of the 
community as at first, for business of all kinds was then very 
prosperous in Cheyenne, and they each, of course, had "an eye 
to the main chance." They had never asked, expected or re- 
ceived any compensation for their services, but were never- 
theless willing to act and did act whenever their services were 
required, but as before stated the period had arrived when 
they could devote but little time to the interests of the city. 

For this reason, and also for the further reason, that mainly 
through the unwarranted and overdrawn pictures of "Cheyenne 
life" which had been sent abroad by a certain class of news- 
paper correspondents who had visited Cheyenne, and who 
were for less than nothing, unless sensational, tho't Cheyenne 
was a good place for a certain class of people "fit for treasures, 
strategems and spoils" to come to. A new and disreputable 
group of hard characters began to flock into the city shortly 
prior to the beginning of the year. 

Among this class were the notorious "Shorty" Jack Hays, 
"Dirty Mike," Andy Harris, Charles Martin and many others 

forcibly impressed witii the importance of the undertaking, and that therein 
lies the germ that is speedily to grow to a giant, in moral effects, that shall, 
at an early day, redeem our city from the rule of crime and vice." 

The site is now occupied by the Cheyenne Hardware Company, at the 
southwest corner of the inter-section at Carey Avenue and Nineteenth Street. 
On the north side of the building is attached a bronze plaque, size about 18 
X 24 inches, inscribed as follows: 

"Site of First Public School in Wyoming 

Dedicated January 5, 1868 

Cheyenne School Pupils 



who were almost continually plundering and robbing when- 
ever an opportunity presented itself. "Dirty Mike," however, 
was not as bad as his name would suggest and his rascality 
mainly took the form of attempting to shoot or kill somebody. 
He was a member of the police when he first came to the city, 
but as soon as his real character came to be understood he 
was uncermoniously discharged — acguiring his peculiar name 

Early in January, 1868, a U. S. Paymaster — Gen. Dandy — 
was robbed of $5,000. between Cheyenne and Ft. Russell, and 
later on several robberies of a bold character were committed 
within the city limits. To illustrate the situation in this respect 
the case of an old nam named Lee should be alluded to. Lee, 
who was pretty well advanced in years, had been a soldier in 
the Confederate Army during the war of the Rebellion, and 
for this reason the '"boys" universally called him ""General" 
Lee. He was a quiet, inoffensive old man, but was at times 
much addicted to strong drink, and having been paid off as 
a railroad employee he went around the city one day in the 
winter of '67-'68 with $250 in his pocket which he foolishly 
exhibited while paying for his previous drinks, and, as it after- 
wards was ascertained, he was shadowed and followed by a 
couple of desperadoes. Tim Dyer at that time kept a fashionable 
saloon on Eddy Street and directly south of the building in 
which the Pearse Drug Store is now (1886) kept. To this place 
the old ""General" came late at night and asked Mr. Dyer to 
protect him. He was told to come in and he would be protected 
after which the place was cleared for the night, and the door 
locked. Presently two men came to the door and rapped, one 
of them asserting that he was very sick and wanted a drink. 
Thinking that it was some of his regular customers Dyer opened 
the door, when in walked two men — pretty hard looking citi- 
zens — one of whom was recognized as being one of the worst 
and most dangerous of desperadoes, although his name was 
not known. The desperadoes got their drinks, when the one 
alluded to inquired who the old man was. He was informed that 
his name was Lee and that he was an employe on the railroad, 
and in answer to the question whether he had any money with 
him Mr. Dyer informed them that he did not know, but that it 
was none of their business whether he had or not. 

""Well" said the foremost villian ""he has got $250 and I 
have been following him all day and I am going to have that 
money or die in the attempt to get it." This was enough for 
Dyer — war was declared at once, the result being that both 
desperadoes were driven from the place though both were 
armed. The old ""General," who had been a trembling spec- 
tator of the encounter, afterwards showed his money — a trifle 
over $227. This incident is given as illustrating the desperate 


and dangerous character of the rascals who then infested the 
city in large numbers. Many others of a similar character might 
be mentioned, but the foregoing must suffice for the present. 

The population of the city had by this time increased to 
nearly 7000 and the place was also full of transient men who 
were coming and going every day, and who are not included 
among those represented by the foregoing figures. 

A variety theatre had been started by James McDaniel on 
Eddy Street on the present site of the '"McDaniel Block" now 
owned and occupied by E. A. Slack, editor and proprietor of 
the Cheyenne Daily and Weekly Sun as a printing office, etc., 
and shortly after others were started also and at one time in 
the history of Cheyenne there were as many as four of these 
institutions in the city, all running at the same time. In addition 
to the Variety Theatre and saloons, dance houses were also 
started, which, together with the numerous gaming establish- 
ments that had been opened, and certain other houses which 
need not be mentioned here, constituted a multitude of places 
of resort into and through which there constantly thronged a 
motley crowd composed to a large extent in those days of a very 
unsavory and disreputable element. 

When these matters are considered at the present time 
we cannot wonder why it was that an agency above and beyond 
the law itself was invoked in order that life and property might 
be protected and the city relieved of its burden of thieves, 
cutthroats, plunderers and robbers. 

Chapter XIII 
Laramie County 

Cheyenne Continued — Law Enforcement — The Vigilantes 
Organized in January, 1868, with a Membership of 
200, known as "Gunny Sack Brigade," Effective in 
Eliminating Desperadoes — The Town's Biggest Liar — 
Vigilantes Told No Tales. 

Where the law is supreme and unobstructed and can be 
promptly and efficiently enforced, lynch law is never justifiable 
and should never be resorted to. Where, however, the authori- 
ties are powerless to act — or if they do so act with public enemies 
openly or covertly — then it sometimes happens that lynch law 
is the only apparently practicable way by which life and 
property can be protected, then the case is far different, but 
even then should never be resorted to until all other means 
have been tried and found unavailing. 

He who should either by voice or pen assert or insinuate 
that there ever was a time in the histoi y of Cheyenne when its 
authorities operated openly or covertly — or were in the slightest 



degree in sympathy — with the lawless element which was such 
a wretched and unholy burden to the city during the early 
days, would be little else than a libeller and a gross falsifyer. 
There may have been an instance or two where subordinate 
officers sympathized or acted with this rabble, but so soon as 
that fact was ascertained or suspected, the guilty parties were 
immediately — if an inelegant phrase will be pardoned — '"fired 
out," or in other words, removed. The noble men who com- 
posed the advance guard and who struggled so long and faith- 
fully to preserve law and good government in Cheyenne, 
many of whose names are mentioned in this record of events, 
never did prove untrue in the slightest degree to the best in- 
terests of their fellow citizens. But while this is the case, how- 
ever, it would not be doing injustice in any guarter to say that 
at the beginning of the year 1868 the local authorities, aided 
though they were by the ""Committee of Safety," were not able 
to afford such a degree of protection to the people as they 
were entitled to at the hands of somebody, and, as the sequel 
shows, the somebody needed was found among the people 

The organization of the Vigilantes is, of course, what is 
meant. It should be stated, however, that as no one has ever 
yet been found who cared to admit that he was a member of 
the "gunny sack brigade" as it was sometimes called, but 
little can be said of how, when or through whose individual 
agency the organization was formed. Practical results alone 
are available. 

The Vigilantes were first organized about the middle of 
January 1868, and numbered some 200 men at the outset, 
which number was considerably increased later on. The 
leader of the organization — or one of them at least — was a 
man named Warren, who long ago ceased to be a resident 
of Cheyenne. Usually when the Vigilantes turned out for active 
service they wore soldier's overcoats, which in those days were 
not hard to obtain. For masks they usually had pulled over 
their heads gunny sacks with convenient holes cut therein 
for the eyes. From this fact the term ""gunny sack brigade" was 
applied to them. 

A large share of the very effectual work done by this organi- 
zation was on the quiet. The members of the ""brigade" would 
very quietly ""spot" their man, and in nearly every instance 
he would be quietly waited upon by some one in the secrets 
of the organization who would advise him that his health would 
probably be much improved by a trip to — well, somewhere. 
If the person waited upon was wise he never waited to be 
advised of this fact the second time. If he refused to go the 
next experience he would have would be something like this: 
He would, perhaps, be in some saloon at night taking a drink 


with a friend when someone would very gently tap him on the 
shoulder with the remark "'say pard there's a gentleman just 
outside who would like to speak with you a moment." In 
obedience to this summons the victim would step outside and 
perhaps a rod or two around the next corner only to find him- 
self in the presence of scores of masked men. Not a word 
would be said except the simple and quiet remark, '"come 
with us." No explanation or promises were of any avail a+ 
that stage of the proceedings, and almost without a word the 
hilarious and brutal villian would be taken out to the edge 
of the city where a rope with a telegraph pole, or, for the want 
of something better, a wagon tongue fastened up at an angle 
of forty-five degrees would do the work in short order. 

When the ways and methods of this Vigilante organization 
once became known they struck such a terror to the hearts of 
the cutthroats, thieves and plunderers who swarmed about 
the city in the early months of the year 1868, that hundreds 
of them disappeared never to return to the ''Magic City of the 
Plains" again. 

It always has been, and, of course, is now, impossible to 
give the names of the victims or even the number that were 
summarily disposed of by the "gunny sack brigade" during 
the year 1868, but those who were residents of Cheyenne at 
the time nearly all agree that there were as many as twenty at 
least, and that hundreds, even, were driven out of the city. 

Among the first of the victims of the Vigilantes was a 
young man named Charles Martin who had a young wife and 
one child — a boy — in Missouri, but who prior to his advent 
in Cheyenne had shot and killed several men. He arrived in 
Cheyenne almost as soon as the town was started and almost 
immediately thereafter was accused of being implicated in the 
robbery of General Dandy of the sum of $5,000. A man named 
Jones was also accused of assisting in the robbery. With the 
money thus, or in some other equally disreputable way obtained, 
Martin and Jones built Beauvis Hall, but after awhile got into 
a quarrel which resulted in the shooting and killing of Jones 
by Martin. This occurred in February, 1868. Martin was at 
once arrested and for want of a secure place to confine him he 
was placed in charge of an officer who had to take him around 
the streets with a ball and chain attached to one of his feet. 
When the March term of court convened Martin was indicted 
for murder and put on trial, but through some bogus process 
which the jury might have misunderstood he was acquitted. 
W. W. Corlett assisted in the prosecution of the case for which 
Martin swore he would have revenge. 

After he had been discharged from custody Martin bought 
a plug hat and later on the same day, March 19, he procured 
a livery team and went driving around the city with a couple 


of women as his companions. J. W. Slaughter, afterwards 
city marshal who had known Martin prior to his arrival in 
Cheyenne, took Martin to one side and advised him to be care- 
ful or he would get himself into trouble. He paid no attention 
to the warning and toward night while taking a drink in at 

McDaniel's theatre on Eddy Street Martin exclaimed '"By 

I'll have Corlett for breakfast in the morning as sure as my 
name is Martin." 

That night Martin went into a dance house which stood on 
the site of the brick building between the Carey Block and the 
Knights of Pythias building on Seventeenth Street, and while in 
there someone tapped him on the shoulder and asked him to step 
to the door for a moment. He did so and found 200 masked men 
waiting to '"see" him. As soon as it became known in the 
dance hall what was going on, people began jumping out of 
the windows and scampering for the back door, so that in three 
minutes there was not a soul left in the building except the 
fiddler who, perched on a dry goods box at the north end of the 
hall, kept sawing away, too drunk to comprehend the real 

In spite of Martin's protest and promises he was marched 
away by the "brigade" who took him to a point just east of where 
the Warren Emporium now stands, Capitol and I6th, where he 
was hanged to a telegraph pole which had been set in the 
ground there for some purpose. Martin's protests and lamen- 
tations were heard clear over to a point on Seventeenth Street 
just east of the residence of Governor Warren. It was claimed 
that Martin confessed to the robbery of Gen. Dandy, but this 
is somewhat doubtful. Mr. Cor left, who had heard neither 
of the threats Martin had made nor of his hanging, was very 
much surprised the next morning, but did not give way to 
uncontrollable paroxsyms of grief over the affair. 

Of course, not all of the hard characters then in Cheyenne 
received the special attention of the Vigilantes, for many of 
them were so guarded in their disreputable work that they were 
not generally known, and many matters which occurred during 
the 'vigilante days" were not considered of such importance 
as to demand and receive attention from the members of the 

Among the "small fry" disreputables was "Dirty Mike" 
who acguired his peculiar name — not from his personal habits 
regarding cleanliness — but from the multitude of mean things 

he was known to do and then he would shoot at the 

"drop of the hat" if occasion required. Coming into Tim 
Dyer's place late one night he demanded a loan of five dollars 
which the proprietor refused to give him until he paid up an 
old debt which he owed at that place. "Mike" at the time had 
his revolver drawn and before Dyer could get his, Mike had 


his own pointed at Dyer's head. He had the ''drop" on the 
proprietor, but still failed to get the money. A few nights 
later he came in again and a good opportunity presenting itself 
Dyer hit him, knocking Mike about twenty feet, and before he 
could recover himself Dyer had his revolver pointed where it 
would do the most harm. In obediance to orders which he 
then received Mike departed and never troubled that place 
again. At leng+h he got so badly demoralized that he ceased 
to be dangerous, and devoted the greater part of his time to 
drinking whiskey and quarreling with his wife. Being ac- 
quainted with Judge Kuykendall, then Judge of Probate and 
ex-officio Justice of the Peace, Mike would rush to his office 
every time he had a row with his wife and demand a warrant. 
At such times the Judge would quiet him down, give him a 
little advice, and send him back up with his wife. Finally one 
day Mike came rushing in, his face all covered with blood, and 
exclaimed "that settles it" and explained that he had been en- 
gaged in another row with his wife. The Judge wanted to 
know who got the worst of it. ''Who got the worst of it" ex- 
claimed Mike, "why just look at me; don't my countenance 
show for itself? And I tell you what it is; this matter can't be 
fixed up again. My wife is a regular son of a gun — why Judge 
that ain't all; she's the biggest liar in the territory. She's a 
bigger liar than either you or I." 

The Judge thought the joke was too good to keep, and 
finally told it on himself. 

"Sleepy Bill" was another character similar to Mike, and 
his exploits would, if put in print, make a book of itself. Finally 
Bill and other hard cases, were made the subject of a special 
order by the Vigilantes to leave the city, and they did so. 

Along in February, 1868, a row occurred on O'Neil Street 
(then one of the principal streets of the city) in which three men 
were shot and badly injured. The shooting was done by a 
regular organized band of roughs who were just then, however, 
being looked after by the Vigilantes. There was quite a large 
number of respectable citizens near at hand when the row took 
place, and some of them interfered against the desperadoes, 
one of whom was Dan Cunningham, an exceedingly hard 
character. After the affair was over some thirteen or fourteen 
of the respectable element present came down to Eddy Street 
and into Dyer's place to get some drinks, etc. Cunningham 
and a large party of roughs followed and commenced firing 
through the windows and doors. The place was cleared 
almost instantly, the crowd rushing out the back door. Tim 
Dyer, however, stood his ground and got a bullet through his 
coat. The next morning forty-eight bullets were picked up on 
the floor or dug out of the walls, and benches in the bar room. 
The next night the roughs put up a job to kill Mr. Dyer, but be- 


fore they made their appearance at his place the west side of 
Eddy Street was hned with Vigilantes — more than two hundred 
in number — and all wearing soldiers' overcoats. 

The Vigilantes, who had been put on the track of the Cun- 
ningham desperadoes for some time, at length succeeded in 
wiping out that gang entirely. Cunningham and several 
others were run out of the city, barely escaping with their lives, 
but they did not all of them fare so well. Getting track of the 
direction they had taken, nearly one hundred of the Vigilantes 
followed them to Dale Creek City — at present composed of 
two '"dugouts" and a cellar hole, but then being a place of six 
hundred inhabitants — about forty miles west of Cheyenne, 
where three of the gang ""Shorty", Jack Hays, and Jim Kief, 
were captured, and uncermoniously strung up to the nearest 
tree. The balance of this disreputable outfit made good their 

'"Oh yes," said a reliable old timer in Cheyenne in the 
fall of 1885, in answer to a guestion asked of him by the writer, 
""Oh yes, there were a good many rascals hung by the Vigilantes 
in the Vigilante days, of whom we knew but very little, much 
less their names. Do you see away up Seventeenth Street 
where Fred Addams' house stands? Well, I saw one morning 
five fellows hanging up there in a row to the wagon-tongues of 
a camping outfit which had been propped up at the right angle 
for that especial occasion. I don't know who they were. It 
was none of my business, and you can bet your life I asked no 

And so it was in those days. The Vigilantes would string 
up the desperadoes, and other people did not care to be too 
inguisitive in regard to the doings of the ""brigade" and, of 
course, the members of the vigilance committee ""told no tales 
out of school," nor did they ever even years afterwards, for 
obvious reasons, care to say very much about their operations 
at that time. 

A careful investigation has failed to discover, however, 
a single instance in which the early day Vigilantes ever made 
a mistake, and hung up an innocent man, as is too often the 
case with organizations of this sort. 

For some months after the Dale Creek raid the Vigilantes 
continued to remain on the alert, and from time to time gave 
out word, or issued ""orders" as they were called at that time, 
to certain parties to leave the city, and these orders were almosi 
in every instance promptly obeyed. In several instances where 
parties were arrested and tried for the commission of some 
offence, and for some reason acquitted or discharged, the 
Vigilantes would take the matter up where the authorities left 
off, and the offender promptly run out of the city. 


A desperado named Musgrove from Denver, hovered 
around Cheyenne from time to time in those early days, but 
always succeeded in keeping out of the reach not only of the 
vigilance committee, but of the officers of the law, who frequen- 
tly had papers in their hands for his arrest on henious charges 
against him in Colorado. Finally, however, he was arrested 
some distance out on the Ft. Laramie road by Frank Hunter, one 
of the several U. S. Marshals in Cheyenne at that time — N. J. 
O'Brien and J. L. Laird also being officers of this kind — and 
taken to Denver. On arriving in Denver a mob took Musgrove 
out of Hunter's custody and hung him on the Cherry Creek 

As mention has elsewhere been made of the first election 
under the laws of Dakota for county and city officers, and the 
result given, it need not be referred to again. We will hasten 
to consider important events occurring in the year 1869. 

Chapter XIV 

Laramie County 

Cheyenne Becomes a Permanent City — Business Estab- 
lished — Indian Troubles — Douglas Killed — Denver- 
Pacific Railroad Construction Begun — Members of First 
Legislative Assembly Elected. 

When the spring of 1869 arrived Cheyenne was at the 
zenith of its early day glory, in many respects at least. The 
city had attained very considerable properties, business of all 
kinds was good, and many of its citizens were fast amassing 
wealth, and fortunes were being made in spite of the difficulties 
through which the people of the city had struggled. They had 
placed Cheyenne upon a firm and reliable basis, and it had 
already been demonstrated that although the Union Pacific 
Railroad might push westward 'The Magic City of the Plains" 
would not move on with it, but that it would remain on the 
banks of Crow Creek, and eventually be one of the most im- 
portant towns of the far west, as it already was of the embryo 
territory as yet not fully organized. To be sure, Cheyenne 
had a dark side as we have already seen, but the great mass of 
its people at that time were honest, industrious, energetic and 
ambitious, and the future seemed bright and hopeful. Many 
substantial buildings had been erected, and many more were in 
prospect. A large and lucrative freighting business from 
Cheyenne to the northern military posts and elsewhere had 
already sprung up. A large number of enterprising business 
men, among whom might be mentioned, S. F. Nuckolls, A. R. 
Converse, E. Nagle,, Benjamin Hillman, F. E. Warren, Henry 
Altman, H. H. Ellis, S. A. Bristol, M, E. Post, A. G. McGregor, 


I. C. Whipple, D. F. Whipple, Henry Houseman, (Here several 
lines of blank space in the manuscript evidence the author's 
intention to add other names. — Ed.) and many others had arrived 
in the city, and were already actively engaged in merchantile 
and other pursuits. A term of court under the laws of Dakota 
had already been held, and Cheyenne already had a bar which 
would compare favorably with that at Omaha, or Denver, such 
lawyers as W. W. Corlett, E. P. Johnson, T. J. Street, I. W. Cook, 
W. J. Miller, H. Garbanti, J. R. Whitehead, W. L. Kuykendall 
being among its members. 

The medical profession was also ably represented by Dr. 
G. W. Corey, Dr. Geo. H. Russell, (Here a line of blank space 
was left in the manuscript for additional names. — Ed.) and 
others — gentlemen who thoroughly understood the science 
of medicine, and practiced it successfully. The city then had 
three newspapers well edited by competent newspaper men. 
The Western Union and the Union Pacific telegraph lines were, 
of course, completed and in running order to the city. Work 
had been started leading southward on what, in less than a 
year, became the Denver Pacific R. R. connecting Cheyenne 
with the metropolis of Colorado, and ere the summer wore away 
the Cheyenne and Iron Mountain R. R. Company was organized 
for the purpose of connecting the "'Magic City" by rail with the 

Such were the prospects and situation at the beginning of 
the year 1869 after a somewhat less eventful winter than the 
one which preceded it — prospects destined to be temporarily 
blighted, however, in some respects by the soon-to-come stam- 
pede of a large portion of its floating and transient population 
westward as the Union Pacific was gradually extended in that 

During the summer of 1869 Cheyenne was again agitated 
and alarmed upon the Indian question, and much apprehension 
was at times felt for the safety of the city. The Sioux, who 
had never ceased entirely from committing depredations in the 
northern region of the country, had been attracted to the line 
of the Union Pacific by the many opportunities which were 
afforded them of making raids on isolated parties of graders, 
etc., and had in the main confined their depredations to that 
quarter since the spring of 1868, and as has already been 
seen, made much trouble for the people living in and around 
Cheyenne in the summer and autumn of 1867. From that time 
they made frequent raids across the railroad track some distance 
east of Cheyenne, and committed many depredations in north- 
ern Colorado. They even made their appearance a number 
of times in the vicinity of Ft. Collins, Colorado. At length they 
turned their attention in the direction of Cheyenne and came 
alarmingly near to it several times. 


On the 16th of August, 1869, a man named Douglas who 
was out to the southeast of the city and but a short distance 
from where now stands the packing house operated by W. H. 
Lowe & Co., and while there was suddenly attacked by a small 
party of Indians who rode rapidly up from a point where they 
had been concealed behind the bluff. He was hit by as many 
as three arrows, one of which went through his right arm. He 
fell to the ground and was scalped by the Indians who sup- 
posing him to be dead rode swiftly back across and beyond 
the bluffs. 

Persons who had observed the tragic event from a distance 
immediately gave the alarm and a strong party well armed 
sallied forth. When Douglas was found, although scalped, 
he was not dead, but died soon after being brought into the 
city. This affair created great alarm and a meeting was called 
for the purpose of organizing a military company for protection, 
as it was apprehended that the Sioux might make a sudden 
dash into the city while the people were unprepared, and per- 
haps murder large numbers of people and burn the town before 
the troops from Ft. Russell could come to the rescue. The 
result of the meeting was that a military company was organized 
of which Judge Kuykendall — a man who was ever egual to 
any emergency — was made the captain, and for some weeks 
after, a portion of this company were on the alert both day and 
night. The Indians, however, did not venture to attack the 
town though they made their appearance on the bluffs south 
of the city several times later in the season. 

Many depredations, however, were committed not far away 
and during the summer and fall of that year not less than thirty 
people were killed within a radius of fifty miles of Cheyenne, 
a large majority of them being men engaged in grading and 
other work for the railroad company — several, however, being 
men at work on the D. P. R. R., the construction of which from 
Cheyenne southward toward Denver was pushed vigorously 
during the summer and fall of 1869. By the 1st of December 
this road was completed to Evans, Colorado, so that Cheyenne 
had communication by rail with that place suring the winter 
of '69-' 70. The next season it was finished to Denver. 

The result of the election for members of the First Legisla- 
tive Assembly of Wyoming held September 2nd, 1869, in com- 
pliance with the proclamation of Governor Campbell issued 
August 3d has already been given. While it is not the inlention 
to give much prominence to political campaigns in this work — 
which in the early history of the territory and county were very 
bitter, although political lines were not always, nor at present 
for that matter, very strictly observed — yet the first congres- 
sional campaign in Laramie County was such a remarkable one 
in some respects that a correct history of those early days 
would not be complete were it to be omitted. 


The Democratic party placed in nomination as their can- 
didate for delegate in Congress (for a one year term only) Hon. 
S. F. Nuckolls, one of the leading business men of the territory, 
and well known throughout its entire extent. He was capable 
and honest, and was also guite wealthy. 

The Republicans for the same position put forward Hon. 
W. W. Corlett, the most able and brilliant member of the bar 
in the territory, who had made considerable money since his 
advent in Cheyenne where he then (as now) had his residence. 
Mr. Corlett was rather averse to entering the political field, 
but having been nominated by the Republicans of Dakota as 
their candidate for territorial auditor (an elective office at that 
time in Dakota) and because of the organization of Wyoming 
territory he consented to run as the candidate for delagate in 
Congress against his better judgment, probably for the reason 
thai the Dakota nomination which he had been obliged to forego 
had awakened in his mind certain political aspirations. 

The campaign which ensued (members of the legislature 
being voted for also) was very bitter, and to all outward ap- 
pearances a very close one. Why it was, or how it originally 
came about is hard to explain or understand at this late day, but 
before the campaign had progressed very far money began to 
be freely used, and this fact has had an effect and an influence 
in politics in Wyoming from which it has never recovered. 
Both candidates went through the territory and made speeches 
to large crowds of people, but the most effectual work was done 
in a more guiet way. 

In Cheyenne great meetings were held nearly every night, 
and music, speeches and bonfires served to enthuse the multi- 
tude to a wonderful extent, who would cheer themselves hoarse, 
but later on could scarcely explain what the cheering was for. 
Tom would cheer because Harry did, and Dick would cheer 
for the reason that the two gentlemen first mentioned had given 
vent to their feelings in voiceful clamor. On one occasion 
while Mr. Corlett was making a speech a crowd of political 
opponents who stood some distance away commenced to cry 
"put him out, put him out" etc. Corlett stopped short in his 
speech and turning to the presiding genius of the occasion 
Dr. G. W. Corey, exclaimed "Mr. Chairman, the scriptures 
tell us that if we ever get to heaven we must be born again. 
Well, I presume this is so, and that those fellows over there 
(pointing to the crowd) will be found in the same boat with the 
rest of the human iamily. There is one thing I hope, however, 
and that is, if those fellows are ever born again, they will all be 
still born." 

The members of the crowd to which the speaker alluded 
were no+ heard from again on that occasion. The result of the 


election, however, was averse to Mr. Corlett, his opponent 
being elected by a large majority. Below, the number of votes 
cast in each county in the territory is given: 



Albany County 



Carbon County 



Laramie County 



Sweetwater County 



Uinta County 



Total 1963 3331 

Majority for Nuckolls 1 368 

After the election was over each side accused the other of 
fraud and some very uncomplimentary things were said pro and 
con, but the bitterness engendered by the spirited contest soon 
died away, and was in time entirely forgotten. 

The official census as taken by governmental authority 
in the summer of 1870 is herewith given. 

Laramie County 2965 

Albany County 2022 

Sweetwater County 1916 

Carbon County 1368 

Uinta County 857 

Total in the territory 9126 

CTo be Continued) 



(From THE BENTON RECORD, Fort Benton, Montana, Friday, March 27, 1878) 

The newest silver tea-sets are "'square shaped." 

Knitted petticoats increase in favor, especially for children. 

New bracelets are serpents of gold or silver, with bright 
jewels for eyes. 

Irish tapestry is the new ecru, and brown linen, used for 
furniture covers and lambrequins. 

A woman of Dunferline, Scotland, has just died of drinking 
strong +ea and another is dying. 

Transparent sleeves are so fashionable that grenadine 
sleeves will be made this summer without lining. 

La Creole is the most stylish breakfast cap worn. This is 
made of a gay striped silk handkerchief and trimmed with lace. 

Rich India colors are seen in all the new spring goods; in 
percales and cambrics as well as in the more expensive mate- 

If a girl has a hankering to plunge into matrimony, let her 
get a situation in a dressmaking establishment, remarks an old 

Cut-away jackets, wi+h short skirts, were originally intro- 
duced for school girls, but ladies of a larger growth have also 
adopted them, and have made them popular. 

Caterpillar fringe is imported for trimming spring suits. 
This fringe has secured its name by having inch-long cable 
cords covered with shaded yellow or green floss. 

A new style of note paper is in the shape of a card, in the 
left corner of which is an open fan, each stick having a letter 
on, which together spell the day of the week. 

The silk and wool mixture of overdresses are what mer- 
chants consider genuine bourettes, though the name has be- 
come common on any material with rough threads. 

There is no sort of company so agreeable as that of women 
who have good sense without affectation, and can converse with 
men without any design of imposing chains and fetters. 

The "'Fra Diavolo" is the newest round hat for spring. 
This stylish shape is trimmed a little on one side and is becoming 
to most faces. 

Box plaited flounces of medium depth, ornamented with 
rows of Tom Thumb fringe, appear on the front breadths of the 
latest improved dresses. 

Woolen stuffs of light weight for early spring wear are 
very soft and flexible, though they have rough threads raised 


above the surface in long horizontal dashes, or as if tied in 
knots, or else boucle in small round rings, curls, or frizzed ends. 
Among the new spring goods just received are many ma- 
terials with a rough surface, much like those worn this winter, 
but much lighter. An odd combination of colors seen in these 
goods is pale blue and olive green — the groundwork of pale 
blue and the rough threads of the other color. 


to the 

January 1, 1941, to March 31, 1941. 

Books -- Gifts 

Banning, William- — Six Horses. 1930. 

Gift of the author. 
Donnelly, Thomas C. — Rocky Mountain Politics. 1940. Gilt of Dr. Henry J. 

Peterson, Laramie, Wyoming. 
Ferris, Warren A.- — Life in the Rocky Mountains. 1940. Gift of Fred A. Rosen- 
stock, Denver, Colorado. 
Gage, Jack — Geography of Wyoming. 1940. Gift of author. 
Peterson, Henry J. — The Constitutional Convention of Wyoming. Gift of the 

Rankin, M. Wilson — Reminiscences of Frontier Days. 1935. Gift of the author. 
Union Pacific Coal Company- — History of the Union Pacific Coal Mines, 1869- 

1940. Gift of the author. 
Voth, Hazel Hunt— Yellowstone National Park. A Bibliography. 1940. Gift 

of the Yellowstone Library and Museum Association. 
Wentworth, Col. Ed. N.- — Historical Phases of the Sheep Industry of Wyoming. 

1940. Gift of the author. 
Yellowstone Highway Association- — Official Route Book of the Yellowstone 

Highway Association. Gift of the author. 

Books " Purchased 

Fremont, John Charles — Fremont. Memoirs of My Life. 1887. 

King, Captain Charles — Laramie, or Queen of Bedlam, the Story of the Sioux 

War. 1889. 
King, Captain Charles — Trumpeter Fred, A Story of the Plains. 1896. 
Morris, Robert C. — Collections of the ^Wyoming Historical Society. 1897. 

Autographed by Wm. A. Richards, Governor of^Wyoming in 1895-1899. 
Nevins, Allan- — Fremont, the West's Greatest Adventurer. 1928. 
Renaud, E. B. — Classification and Description of Indian Stone Artifacts. 1941. 
Russell, Osborne — Journal of a Trapper, or Nine Years in the Rocky Mountains, 

1834-1843. 1921. 
Ward, Louisa A. — Chalk Creek, Colorado (The Old Western Series No. 9.) 



Pictures — Gifts 

Office of Live Stock & Sanitary Board, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Large framed 
photograph of Yellowstone Park scenes, taken by William H. Jackson, 
in 1892. 28" x 5 ft. AVi' . 

Dubois, William, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Photograph of Esther Morris, Mother 
of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming, in oval v^alnut frame; 16" x 19". 

Howard, L. B., Rock Springs, Wyoming — Framed Lithograph from the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition at Philadelphis, Pa., in 1867. 

Rowley, Edward, Douglas, Wyoming — Picture of miniature reproduction of 
old Fort Fetterman, made by donor. 1Y^' x 63^".- 

Johnson, William Templeton, 3255 Front Street, San Diego, California — 
Picture of Trading Post of J. W. Dear, Red Cloud Agency, eastern Wyo- 
ming, on Horse Creek at Nebraska line. In the 1870's. 10"xl2". 

Gereke, A. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Picture cut of Percy Hoyt, 4" x 6" 1904. 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Smith, Governor Nels H., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Bound volume of the 1917 
issues of the Daily Capital Journal, Pierre, South Dakota; bound volume 
of the 1905 issues of Pierre Daily Dakotan. 

Howard, L. B., 89 Pine Street, Rock Springs, Wyoming — A small whiskey 
bottle found by the donor many years ago, and presumed by him to 
be from the days of the Old Pony Express; size 43^" x 3J4". 

St. Paul Public Library, St. Paul, Minnesota — Register, leather bound, of old 
Inter-Ocean Hotel, Cheyenne, Wyoming, from February 4, 1898, to July 
19, 1898. 13H" X 16". 

Kirkbride, Mrs. Alex, 416 W. 25th Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming' — Pair of 
English clogs, brought from England in 1900. The clogs have wooden 
soles, and are worn by the English for outdoor work. 

Thompson, H. E., 808 E. 22nd Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming- — Jasper Eye agate, 
picked up in 1940, near top of Continental Divide, about 18 miles 
east of Laramie. 53^" x 11". 

MacClean, E. S., Buffalo, Wyoming — Four shark teeth found in the oil field, 
Midwest, Wyoming; six dinosaur gizzard stones found at Shell, Big 
Horn County, Wyoming; piece of petrified snake vertebrae. 

Carnegie Library, Laramie, Wyoming, through Elizabeth Abbott Garber— 
One copy Cheyenne City Directory, 1895. 

Howard, L. B., 89 Pine Street, Rock Springs, Wyoming — Copy of the Cosmo- 
politan magazine of August, 1896, from the home of William F. Cody 
("Buffalo Bill"). 

QnnaU oi Wxi 


>lume 13 



July, 1941 



No. 3 




— CourfeKi/. Library, IVyoming Utiirersify 

Rev. John Roberts at the Grave of Sacajawea and her Sons, Baptiste and Ba.zil, 
in the Indian Cemetery at Fort Washakie. Chapel in the background. 

Published Quarterly 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 

CtttnaU ol Wxjominc 

Volume 13 July, 1941 No. 3 


SACAJAWEA. A Symposium 163 

Supplement A, "Sacajawea's Memorials" 184 

Supplement B, Report by Dr. Charles A. Eastman, 

Inspector and Investigator, 1925 187 

SACAJAWEA (A Poem) 194 

By Porter B. Coolidge 

By Dr. Henry J. Peterson 




By Alice M. Shields 


Chapters XV, XVI and XVII 217 






(Front Cover) 







AGENCY IN 1877 182 



Published Quarterly 




State Librarian and Historian 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


The State Historical Board, the State Advisory Board and the State His- 
torical Department assume no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion 
expressed by contributors to the ANNALS OF WYOMING. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation of 
museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of Wyoming 
citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those familiar with im- 
portant and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyoming 
and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical magazine, ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, is one medium through which the Department seeks to gain 
this objective. All communications concerning the ANNALS should be ad- 
dressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Committee, 
Wyoming County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription price, 
$1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1941, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President Governor 

Lester C. Hunt Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Mart T. Christensen State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary .... State Librarian & Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byran, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Frison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Bert Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilton, 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lett, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorpe, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 


State Museum 

Gladys F. Riley State Librarian & Historian 

Inez Babb Taylor Assistant Historian 

— Courtesy, Library, Wyoming University 

Monuments of Sacajawea: (top) At Portland, Oregon, with Dr. Hebard; 
at Louisiana Purchase Exposition grounds, St. Louis; (bottom) at Bismarck, 
N. D., and at Charlottesville, Va., Lewis and Clark, and Sacajawea. 





On periodic waves of public interest has the heroic and 
notable character, SACAJAWEA, risen to national distinction 
and renown, since the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at Saint 
Louis, Missouri, in 1904 (known also as the Lewis and Clark 

Chosen as an outstanding historical figure by the expo- 
sition management, she was given an important place in the 
commemorative features of that observance. The event com- 
memorated not only the acguiring, by the United States, of the 
vast uncharted territory west of the Mississippi River known 
as "The Louisiana Purchase," but also it celebrated the cen- 
tennial of the subseguent exploring expedition in charge of 
Meriweather Lewis and William Clark, sent out by President 
Thomas Jefferson. 

Sacajawea — the only woman accompanying the expedition 
— by her uncanny sense of direction, her general capability 
as a guide and interpreter, her uncomplaining endurance, 
together with her resourcefulness, loyalty and heroism in 
situations of danger and hardship — proved to be of untold value 
in safeguarding the party in its perilous trip over the plains, 
across rivers and mountains, and the ultimate success of the 
entire venture. While her husband, Toissant Charbonneau, 
an uncouth Frenchman, was officially employed as a guide 
and interpreter and was paid $500.00 for the trip, his '"sguar" 
(sguaw) received nothing, though Clark later bestowed personal 
favors upon the fam.ily and gave them material assistance. 

During the intervening decades her name has graced the 
pages of half a hundred volumes of American history and 
fiction, and her figure — carved in stone, or painted on canvas 
— adorns a score of public places throughout the Nation. i 

Named as Important in American History 

Early in 1941, wide-spread attention was focused again 
on Sacajawea when James Truslow Adams 2 named her as one 

1 See Supplement A, list of memorials as recorded by Dr. Hebard, in her 
Sacajawea. more details of both the author and her work being given later 

in this symposium. 

2. Mr. Adams, for fifteen years an Elector of the Hall of Fame, made the 
announcement of his selections in the February, 1941, issue of the Good 
Housekeeping magazine, by an article entitled, "The Six Most Important 



of six American women who have been "'the most important 
in American History," and as being one of those 'who has 
definitely left her stamp on American life and institutions.' 

Governor Smith Cites Historic Spot 

Wyoming public interest in the subject was further re- 
newed on May 22, 1941, when Governor Nels H. Smith re- 
quested that the Wyoming Landmarks Commission give atten- 
tion, this summer, to the historical site of Sacajawea's grave 
in Fremont County, Wyoming, in recognition of that extra- 
ordinary honor reflecting to this State. 3 

For the first time in its history, the National Geographic 
Society has included the site of Sacajawea's grave in Wyoming, 
on its 1941 map of northwestern states. 

Claim to Sacajawea Strengthened 

With these recent developments, it is brought to mind 
that the long claim of Wyoming to Sacajawea's last resting 
place has been strengthened through the years by an accumu- 
lation of testimony and findings which has created an almost 
impregnable bulwark of evidence. Therefore, in the limited 

American Women." While the birth year of the woman in which Wyoming 
is so highly interested, is given by him as 1788, the date of her death is indi- 
cated as being a guestion, and he does not cite her place of burial. He spells 
the name, S-a-c-a-g-a-w-e-a, substituting a "g" for the "j" commonly accepted 
by Wyoming historians, and under a sub-title, "Sacagawea", in the article, 
says of her:- 

. a Shoshone Indian, whose name is probably unknown to the 
majority of Americans, but who played a great part in the development of 
our nation. After President Thomas Jefferson had bought from Napolean the 
great, and more or less undefined, territory called the "Louisiana Purchase" 
of the land west of the Mississippi, he sent an expedition under Lewis and 
Clark to explore what is now our extreme Northwest out to Oregon. This 
Indian girl went with them as interpreter, and it was largely due to her services 
that the expedition was successful and that the Oregon country is today part 
of the United States. The "Bird Woman," as her name is translated, was, 
consequently, one of the real founders of the greater nation." 

3. As a result of Governor Smith's request, the Landmarks Commission 
has planned the erection and dedication of a monument, in the early Fall ol 
1941, on U. S. Highway No. 287, about fifteen miles northwest of Lander, and 
a brief mile or two from the site of the old Indian cemetery, in the picturesque 
Lander Valley so beautifully described by the Reverend John Roberts, D.D., 
L.L.D., on page 174 of this symposium. 

Members of the Wyoming Landmarks Commission are: Warren Richardson, 
president; John Charles Thompson, treasurer, both of Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
and Joseph Weppner, of Rock Springs, secretary. 

A sub-committee was appointed to assist the Commission with program 
plans, with the venerable and beloved Reverend Roberts, of Fort Washakie, 
Wyoming, as chairman. The other members of the committee are: Mrs. Bryant 
B. Brooks, of Casper; Mrs. Lenora Harnsberger Stone, of Lander; Mr. Thompson, 
and Mrs. Inez Babb Taylor, Assistant State Historian, of Cheyenne. 


space of these pages, attempt is made to give this important 
subject, with its numerous ramifications, a prespective as 
clear and accurate as possible — evidenced by the findings 
of some of those who have given it serious study for periods 
of time ranging from a few months or years, to a whole life — 
from which the reader may make his own deductions and 
arrive at his own conclusions. 

Enigma Offers Lure of Romance 

Fascinating in the extreme is the thrilling story of the 
young Shoshone Indian maiden, who, with her little papoose, 
Baptiste, on her back , accompanied Lewis and Clark and party 
on their memorable western expedition of 1805-1806, and is 
one of the most exciting chapters in American history. It is 
comparable only to the romance of the careful unraveling of 
the life history of an aged Shoshone Indian woman who, on 
April 9, 1884 — nearly four score years later — died in the night- 
time on a pallet of blankets in a Government log dwelling at 
the Fort Washakie Indian Agency on the Wind River Reservation 
in Wyoming. 

The former, for almost four decades, has provided a color- 
ful and romantic subject for scores of writers of fiction and history 
from coast to coast, while the latter has been a puzzling enigma 
which lured researchers to divers points throughout the length 
and breadth of the Nation — and even to the other side of the 
globe — in attempting to learn whether the youthful maiden 
and the old woman, known on the Reservation as ''Bazil's 
Mother," were one and the same. 

At times in the past, controversy has been rampant, and 
numerous conflicting opinions have existed, but finally, bit 
by bit, the fragile threads of the tapestry into which are woven 
the events of a distant period, bedimmed and befogged by the 
passing of more than a century and a half, have been assembled 
by various researchers throughout the years, into a picture so 
complete and so convincing in its entirety that the few missing 
fragments here and there are insignificant in effect when viewed 
as a whole. 

Historians, Researchers Ferret Out Facts 

This panoramic historical fact-scene has been painted 
vividly upon the canvas of Time with painstaking craftsman- 
ship and patience. It is the priceless work of numerous fervent 
and sincere seekers after Truth — artists in their respective 
professions as historians, research experts and archivists — 
highlighted now and then by an extraordinary stroke of some 


talented layman, such as Alick F. C. Greene, of Fort Washakie, 
Wyoming. He is a son-in-law of that historical pioneer character, 
Finn Burnett, early farm foreman on the Reservation, who was 
memorialized in 1937 by Robert B. David, in his 378-page 
work entitled, 'Tinn Burnett, Frontiersman." 

Mr. (Greene, in a recent interview with a new witness. 
Pandora Pogue, aged Shoshone woman on the Wind River 
Reservation, secured new testimony which is another link in 
the chain of evidence establishing the identity of "Bazil's 
Mother" as Sacajawea, in corroboration of all the previous 
evidence. He also interviewed Quintan Quay, aged Indian 
still living on the Reservation, whose testimony Dr. Hebard 
likewise obtained and recorded. 

Further details of Mr. Greene's findings and work appear 
as a concluding part of this symposium. 

Dr. Hebard Leads the Way 

Foremost in the group of Wyoming historians above men- 
tioned is the late Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard,* brilliant Wyo- 
ming educator whose impassioned ambition to uncover the 
truth concerning the entire life of Sacajawea has made her 
own name, in this State, almost synonymous with her subject. 

Associated for more than fifty years with the University 
of Wyoming at Laramie, Dr. Hebard is the author of nearly a 
score of historical works, culminating with her masterpiece, 
the 321 -page book, Sacajawea, published in 1932.4 That 
volume — with its complete bibliography of approximately 120 
sources of information from which her material was gleaned — 
is a lasting monument to herself and to her high hopes that the 
United States Government would eventually give recognition 
to Wyoming, in whose arms she believed her heroine to lie 
clasped in the last long sleep. 

Interviews by Dr. Hebard, at Fort Washakie, with Indian 
Agents, missionaries and teachers from the white race among 
the Shoshones, as well as interviews with members of the 
Shoshone tribe — including descendants of Sacajawea, together 
with her neighbors and friends — all form an array of direct 
testimony included in the book. 

*NOTE.- — See biographical shetch, page 170. 

4. See ANNALS OF WYOMING, October, 1938, for an extended 
resume of Dr. Hebard's work and writings, by Alfred Larson, Ph.D., Professor 
of History, University of Wyoming, in which are cited three of her books as 
most outstanding, namely: The Bozeman Trail, Washakie and Sacajawea. 
In the first-mentioned, she collaborated with E. A. Brininstool. 



^From SACA.JAU EA, by Ucbard 

Dr. Hebard and Susan Perry, Shoshone woman Who Knew Sacajawea, 
and Whose Sister was one of Baptiste's Wives. 

Held Hope for Federal Recognition 

Following the death of Dr. Hebard, October 11, 1936, an 
article by Agnes Wright Spring, a well-known Wyoming 
historian and writer, appeared in the December, 1936, issue 
of the Wyoming Stockman - Farmer, published at Chey- 
enne, Wyoming. In this, among other pertinent subject matter, 
is described a dream of Dr. Hebard for federal recognition of 
Wyoming as the burial place of Sacajawea. Mrs. Spring, 
University of Wyoming graduate, and for four years an assistant 
to Dr. Hebard, her lifetime friend, also gives a lucid and illumin- 
ating chronicle of the succession of circumstances which lured 
the late Wyoming historian step by step into a lifetime study of 
the entire Sacajawea subject, and the ultimate publication of 
her book of the same name. For its timely information, the 
article is offered here in full;- 



By Agnes Wright Spring 

"The finest tribute which the people of Wyoming could pay to the memory 
of the late Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, their most eminent historian, would 
be to carry on to completion her endeavor to obtain final official federal recog- 
nition of the fact that Sacajawea lived on the Shoshone Reservation and is 
buried there. 

"An unused appropriation ($5,000.00) made by Congress provided for a 
monument to Sacajawea to be erected in Wyoming — unused, because various 
other states sent up a hue and cry disputing Wyoming's right to such a dis- 
tinction. Government experts diligently investigated the data pertaining to 
Sacajawea, but as yet no final announcement of their decision has been made 
from Washington. 5 Undoubtedly work must still be done by Wyoming if the 
proper recognition is to be attained. 

"On September 25, just two days before Dr. Hebard was stricken with her 
last illness, she wrote to me as follows: 

1 am wondering if you have a copy of the notes which you made in regard 
to the one-hundred-year-old woman, Susan Perry, who was blind and who 
told me about Sacajawea. If you have, I am wondering if it would be too much 
trouble to have a copy made . 

1 think we are narrowing things down guite nicely and if I can live a 
bit longer we may be able to establish what I have been working on for half 
a century.' 

Indians Called Hebard 'Good White Woman' 

"These notes referred to in Dr. Hebard's letter were made one afternoon 
about a year and a half ago when she told me step by step of how she had 
gathered the data for her book, "Sacajawea". Long into the dusk she talked 
and then concluded by telling me the name which the Shoshones gave her 
when she was doing the research work up on the Wind River Reservation. 
This name, Dr. Hebard requested, should not be made public until after her 
death. 'Zont-Tumah-Two Wiper-Hinze,' they called her, meaning. The good 
white woman. The woman with one tongue.' 

"The Indians, she said, felt that she was telling the truth about their 
ancestor, Sacajawea. 

"This book by Dr. Hebard, which to my mind is her finest work, was the 
culmination of 30 years of research. It is a magnificent illustration of pains- 
taking, persistent, resourceful research work on her part. 

"In hearing the story of her research I was fascinated with the lure of the 
trail that led from North Dakota to Oklahoma and from the Pacific Coast to 
Germany, a trail that criss-crossed many times but never ended in a blind 
alley — always coming out into the clear to join the main road that wound 
surely and convincingly to the grave of an old Shoshone woman in the burying 
ground of the Wind River Reservation. 

Search For Story Was Difficult 

"This road of research was anything but a smooth one. In the face of 
disbelief,, caustic criticism, ridicule and open opposition, Dr. Hebard courage- 
ously continued to unearth facts to fit together bit by bit, until at last she built 
an impregnable fortress of truths which will, I feel sure, withstand attack. 

5. So far as is known at this time, 1941, no formal announcement definitely 
designating the burial place has been made from the Office of Indian Affairs. 
— A.W.S. 


"The start of this trail of research was traced with the tip of a pointer in 
the hands of Dr. Edwin E. Slosson, who gave a lecture on the Lewis and Clark 
Expedition and who spoke in glowing terms of the woman guide, Sacajawea. 
That was back in 1904 after his return to Laramie from a trip to the Lewis and 
Clark Exposition in St. Louis, Mo. 

"At once Dr. Hebard became interested in the story. First, she read the 
journals of Lewis and Clark. What, she asked, had become of Sacajawea 
after that journey to the Pacific? She reasoned that in view of the fact that the 
Journals said the Indian woman was so elated over the reunion with her people 
while on the trip, that ultimately she must have returned to them in Wyoming. 
There soon followed interviews with the Rev. John Roberts, who stated that he 
had buried an old woVrian about 100 years old in 1884, who might possibly have 
been Sacajawea. Rev: ^Roberts suggested that Dr. Hebard talk with Finn Bur- 
nett, a high Mason and a churchman, who had been on the reservation since 
1870.^ -'^i 

"Consequently there were conferences with Mr. Finn Burnett and with 
James I. Patten and as the result of these interviews Dr. Hebard felt sure that the 
woman whom she sought had lived her last years on the Wind River Reserva- 
tion and had died there. This woman had related stories in the presence of 
Mr. Burnett and Mr. Patten about a journey to the Big Waters and had spoken 
of "The Washington," meaning the government. Her story of the "big fish," 
which they found on the beach, tallied perfectly with accounts in the Lewis 
and Clark Journals, though at the time she told the story neither Mr. Burnett 
nor Mr. Patten had seen the Journals. 

Wrote First Article After Three Years 

"After three years of research. Dr. Hebard wrote an article on Sacajawea 
for the Journal of American History. That was her first real bit of intensive 
research writing. Still she was not content with the result as she felt that there 
were many gaps in the story — years of silence that should be filled in — and so, 
year by year she persisted in her search for facts. 

"Visits to the Shoshone reservation, with reliable interpreters and com- 
petent witnesses, produced remarkable evidence from friends and relatives 
who had known the old woman called Porivo or Chief, or Wadze-Wipe, Lost 
Woman (Sacajawea),- — the woman, who according to her grandson and others 
had carried official papers given to her by the government, who had worn a 
unique medal around her neck and who had talked of her visit to the Big 

"There were those who mentioned that her son, Baptiste, whom she 
carried on her back when she was guide, had lived in Big Houses-by-the-Sea 
and was called the Wooden-Shoe White Man. This sounded truly fantastic, 
but Dr. Hebard, the historian that she was, took down every item, knowing 
that sometimes even the most worthless clue may prove invaluable. Fifteen 
years later she discovered positive evidence that Baptiste had been taken to 
Germany, as a lad, by Prince Paul. 

"Too, the Indians told her that Porvio had lived with the Comanches. This 
seemed like a clue worthy of being followed up. One woman on the reserva- 
tion, a white woman, remembered distinctly that her grandmother had written 
down the story of the interesting Indian woman, who had guided Lewis and 
Clark, and when she had studied her geography lessons she had remembered 
what her grandmother had told her about Porvio and the Pacific Ocean. 

Friends Gave Aid In Hunt For Data 

"Reverend Roberts recalled that the old woman had called one of her 
boys, 'Pomp.' That was the name which Captain Clark used in a letter when 
he invited Charbonneau, the husband, to bring Sacajawea and his family to 
St. Louis to live. 


"Although Dr. Hebard conducted her full schedule of work at the univer- 
sity, she devoted many extra hours and vacations to the Sacajawea search. 
She sent research workers into Oklahoma to interview the Comanches, to 
the Huntington Library to translate rare manuscripts, to Germany to dig into 
dusty archives. 

"As she progressed in her work people rallied to her aid and whenever 
any of her friends learned of anything pertaining to the Indian woman, they 
would send the data to Dr. Hebard. 

"There came to her splendid original testimony of the Indians, such as 
that of Susan Perry. She unearthed original baptismal records, rare manu- 
scripts, old journals and letters — enough data to convince anyone in doubt, 
that the real Sacajawea was the woman Dr. Roberts had buried. 

"And so, with this splendid data a magnificient book was written. 

"But there is yet to be completed the work of getting through hte federal 
appropriation for a monument in Wyoming — to the memory of Sacajawea. 
Such a monument will do honor, not only to the Indian woman guide, but also 
to Wyoming's pioneer historian who wrote so brilliantly of the Indian woman's 
life and who was herself a pathbreaker^ — Zont-Tumah-Two-Wiper-Hinze — The 
good white woman- — The woman with one tongue." 

Added to the thoughts of Mrs. Spring concerning Dr. 
Hebard and her interest in this historical character, Sacajawea, 
is the following declaration of Miss Mary E. Marks, Librarian 
of the University of Wyoming, who succeeded Dr. Hebard in 
that position and was her close associate for seventeen years: 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— "Dr. (Grace Raymond) Hebard was born 
in Clinton, Iowa, in 1861, received the Bachelor of Science degree from the 
University of Iowa in 1882, and the Master of Arts in 1885, the Doctor of Philoso- 
phy from the Illinois Wesleyan University in 1893, and was the first woman 
admitted to the Wyoming Bar, 1898. She was a draftsman in the office of the 
United States Surveyor General and in the office of the United States Land 
Department in Cheyenne, 1882-1891, the librarian of the University of Wyo- 
ming, 1891-1919, Professor of Political Economy at the University, 1906-1936, 
a member of a committee of three that drew up the petition in 1889 asking the 
Constitutional Convention of Wyoming to adopt the woman suffrage clause, 
and a trustee of the University of Wyoming, 1891-1904." — Eva Floy Wheeler, 
Wyoming Writers. 

No greater homage ever was accorded to a citizen of Wyoming than the 
tributes which have been paid to the memory of Dr. Hebard. Following her 
passing on October 11, 1936, an impressive and beautiful memorial service, 
marked with highest respect and dignity, was conducted on December 7, 
1936, in the auditorium of the Liberal Arts building on the University of Wyo- 
ming campus, in Laramie. 

Those participating on the program as speakers were representatives of 
the various departments of the University, including the board of trustees, the 
alumni, the faculty, the student body and the department with which Dr. Hebard 
had been most recently associated. A lovely floral setting was arranged for 
the occasion, and appropriate selections of instrumental and vocal music 
interspersed the fitting messages of the speakers. 

A handsome 50-page book bearing the self-explanatory title, "In Mem- 
oriam, Grace Raymond Hebard, 1861-1936," was published in June, 1937, by 
the faculty of the University of Wyoming. In the volume are chronicled the high- 
lights of a busy life in public service, together with tributes of organizations 
and individuals in generous number. Dr. Hebard' s gifts to the University in 
the form of three or four trust funds for scholarships, together with a valuable 
hostorical collection of manuscripts, pictures, maps and books, are also de- 
scribed, as well as the "Hebard Room" and its contents in the University 


". . . Dr. Hebard's book on Sacajawea is recognized as an 
authority although she does not entirely agree with some others. 
However, she did much work and research on this subject, and 
I am willing to believe that her decisions are as nearly right as 
anyone else who has to rely on records dug out of the past." 

Government Makes Investigation 

In 1925, the United States Department of the Interior, 
Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C, assigned to Dr. 
Charles A. Eastman, the task of making thorough research 
and investigation of all evidence obtainable on the subject of 
Sacajawea and her identity, as well as the location of the site 
of her burial. 

Dr. Eastman, a Sioux Indian, and author of nine books on 
Indian life, was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1887 
and received an M.D. degree from Boston University in 1890. 

During his investigations he spent three months visiting 
among the Comanche Indians of Oklahoma, where he found 
descendants of Sacajawea and recorded their testimony; among 
the Gros Ventres in North Dakota; and among the Shoshones 
on the Wind River Reservation, Fremont County, Wyoming. 
In the latter instance his contacts were similar, in some cases, 
to those of Dr. Hebard, whom he also visited. His findings 
and conclusions as a result of all his research were incorporated 
into a detailed 11 -page report to the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, dated March 2, 1925, which he signed as 'Inspector 
and Investigator." 

While eleven years later Dr. Hebard drew generously 
upon the Eastman material for her own book on the subject, 
Dr. Eastman's report has not been heretofore published formally, 
and it is submitted in full as ''Supplement B" of this article, with- 
out being edited or revised in any particular. The copy of the 
report received from the Office of Indian Affairs by the Wyo- 
ming Historical Department during preparations for this issue, 
is in mimeographed form. 

Though Dr. Eastman's report is criticized by Helen Craw- 
ford in her story entitled, "Sakakawea", North Dakota Historical 
Quarterly, Volume 1, No. 2, April, 1927, as being "a long, 
confused and inconclusive narrative dealing with Charbon- 
neau's two Shoshone wives," she concedes that "'in general" 
it "supports Dr. Hebard's conclusions." 

It may be admitted that the Eastman narrative is not a 
notable literary production, and is not worthy of an author of 
such learning and attainments as Dr. Eastman, yet the subject 
is traced through to the climax: 

"that Sacajawea, after sixty years of wandering from her own 
tribe returns to her own people at Fort Bridger and lived the re- 
mainder of her life with her sons in peace until she died on April 
9, 1884, at Ft. Washakie, Wyoming; that is her final resting place." 


The Reverend John Roberts Knew Sacajawea 

Probably the only living white person in Wyoming who 
can claim the distinction of having had any personal acquaint- 
ance with Sacajawea 'and her sons, Baptiste and Bazil, is Dr. 
John Roberts,* of Fort Washakie, Wyoming, the vicinity where for 
more than fifty years he served as the devoted and sacrificing 
spiritual leader of the Indian mission which he established in 
1883, under jurisdiction of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

On April 9, 1884, called upon to conduct the burial service 
of his Church over the mortal remains of an aged Shoshone 
woman whom he and others around the Agency knew only 
as ''Bazil's Mother," Dr. Roberts thus entered the official record 
of her death, and noted her age, 100, as he had been advised. 

Dr. Roberts knew her son, Baptiste, who as a papoose was 
carried on his mother's back during the famed long journey to 
the west with Lewis and Clark, and he also knew her adopted, 
and more devoted, son, Bazil, who requested a Christian 
burial for his mother. 

Not only was Dr. Roberts a splendid friend to Dr. Hebard, 
but he also gave close cooperation in her ambitious endeavors 
to ferret out facts in historical research among the Shoshone 

'BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— By Judge E. H. Fourt, in Wyoming State 
Journal (Lander), March 8, 1934:- 

"John Roberts was born of Welsh parents in the County of Flint, North 
Wales, Great Britian, in 1853. 

"He was educated in Welsh grammar school and graduated with the 
degree of B. A. in St. David's College, Lampeter, a Welsh college affiliated 
to the University of Oxford, England. He also received the degree of M.A. 

"He was ordained to the Deaconate by the Right Rev. George Augustus 
Selwyn in the Cathedral church of Lichfield, England in the year 1878. Rev. 
Roberts volunteered his services to the West Indies, where there was need of 
someone to look after a leper colony in one of the islands. He was ordained 
to the Priesthood by the Right Rev. Francis Cramer Roberts in the Cathedral 
church of Christ in the city of Nassau, the Bahamas, West Indies, in 1881. Here 
he met his future bride. In 1883 he was sent by the Right Rev. John Franklin 
Spalding, bishop of Colorado and Wyoming, to establish, under the Domestic 
and Foreign Missionary society of the Protestant Episcopal church, missionary 
work among the Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians on the Shoshone Indian 
reservation, Wyoming, and to organize missions among the white settlers in 
the territory adjacent. 

"In 1883 he established, under the United States resident Indian Agent, 
Dr. James Irwin, the United States Government Indian boarding Industrial 
school at Fort Washakie, Wyoming, for the Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians. 

"In 1889, under the Right Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, Bishop of Wyoming and 
Idaho, he established the Shoshone Indian Mission Boarding school. Wind 
River, Wyoming, for the Shoshones. 

"Mr. Roberts was army chaplain at the military post at Fort Washakie for 
twenty years. 

"In 1932 the Degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him. Honoris 
Causa, by The Western Theological Seminary, Evanston, Illinois. 

"In 1932 the Degree of Doctor of Laws was awarded him. Honoris Causa, 
by the University of Wyoming. 

"In 1884 he was married to Miss Laura Alice Brown, a refined and edu- 


Indians on the Reservation, as well as among Agency officials 
of the U. S. Government, by which she sought to identify 
'"Bazil's Mother" as the Indian girl, Sacajawea. 

As authority on her names, Dr. Roberts gives the meaning 
of Sacajawea as '"the boat launcher" or boat pusher", in which 
other authorities, including Dr. Hebard, concur. 

The experiences of Dr. Roberts on the Wind River Reserva- 
tion where Sacajawea made her home with Bazil and his 
family, and where her descendants and a few of her aged 
Indian friends are still living — are given a revealing description 
by him in an article entitled, "The Death of Sacajawea." This 
appeared in "INDIANS AT WORK, a News Sheet for Indians and 
the Indian Service," issue of April 1, 1935, which is a mimeo- 
graphed periodical from the Office of Indian Affairs, Washing- 
ton, D. C, of which lohn Collier is the editor. 

In consideration of the advanced age of Dr. Roberts, 
(88 years) the ANNALS staff has refrained from burdening 
him with reguest for contribution of a special article at this 
time, but pleasure is taken in offering his interesting story 
above referred to, in its entirety, as follows: 


By John Roberts, D.D., L.L.D. 
Fort Washakie, Wyoming 

"The Right Reverend John F. Spalding, Bishop of the missionary jurisdic- 
tion of Colorado and Wyoming, sent me here in 1883 to establish the Shoshone 
and Arapahoe Indian mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 1 arrived 
at the Shoshone Agency on February tenth after a hard journey over the main 
range of the Rockies from Green River, the nearest railroad station, a distance 
of one hundred and fifty miles which took up eight days traveling in a sleigh, 
most of the way over the snow-covered mountains. 

Introduced to Bazil and His Mother 

"The next day after I arrived here I went to the United States Indian 
office where a few aged Indians were assembled, the bulk of the tribes being 
absent on their annual winter buffalo hunt. Among those present was Bazil, 
one of the head-men, an aged and fine specimen of an Indian. I was intro- 
duced to Bazil by Dr. James Erwin, M.D., United States Agent in charge of the 
Shoshone reservation. Bazil was able to talk English brokenly; I was also told 
he could speak French. The Agent then took me to Bazil' s camp, which was 
about a hundred yards or so from the office, to see an aged woman who was 
called by him, "Bazil' s Mother". She was seated on the ground in a tepee; 
her hair was gray and she had the appearance of being very old. Bazil said she 
was his mother and that she was about a hundred years old, "very old, very 

"Dr. Erwin alluded to her connection with the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 
and he seemed to be keenly interested in that fact. I was interested in the old 
woman because of her great age, for at that time I knew very little of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition. 

"Bazil proved to be a very dutiful son to his mother. He was, in reality, 
only an adopted son and nephew. He cared for her tenderly and had his 
d aughters and other women of the camp see to her every need. She was well 


provided for. The Agent issued her plenty of beef, flour, groceries and tobacco, 
which she liked to smoke. Her own son, Baptiste, alluded to hy name by 
Captain Clark of the Expedition, lived about three miles above the agency at 
the foot of the mountains. I came to know him well later on. 

The Burial of Sacaiawea 

"On the morning of April ninth, the following year, I was told that Bazil's 
Mother had passed suddenly away during the night, in the log cabin that was 
in the camp, on her shake-down of quilts, blankets and pelts. The Agent had 
a coffin made for her, and he sent employees to dig her grave on the eastern 
slope of one of the foothills, a mile and one-half east of the agency where there 
were four graves of white people who were killed by hostile raiding Indians. 
This burial ground has been subsequently set apart by the Indian Office as a 
Shoshone Indian cemetary, but it still remains a part of the reservation. There 
are now several hundred Indian graves in it, thirty-seven of them being the 
graves of veteran Indian soldiers who served in the United States Army. 

Importance of Burial Event not Realized 

"The burial of Sacajawea took place late in the afternoon of the day on 
which she died. Those in attendance were her immediate relatives, the Agent 
(Dr. Erwin) and some of the employees. I read over her grave the Burial 
Service of the Episcopal Church. I little realized at the time that the heroine 
we laid to rest, in years to come, would become one of the outstanding women 
in American history. 

Resting Place in Beautiful Valley 

"She sleeps with her face towards the dawn on the sunny slope of the 
Rocky Mountains. Her grave overlooks the beautiful Little Wind River Valley. 
Standing there we see, close by, the Shoshone Indian Mission school and, at 
a distance of about two miles, the buildings of Fort Washakie. We see also, 
at about the same distance, the buildings of the former Shoshone Agency. 
Two miles further down the valley are the buildings of the government school. 

cated woman of French and English parentage, of Nassau, Bahama Islands, 
West Indies. To this union were born one son, Edward N. Roberts, and four 
daughters, Mrs. Chas. W. Markley, Mrs. Walter Tyndall, Mrs. Marshall Graham 
and Miss S. Gwen Roberts, all of Fort Washakie and Wind River, Wyoming, 
Mr. and Mrs. Roberts now have nine grandchildren. 

"Mr. Roberts translated the Gospel of St. Luke, the greater part of the 
Book of Common Prayer of the Protestant Episcopal church, and a simple 
catechism of the Christian doctrines, into the Arapahoe language. He trans- 
lated the Church divine service into the Shoshone language, and also com- 
piled an Arapahoe-English catechism. These translations were used by Dr. 
Roberts in his services for the Indians, and have gradually been replaced with 
the regular services of the church in the English language. 

"His work upon the reservation includes the building of a chapel at the 
Indian Mission school, one at Wind River and one at Fort Washakie. He also 
built chapels in the white settlements bordering on the reservation, at Lander, 
Riverton, Hudson, Milford and Dubois, Wyoming.**** 

"He also gave Christian burial to the great Chief Washakie, whom he 
had baptized many years before, and who had been his staunch friend thruout 
his life among the Indians. 

"Dr. Robert's life and service among the Indians has been such that no 
one here has nearly the influence for good among the Indians that he has, 
and, I might say, that the same conditions prevail among the white settlements 
in this part of the state. 

"Dr. Roberts was honored by the legislature of the State of Wyoming, in 
a joint resolution passed on February 21, 1933, at the close of his fifty years of 
missionary service in the State of Wyoming. This resolution will be found in 
the Session Laws of Wyoming, 1933, on page 192." 


We see also the glistening waters of Little Wind River and of Trout Creek' 
hurrying down the valley from this elevation of one mile above sea level to' 
wards their destination in the Gulf of Mexico. We see at the bottom of the valley 
six miles off, great clouds of steam rising up from the famous Washakie Ho^ 
Springs. To the north, at a distance of seventy miles, arise the Washakie 
Needles, named in honor of the great Chief. To the south is the Beaver range 
of mountains. Far off to the east are the Owl Creek and Rattlesnake Mountains; 
and to the west, close by us, are the towering mountains of the main range of 
the Rockies, through the grim passes of which Sacajawea led the Expedition 
of 1805 and 1806, when no other guide was available who knew the Indian 

Had Acquaintance With Descendants 

"Baptiste, Sacajawea's son, I knew over a period of some years up to his 
death. He had a large family. Those descendants now living are numerous. 
Baptiste lived on the reservation. He spent his time in hunting, fishing and 
selling Indian curios to supply the needs of his family. His grandchildren 
and great-grandchildren are living on the reservation. Baptiste made his 
home about three miles from the Shoshone Mission up to the time of his death. 
He died and was buried, according to the ancient custom of the Shoshones, 
in the rocks in a canyon west of the Mission at a distance of some seven miles 
at the head of Dry Creek. From his rocky grave can be seen his mother's rest- 
ing place, Sacajawea. 

"Baptiste' s son, Wyt-te-gan, informed me one time that his father, Baptiste, 
had often told him that Baptiste' s mother carried him (Baptiste) on her back 
when he was a baby, across the mountains when she led the first "Washington" 
across to the Great Waters towards the setting sun (Dab-be-dos-nank). 

"Bazil, the adopted son and nephew of Sacajawea and in whose camp 
she lived, died a few years after his mother. He was buried at a place about 
four miles from the Agency but was subseguently laid to rest beside the grave 
of Sacajawea his adopted mother. Bazil was a noted pioneer guide, himself 
a great friend of Dr. Erwin who was Agent, resident of this reservation in the 
early seventies. His friend, Bazil, came to him, Dr. Erwin told me, and demanded 
permission from him to bring his mother's tent and pitch it close to Dr. Erwin's 
house. 'For', said Bazil, "I am going away on a buffalo hunt and I want you 
to take special care of her, for she has been a great friend of the white people 
in the early days.' 

Her Experience Hated by Her People 

"Sacajawea, during her life, never boasted of her journey and great 
service to the whites. In fact, on the other hand, she kept it secret for if the 
fact should have been published of her having led the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition it would have brought nothing but approbrium and scorn from the 
members of her tribe. And Bazil would not have mentioned the fact to Dr. 
Erwin had he not been anxious for the welfare of his mother during his absence 
on the hunt. 

"Although Sacajawea was silent to the whites concerning her connection 
with the Lewis and Clark Expedition she used to amuse members of her family 
by relating to them some of her experiences during the journey. One time 
she told them that she had seen at the Great Waters toward the setting sun, 
a fish as big as a log cabin. Captain Clark mentions the fact that they had 
found a dead whale washed ashore when they reached the Pacific. 

"After Charbonneau, her French mixed-blood husband's death, she was 
lost sight of to whites and Shoshones for many years while she was visiting 
kindred tribes of her people. She spent several years with the Comanches 
who are the same as Shoshones and speak the same language. But the homing 
instinct in her led her, during her latter days, to seek her own people in the 
mountains of Wyoming. 

During the latter years of her life here she was known to the whites and 
Indians as Bazil's Mother. On my Parish Register of Burials, I recorded her 





— Shoshone woman -who, since 
1871, has lived on the Wind River 
Reservation in Fremont County, 
Wyoming, and was a friend of 
Sacajawea, w^hose body she as- 
sisted in preparing for burial, in 

Aged nearly 100, Pandora makes 
her ow^n costumes and does re- 
markably fine beadwork. Note her 
beaded moccasins and belt. 

Interviewed by Alick Greene, her 
story is published for the first 
time. (See page 178). 



— old Shoshone who was 10 years 
of age when he first came to Wind 
River Reservation in 1871. He 
was well acquainted with Sacaj- 
awea and her son, Baptiste, and 
adopted son, Bazil. He tells the 
same story in 1941 as he related 
to Dr. Hebard in July, 1921. 

At 16, Quintan was a Govern- 
ment scout with General Crook 
at the Battle of the Rosebud, in 

-Photos by A. F. C. Greene, June, 19^1, Special for the AXXALS. 


burial under the date of April 9, 1884, as Bazil's Mother, Shoshone, age one 
hundred years. Date of death, April 9, Resident of Shoshone Agency. Cause 
of death, old age. Place of burial, burial grounds Shoshone Agency. Signature 
of Clergyman, John Roberts. She was also known to the Indians by other names 
according to the Shoshone custom, as: Wadze-Wipe, the Lost Woman, Booe- 
nive. Grass Maiden, Bah-Ribo, Water White Man." 

New Evidence Verifies Old 

The final contribution to this collection of opinions and 
testimonies on the identity of Sacajawea and her life history in 
Wyoming, is some new and pertinent information from Alick 
F. C. Greene,* of Fort Washakie, who for thirty years held 
responsible positions in the United States Indian Service in 
Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming, at Fort Washakie. 

Pandora Pogue Knew Sacajawea 

Mr. Greene's manuscript introduces and discusses the 
Sacajawea subject in several of its phases already covered in 
this symposium, and in well known sources, but he does present 
some additional data which he believes never before has been 
published, including the statements (obtained in 1939) of Pan- 
dora Pogue, Shoshone woman nearly 100 years old, who was 
a friend of Sacajawea, and who, this summer of 1941, is still 
living at the Shoshone Agency. 

Mr. Greene explains that: ''Pandora's mother knew 
Sacajawea as a young girl before her capture by the Mandans," 
but that Pandora, herself, '"first met Sacajawea at Fort Bridger, 
subseguent to the latter' s return from the Comanches in Okla- 
homa. This would probably have been about 1854, when 
Sacajawea was 66 years old, and Pandora was a girl of ten. 

'BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Alick F. C. Greene was born on August 
22, 1867, at Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland, and first located in this western 
country at Fort Custer. Montana, in 1887, where he was bookkeeper at the 
Sutler Trading Store until 1892; he then served as interpreter and clerk, U. 
S. Indian Service, Crow Agency, Montana, until 1893; was Chief Clerk at 
the same place from 1894 to 1903. 

In 1904 he came to Wyoming and served at Fort Washakie as Special 
U. S. Disbursing Agent, U. S. Indian Service until 1913, when he returned to 
Montana as Chief Clerk at the Tongue River Agency, for a year, when he was 
made Acting Superintendent of the Cheyenne River Agency in South Dakota, 
from 1915-1917. 

From 1917-1919 Mr. Greene was manager of the Richards and Cunningham 
store at Arminto, Wyoming, and then moved to Fresno, California, where he 
was secretary-treasurer of the James Irrigation District for ten years. 

He later returned to Wyoming, and from 1930-1931, he was manager of 
the Eden Valley Irrigation Project, Rock Springs, and since 1932, has been living 
at Fort Washakie, where he still resides. 

He is a member of Masonic Lodge No. 2, Lander, Wyoming, and of the 
Protestant Episcopal church. 

He married Ida C. Burnett, daughter of the late Fincelius G. Burnett, of 
Fort Washakie, and they have a son, Alick F. C. Greene, Jr. 


From that time on, Pandora lived in the same camp with Saca- 
jawea and talked to her frequently. When the Shoshones 
moved from Fort Bridger to ihe Wind River Reservation in 
1871, Pandora spent much of her +ime with Sacajawea, as 
they were distantly related." 

Pandora's story, which concludes with the declaration, 
'1 could not be mistaken," is here offered in full: 

"I must be about 96 years old (1939). I was born near Bear River in Utah. 
I knew 'Pahrivo', or Bazile's mother in Utah, although she was not known at 
that time by either of those names. Her name as a young girl was 'Sah-ton- 
zee-ap', meaning 'Wild Flower.' The next time I saw her was at Fort Bridger, 
at the time of the treaty between the Shoshones and the whites in 1868. She 
was then called 'Pahrivo',. after she had come to Fort Bridger from the Com- 
anches in the south. Pahrivo was a kind of nickname, given to her by some of 
the foolish young Shoshones, more in the way of ridicule than for any other 
reason. It means 'Water White Man', or 'Water Chief White Man', and refers 
to her having handled the boats of the white chiefs with whom she went to the 
great waters in the west from the Missouri river. Some of the Shoshones did 
not like the idea of a woman having received so much attention from the white 
people. At the same time, she was much respected by those Indians who 
amounted to anything, and also by all the white people. 

"I was with her at Fort Bridger when the white men from Washington 
made the treaty with the Shoshones, giving them the Wind River Reservation 
in Wyoming, in exchange for all the other lands they then claimed. She stood 
up and talked at this meeting. I never knew any other woman to take part in 
our councils. I do not know what she said, but I know that, after the meeting, 
the Washington men all got up and shook her hand. After she came to Wind 
River I lived with her for quite a while. 

"She was then called, by Indians and whites alike, 'Bazile's mother', or 
sometimes 'Sacajawea'. Bazile was the son of her sister, who died a long time 
before, and Sacajawea adopted him as her own son, when she first met her 
own people while traveling with the white chiefs up the Missouri river. She 
also had a son of her own, whose name was 'Baptiste' . She carried him on her 
back while she was making the trip to the big waters. After she came to Wind 
River, I lived with her quite a while. The white men built a house for her at 
the Shoshone Agency. It stood about 100 yards east of the Dickinson store 
and about 200 yards north of the Noble & Lane trading store. 

"Her son, Bazile, also had a house just behind the Noble & Lane store, 
and they used to visit back and forth. I don't remember much of what she said 
about her trip to the big waters, as I was just a small girl then and I did not 
pay much attention while the old people were talking, but I remember her 
speaking of being with a large party of white soldiers, who came pretty near 
to starving at one time. She said she opened her parfleche and let them help 
themselves to her pounded meat. She also told m.e about a big fish that she had 
seen on the shore of the big waters in the west, but I never believed that story. 
No fish was ever so big as she said. She said it was bigger than the distance 
between her house and the Dickinson store (about 100 feet.) 

"I have seen the medal which she said the white chiefs had given to her 
husband and which he later gave to her. I never saw her wear it herself, but 
I have seen it hanging around the necks of both Bazile and Baptiste. It was about 
lYi inches in diameter and had a head on one side, which the Indians said 
was God, and on the other side some words which I did not understand. I 
ihink this medal was buried with Baptiste, though I am not sure. I was present 
when she died at Wind River, and I went to the Shoshone cemetary and saw 
her buried. Everyone went to her funeral, both Indians and whites. I never 
saw so many people together at one time. She was as old then as I am now, 
and her hair was white like mine. After she came to the Wind River Reservation 
she married a man called 'Par-ro-wook-canah', and he had two children by 


a former marriage, both of whom died when they were quite small. Her husband 
died a long time before she did. He was a Bannock Indian. The woman whom 
I saw buried at the Shoshone Agency was the same one my mother knew as a 
girl when they were on the head of the Missouri river, later on I saw her at 
Fort Bridger when she came back from the Comanches, and I lived with her 
when we all came over to the Shoshone Agency. I could not be mistaken." 

Finn Burnett Knew Sacajawea 

Mr. Greene's manuscript also includes a story of approxi- 
mately 900 words by his father-in-law, Finn Burnett, who came 
to the Wind River Reservation as instructor in farming to the 
Shoshones, in 1871, and served fifty-three years, until his 
retirement in 1924, the year of Mr. Greene's interview with 

Mr. Burnett knew Sacajawea and, with others at the 
Agency, saw and conversed with her almost daily during the 
thirteen years from 1871 to 1884, the time of her death. 

The Burnett testimony given to Mr. Greene is similar to 
that furnished to Dr. Hebard and to Robert David, and recorded 
by them, 6 but only a few facts from the manuscript can be 
presented here:- 

Mr. Burnett visited Sacajawea and her adopted son, 
Bazil, in their log house, and received from them instructions 
in the Shoshone language. He heard from Sacajawea's lips 
numerous experiences of her life, including the journey with 
Lewis and Clark, which he and the others at the Agency did 
not doubt, for says he: "'How could she have knowledge of all 
these things unless she was an actual eye-witness? She could 
neither read nor write." Known by various names in her 
earlier life, on the Reservation she was called '"Sacajawea" 
meaning "boat launcher," "but was more generally known as 
'Bazile's Mother.' She was carried on the Shoshone census 
rolls by the last mentioned name." 7 

Mr. Burnett relates that he "first became interested in 
Sacajawea through Dr. James Irwin, U. S. Indian Agent, and 
his wife," and that Mrs. Irwin wrote, from Sacajawea's descrip- 
tion, a history of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the part 
Sacajawea had taken in it; that from that time, all during 
Sacajawea's life at the Agency (13 years), he, together with Mrs. 
Irwin and others, visited Sacajawea freguently at her home; 
that Mrs. Irwin wrote shorlhand, and that she made her notes 
on legal-cap size paper, with a red line down the left side; 
that the completed story consisted of more +han twenty-five 
sheets; that they realized it was valuable; but that he (Burnett) 
never saw the story after a fire which destroyed the Agency's 
office in 1909, though he made search for it. 

6. Hebard's Sacajaicea and David's Finn Burnett. 

7. See photostatic copy of a portion of the 1877 census roll of the Sho- 
shone tribe at the Agency, on page 182. 


Search for Grave in North Dakota Fails 

The Greene manuscript brings up the subject of North 
Dakota's claim to the burial place of Sacajawea at Fort Manuel 
Lisa, and recites that: 

In 1938, Mr. C. E. Paris, Field Representative of the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs, was detailed to make an attempt to 
locate the site of Fort Manuel Lisa. In the course of his in- 
vestigation, he secured the services of Mr. Homer C. Cornell, 
Road Engineer at the Standing Rock Indian Agency at Fort 
Yates, North Dakota, who in a letter to the writer (Greene), 
has kindly furnished the following statement: 

U. S. Department of the Interior 

Office of Indian Affairs, 

Field Service, 

Standing Rock Agency, 

Fort Yates, North Dakota. 
Mr. A. F. C. Greene, 
Fort Washakie, Wyoming. 

Dear Sir: 

"In answer to your letter of December 5th, several years ago the site of 
Fort Manuel was discovered by local residents. An old Indian woman gave 
the information that there had been an old fort at this site according to tales 
related by her father. As it had been burned, there was very little evidence 
of the fort without doing some excavating. However, there was a slight de- 
pression around the old enclosure, due to the wood rotting and the earth 
settling. On digging along this trench, the old posts of the stockade, with 
their charred tops were found. We have dug enough around the edges of 
this enclosure to establish the corners. Also, within the enclosure, are a few 
mounds, which are the remains of buildings. Evidently, the roofs of the buildings 
were covered with dirt. Doane Robinson, former South Dakota historian, had 
established the site at a point two miles further down the river, and he had 
decided that the fort, or its remains, had washed into the river. However, on 
examination of these ruins, he has decided that the site near Kemel is correct. 
There is very little to be found in the way of rubbish around the site, but this 
is what would be expected, as the fort was in existence only a few months. 

"Our assumption that it is, possibly, the burial place of Sacajawea is 
taken from notes in Luttig's iournal, published by Stella Drumm of the Missouri 
Historical Society. Luttig made the note that the Shoshone wife of Charbonneau 
died of putrid fever while at the fort. He describes her as being about 25 
years of age, and the best woman in the fort. This 25 years of age checks with 
her age at the time she was captured by the Mandan Indians in 1800, as she 
was supposed to be about 12 years of age at that time. Of course, it is known that 
Charbonneau had two Shoshone wives, but the other one was several years 
older, and I cannot find any record of Charbonneau ever having her with him 
after the trip with Lewis and Clark. We did some digging near the stockade 
about a year ago (September 1938), but were not able to find any graves. 
It was thought that there would be about four graves, as I believe that about 
three of the men in the party died at the fort. We expect to do some more 
searching for graves at a future date. We have a CCC-ID project for restoring 
the old fort, and we hope to have part of this work done this year. At present, 
a new home has been constructed for Tom Pheasant, whose present house 
is situated on the site of the old stockade, and it was impossible previously to 


do much work at the site. Since you have talked to Mr. Paris, he has no doubt 
given you further information that would be necessary on her life 

Very truly yours, 

Road Engineer." * 

Greene Interviews Quintan Quay 

Additional sidelights on Sacajawea's son, Baptiste, and 
verification of several former findings of fact, are contained in a 
letter dated May 27, 1941, to Gladys F. Riley, State Librarian 
and Historian, from Mr. Greene, reporting an interview with 
Quintan Quay.s which are so pertinent to the general subject 
under consideration that the letter is quoted verbatim: - 

"I have just had a ^alk with Quintan Quay, the old Shoshone I mentioned 
in my letter of May 5th, who knew Baptiste Charbonneau well, and he gave me 
the following answers to the questions you asked in your letter of April 30ih: 

"So far as I have been able to ascertain, there is no existing photograph 
of Baptiste. 

"Quintan Quay says that he does not remember having ever seen Baptiste 
wearing the 7efferson medal', which a number of people, both whites and 
Indians, have told me that Sacajawea owned, but he has a very clear remem- 
brance of her adopted son, Bazile, wearing it on many occasions, and he 
always understood that it was the property of Sacajawea. He thinks it quite 
likely that this medal was buried with Baptiste. 

"This bears out the statement made to me by Pandora Pogue, an old 
Shoshone woman who also knew Sacajawea and both of her sons. This old 
woman told me that she had seen both Baptiste and Bazile wearing this medal, 
but that it was not buried with Sacajawea. She was sure of this, as she assisted 
in preparing Sacajawea's body for burial. It has always been thought that 
the medal was buried either with Baptiste or Bazile. Bazile' s body was dis- 
interred a few years ago, but the medal was not found. A leather pocket-book, 
containing a number of papers, which had belonged to his mother, was found 
with the body, however. The pocket book was in a fair state of preservation, 
but the contents fell to pieces when exposed to the air, and none of the writing 
on the papers was legible. 

"The place of Baptiste' s grave is known, but a number of rock slides have 
covered the site, and while many tons of shale were removed in search of the 
grave, it has been impossible to reach it. A number of other Indian graves in 
the vicinity were opened while this search was being made, but all of them 
showed evidence of having been rifled, probably by white settlers. Both of 
my informants described the medal as being about 2^2 inches in diameter. 
One side showed the head of a man, which the Indians thought was God; 
the other side bore clasped hands and some letters which, of course, had no 
meaning to the Indians. 

"Quintan Quay says that Baptiste had two Shoshone wives, and two 
children, living with him in his lodge at Fort Bridger, but he does not know 
when he married them. Quintan Quay was ten years old when the Shoshones 

*NOTE. — The foregoing facts and material gathered by Mr. Greene, a 
field worker for the Wyoming Writers' Project of the Work Projects Adminis- 
tration, were released in manuscript form to the Wyoming Historical Depart- 
ment, exclusively — for use in the July, 1941, issue of the ANNALS OF WYO- 
MING, by courtesy of the above Federal organization. 

8. See, also, Hebard's Sacajawea for statements of Quintan Quay. 





\/i)^, ^ 

This Record of the Indians at the Shoshone Agency, Wyoming 
Territory, of November 1, 1877, shews Sacajawea listed as "Bazils 
Mother", being the sixth name on the roll, and follows Bazil, her adopted 
son, fifth name on the roll. The second name, "Bat-tez", is Baptiste, her 
own son. It will be noted that the tabulation shows the family name, 
number of men, -women, boys and girls in the family, together with total, 
and also the lodge number. — Record, Courtesy A. F. C. Greene. — Photostat, 
Courtesy Wyoming Highway Department. 


came to the Wind River Reservation from Fort Bridger in 1871, and he remem- 
bers that Baptiste's tv/o sons v/ere young men in their late teens or early 20' s 
at that time. 

"Baptiste had two Shoshone wives. Quintan Quay says that one was called 
'Toot-sahp' (Dirty), but he does not recall the name of the other. 

"There are six living descendants of Baptiste on the reservation at the 
present time. One grandson, two great-grandsons and one great-granddaughter 
by his son 'Boa Tindall', and one great-grandson, one great-great-grandson 
and one great-great-granddaughter by his daughter 'Barbara'. 

"Baptiste was a member of the Shoshone tribe from his birth, being one- 
half Shoshone blood through his mother, but when he joined the tribe at 
Fort Bridger is unknown. He was adopted by Capt. William Clark when a 
boy of seven years, or in 1812. He accompanied Prince Paul of Wurtemburg 
to Germany, was educated there, returning to St. Louis (probably some time 
between 1827 and 1830.) 

"Civilization did not appeal to him and he reverted to type, rejoining his 
tribe in the Fort Bridger country, and remaining with them until his death. 

"Baptiste dressed as an Indian; wore his hair in braids and lived in a 
tepee during his entire life among the Shoshones. 

"There is no disagreement between Dr. Roberts and Dr. Grace Hebard 
on any important points concerning Sacajawea and Baptiste." 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) A. F. C. GREENE." 


Thus, it is hoped that within the Umits of these compara- 
tively few pages there have been garnered sufficient threads of 
the dramatic story of Sacajawea — a true friend of the white 
race when friends in the red race were sorely needed — that 
the reader's interest in her may have been stimulated and his 
sympathy guickened. If this goal has been attained, to any 
degree, the effort will not have been in vain. 

Undoubtedly, this great human drama, one of the most 
poignantly pathetic, as well as one of the most grandly heroic, 
in all history, should be permanently and forever immortalized 
by Wyoming in some exceedingly magnificent and wonderful 
way — at some propitious and appropriate time. 

Wyoming should not long remain indifferent to her rich 
heritage in the historical story of Sacajawea, nor should she 
remain disheartened from taking any future action because of 
perfunctory denials of that right by non-resident critics whose 
contentions are not supported by the evidence. 


Supplement A 



"Sacajawea", by Hebard 

"On May 20, 1805, Lewis and Clark named a creek in what is today- 
Montana, for Sacajawea. It is now known as Crooked Creek. 

"Mrs. Eva Emery Dye, 1902, wrote The Conquest and by this publication 
'rediscovered' Sacajawea.* 

"Bruno Louis Simm, 1904, designed a statue to be placed in the Louisiana 
Purchase exposition grounds, St. Louis. This was modeled after an Indian 
girl named Virginia Grant from the Shoshone reservation, Wyoming, to rep- 
resent her kinsman, Sacajawea. The papoose on her back is modeled after a 
child of Sitting Bull. 

"Sacajawea peak, the top of the ridge of Bridger mountain in Montana, 
overlooking the valley of the Gallatin, Jefferson, and Madison rivers, was 
named and the location suggested by Mr. O. D. Wheeler. 

"Henry Altman, in 1905, designed a statue representing Sacajawea, with 
her child, astride an Indian pony. In this statue the child is carried in a 'papoose 
cradle', with his back to that of his mother, according to the true Indian custom. 

"Alice Cooper, in 1905, designed a statue which was placed on the Lake- 
view terrace of the city of Portland, Oregon. This was erected by 'the women 
of the United States in memory of Sacajawea and in honor of the pioneer 
mothers of old Oregon.' 

"In 1904, Rollin Bond, a bandmaster of the city of New York, wrote an 
intermezzo score named 'Sacajawea', which contained a number of typical 
tunes descriptive of the activities of the Shoshone woman. 

"Edward Samuel Paxson, in 1906, produced an oil painting called "Saca- 
jawea," which is now hanging on the walls of the library building of the state 
university of Montana. The same artist painted a number of historical murals 
for the capitol at Helena and for the county court house at Missoula. One of 
particular significance in the capitol building is that representing 'Lewis and 
Clark at Three Forks.' 

"In 1909, a concrete shaft with an imbedded bronze tablet was erected 
as a headstone for the grave of Sacajawea in the cemetary of the Shoshone 
reservation. The location of the grave was designated by the Reverend John 
Roberts, who officiated at the burial of Sacajawea on April 9, 1884. The shaft 
and bronze were donated by the Indian agent, Mr. H. E. Wadsworth, and Mr. 
Timothy H. Burke. 

"Cyrus Edwin Dallin, in 1910, designed a statue of an Indian girl leading 
and pointing the way for Lewis and Clark. 

"Leonard Crunelle, in 1910, designed a statue in bronze representing 
Sacajawea. This was erected by the Federated club women and the school 
children of North Dakota, and is located in the capitol grounds at Bismarck. 

"In 1919, a silver service set, decorated with emblems representative of 
Sacajawea, the gift of the State of Wyoming, was presented to the battleship 
'Wyoming' by Honorable Joseph M. Carey, governor of that state. 

"The Montana Daughters of the American Revolution, in 1914, placed a 
•granite boulder with a brass tablet 'In Patriotic Memory of Sacajawea' near 
the Three Forks of the Missouri. 

"In the historic valley of the Beaverhead river, near the Two Forks of the 
Missouri where Sacajawea discovered her people, a pageant was staged in 
August, 1915, to portray the historic events in the life of Sacajawea. The 
episodes of the drama were written by Mrs. Laura Tolman Scott and presented 
by Montana Daughters of the American revolution, and the pageant was held 


on the site where the canoes of the Lewis and Clark expedition were beached, 
where the "interpretress' of the Lewis and Clark expedition discovered her 
people, the Shoshones. 

"A boulder with bronze tablet was dedicated November 15, 1914, at 
Armstead, near where the Horse Prairie and Red Rock rivers unite, by the 
Montana Daughters of the American revolution. This was the meeting place 
of the Chief Cameahwait and his sister, Sacajawea, on August 17, 1805. 

"At the back of the speaker's desk in the house of representatives, lielena, 
Montana, is a mural of heroic size painted by Charles Marion Russell represent- 
ing the meeting in 1805 of Sacajawea and her brother. 

"Lake Sacajawea in Longview, Washington, is named for the Shoshone 

"In 1924, Sacajawea was introduced to a radio audience through a song 
entitled 'Sacajawea', lyric by Porter Bryan Coolidge of Lander and music 
by Frederick Bouthroyd of Leicester, England. Mr. Coolidge' s home over- 
looked Sacajawea's tepee home on the Shoshone reservation. 

"In 1925, Mr. Tullius P. Dunlap presented a painting bearing the title 
The Shoshones naming Sacajawea,' picturing the incident which took place 
at the meeting of Sacajawea and her people in the Beaverhead valley. 

"An airplane named The Spirit of Sacajawea' made its initial flight in 
July, 1927, over the ancient home of the buffalo and the Shoshone hunting 
ground in the Shoshone national forest, Wyoming. 

"In the public square at Charlottsville, Virginia, stands a group monument 
representing Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Sacajawea. 

"U. S. Forest Ranger Alfred G. Clayton of Wyoming recommended in 
1930 that a peak 13,737 feet high on the continental divide of the Wind rivei 
range between Fremont peak and Mount Warren, should be named Mount 
Sacajawea. This was so named officially on October 1, 1930. 

"The Bishop Randall bronze tablet on the outer wall of the log building 
known as the Bishop Randall chapel, Shoshone cemetary, Wyoming, records 
the fact that on August 19, 1873, this missionary bishop baptized eleven Sho- 
shones, 'four of whom were great-grandchildren of Sacajawea.' This tablet 
was placed and unveiled with religious ceremony August 22, 1931. 

"Dedicated to the Toledo choral society in 1932, a cantata was produced, 
'The Bird Woman, Sacajawea, a Legend of the Trail of the West.' The text 
was written by Evangeline Close, and the music by William Lester. 

"In 1932, two granite monuments were placed in the Shoshone Indian 
cemetary in memory of Bazil, son of Sacajawea, and Barbara Baptiste Meyers, 
a daughter of Baptiste and granddaughter of Sacajawea. 

"Another evidence of appreciation for the services Sacajawea rendered 
to the Lewis and Clark expedition was made by the formal dedication on 
August 14, 1932, under the auspices of the Daughters of the American revo- 
lution and the U. S. forest service, of the Montana and Idaho inter-state Saca- 
jawea national monument. The preserve is situated at Lemhi pass on the 
summit at 7,500 feet of the continental divide at the boundary between Montana 
and Idaho, where in August, 1805, Sacajawea guided the explorers over the 
Rocky mountains to the west. This formal linking of one hundred acres of 
contiguous territory commemorates the joint interests in Sacajawea and the 
long existing good-will between the two states." 

EDITOR'S NOTE.' — Mrs. Dye was the official historian of the Lewis and 
Clark Exposition in St. Louis, according to the "Report of the Wyoming Com- 
mission of the Lewis and Clark Exposition, 1905." The report was submitted 
to Governor B. B. Brooks by C. B. Richardson, Commissioner-in-chief, and 
W. C. Deming, Secretary of the Commission, at Cheyenne, under date of 
January 29, 1906. 

Mrs. Dye's 433-page book. The Conquest — The True Story of Lewis and 
Clark, is considered one of the great historical novels of the century. 


Inspector and Investigator, Office 
of Indian Affairs, 1925. 


Supplement B 

By Charles A. Eastman* 


Office of Indian Affairs 

March 2, 1925 
'The Commissioner 

of Indian Affairs. 

My dear Mr. Commissioner: 

"In pursuance of your instructions of December 13, 1924, relative to 
investigation and locating the final burial place of Sacajawea or Bird Woman, 
I entered upon the investigation by the first of January, 1925. As by instructions, 
I proceeded from Pawhuska, Oklahoma, to Fort Washakie, Wyoming. I fully 
realized the importance and delicacy of this investigation, therefore I secured 
special interpreters before I entered upon the work. Mr. James E. Compton, 
who understood not only the Shoshone language but the Bannocks and he is 
a well educated Carlisle man, not only this but is well versed in the modern 
history of his people. 

"Mr. R. P. Haas, the local superintendent, gave every help possible to 
find and meet such persons as I thought would give any material evidence 
concerning "Bazile's mother" as she was commonly known in her later days, 
although she was also known as Porivo, Chief Woman. She was also known 
by the name of Wadziwiper and Poheniv or Grass Woman. Wadziwiper means 
Lost Woman, who claims to be or others claim for her that she is Sacajawea or 
Bird Woman, the interpreter and guide of Louis and Clark expedition. 

"I will use Shoshone or Comanche name Porivo for convenience. This 
statement of her grandson, Andrew Bazile, I marked as Exhibit A establishes 
fully that Porivo is the mother of Bazile and Baptists two well known Shoshone 
men, all died within three years, namely; Porivo died 1884' — Bazile died in 
1886 — Baptiste died in 1885. At the best information I have she was very 
nearly 100 years of age. If she is Sacajawea or Bird Woman she must have been 
born in 1788, and according to Louis and Clark Journals she would be 96 
years old when she died. If Baptiste, the son of Porivo is the same Baptiste, 
the son of Sacajawea, he would have been 80 years old when he died for he 
was born February 11, 1805, according to Louis and Clark Journals; and if 
Bazile, the son of Porivo is the same as Touisant Charbonneau, the child of 
Charbonneau's Snake wife whose name is Otter Woman. According to the 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa), 
M.D., was born in Redwood Falls, Minnesota, in 1858, the son of Jacob Eastman, 
a Santee Sioux, and Nancy Eastman, half-blood Sioux; graduate of two col- 
leges; married Elaine Goodale in June, 1891; six daughters were born. He 
was the Government physician at Pine Ridge Agency, 1890-1893, and in charge 
of the wounded captives at the time of the Ghost Dance outbreak, 1890; was 
Indian secretary of the Y. M. C. A., 1894-1897, under the International Com. 
Y.M.C.A., having charge of the whole Indian field; was attorney for Santee 
Sioux, Washington, 1897-1900; government physician. Crow Creek, S. D., 
1900-1903; held appointment to revise Sioux family names, 1903-1909; director ' 
Brooks-Bryce Foundation, Boy Scout Camp, Chesapeake Beach, Md., 1914; 
national councilman Boy Scouts of America since 1922. * * * U. S. Indian in- 
spector during Coolidge administration, resigned in 1925. Author: Indian Boy- 
hood, 1902; Red Hunters and the Animal People, 1904; * ' * Indian Heroes 
and Great Chieftains, 1918. Lectures on Indian life and history. Home; North 
Hampton, Mass.—Who's Who in America- 1926-1927, VoL 14, p. 640. 


Gros Ventres testimony, he would be 83 years old, since in Luttigs application 
for guardianship for him in August, 1813, he was declared 10 years old. This 
would make him approximately 1 ^ to 2 years older than his brother, Baptiste. 
These were the essential points I set down to guide me in the investigation. 

"It is well known in history that when Louis and Clark returned from the 
western coast they lingered for a short time at the Gros Ventres village, and 
it is well known that Charbonneau and his two Snake wives remained there 
when Louis and Clark's Expedition proceeded down the river to St. Louis. 

"The Indians of the Fort Berthold reservation. North Dakota, insisted that 
he did not pick up these Snake wives at the village and afterwards marry them, 
but they insisted he had married them somewhere up the Missouri River, 
either among the Crow Indians or the Blackfeet and afterwards drifted to their 
country and was there only a short time when Louis and Clark's Expedition 
came up to their village. It is very evident and in accordance with the customs 
of the Indians that Charbonneau could not have married the two girls at the 
same time. He must have married one of them at least a year or possibly two 
years before he married the second wife. To be sure he kept both of them, 
Touisant Charbonneau being the child of his first Shoshone wife, namely, 
Otter V/oman, and this wife must have been his favorite for he named his oldest 
daughter Otter of the Gros Ventres wife by the name of Eagle, nearly twelve 
years afterwards who was the mother of Bull Eyes, who now claims that his 
grandmother Eagle was Sacajawea. 

"According to the statement of Mrs. Weidemann, a very intelligent 
woman, daughter of Great Chief Poor Wolf of the Hidatsa Indians, Charbonneau 
took both of his wives and their children down to St. Louis; A year or so after- 
wards Louis and Clark departed from the village to St. Louis. I submit Mrs. 
Weidemann's statement as Exhibit K.* 

"The writings of Miss Stella G. Drumm of the St. Louis Historical Society 
say that after they reached St. Louis and remained foi a short time Charbonneau 
was hired out to the fur company of Chouteau and was sent to one of their 
forts in the southwest. It is not clear as to what trading post he was attached, 
but it was on th^. branches of the Red River or Arkansas River in Oklahoma. 
However, he returned to St. Louis before 1811 for he had sold what little property 
he had in St. Louis to William Clark for $100. 

"In Breckenridge's Book of Travels he states that in 1811 when he was 
coming up the Missouri River on boats he saw Touisant Charbonneau and his 
Snake wife. He was told that the Frenchman was the guide of Louis and Clark 
Expedition. He also spoke of his wife as imitating white womens style in dressing 
and he spoke of her as being a commendable woman. In 1813 Manuel Lisa a 
well known French fur trader at St. Louis, whose operations in the fur trading 
business was extensive had sent a large body of men up the river to establish 
a trading post on the Missouri River in the vicinity of the then Arikiras and 
Gros Ventres as well as Yankton Nais Sioux country. lohn Luttig was his 
chief clerk who kept a daily Journal apparently of the activities and experiences 
of the party and the Fort. September 18, 1812, he made an entry saying "Elie's 
Snake sguaw died today." On December 20, 1812, another entry was made by 
Luttig saying "Charbonneau' s wife, the Snake squaw died of Putrid fever, the 
best woman in the Fort." The people of the Fort had a great deal of trouble 
from the Indians of the region owing to the American-English War of 1812, 
during which some of the British traders were inciting the Indians against the 
Americans. During the winter according to Luttig' s Journal that Charbonneau 
and Jessiumme were suspected seriously of being involved in the hostile 
conduct of some of the Indians. Luttig' s Journal stopped suddenly in March, 

*NOTE.- — Several "Exhibits" are referred to by Dr. Eastman as being 
submitted with the report, but none were attached to this copy received from the 
Department of Indian Affairs by the Wyoming Historical Department. How- 
ever, the testimony of several witnesses he refers to as "Exhibits" is included 
in the Hebard work, "Sacajawea," and to which the reader is respectfully 
referred.- — Ed. 


1813. It is well known among the Indians, Sioux and Rees that the Fort was 
attacked during that time and killed many of the Lisa's men. It appears during 
that time Charbonneau had departed to the Gros Ventres country. 

"In August, 1813, Luttig made an application at the Orphan Court in St. 
Louis to have guardians appointed for the children of Touisant Charbonneau 
deceased, to wit: 

Touisant Charbonneau, a boy 10 years of age 

Lizette Charbonneau, a baby girl, 1 year of age. 

"It appears or can be inferred that when the trouble arose at Fort Manuel 
Charbonneau had left his children, presumably in care of the Indian wives of 
the other employees of the Fort. When his wife died December 20, and as he 
disappeared during the attack there, the children were brought down with 
the remainder of the party to St. Louis. 

"John Luttig, in his journal expressed himself strongly against the char- 
acter of Charbonneau, but he spoke of his Shoshone wife as being the best 
woman in the Fort. He took interest in these children of the Charbonneau 
woman. He saw to it that they should have a guardian, therefore William 
Clark was appointed. Apparently he supposed that Charbonneau had been 
killed in the outbreak at the Fort. 

"In the three points. Dr. Robinson holds as the essential proof that the 
woman who died on December 20 is the Bird Woman. I find no place in this 
connection where her name Sacajawea was mentioned nor directly referred 
to as Sacajawea, except in Mr. Breckenridge's observation on the boat that 
Charbonneau was pointed out as guide for Louis and Clark. 

"That he had a Shoshone wife with him whom he naturally supposed the 
one accompanied Charbonneau across the continent with the Louis and 
Clark's Expedition. It is apparent that the Bird Woman was not called Sacajawea 
as far as the public is concerned during this time. Up to this time Sgt. Patrick 
Gass's journal was the only one published in IQO?. Nowhere in his report 
she was called Sacajawea, she was only referred to as the Squaw or Charbon- 
neau' s wife. 

"After the revision of the Louis and Clark Journals no one knew at that 
time outside of Louis and Charbonneau that this woman was called Sacajawea. 
Secondly, the court record shows that Baptiste the child of Sacajawea was 
conspicuously absent, this means that Baptiste had been retained in St. Louis 
when Charbonneau and his other Snake wife and child had gone back to the 
Indian country as stated by Breckenridge. Baptiste was too young to be sep- 
arated from his mother and in my knowledge of the Indian mothers 
traits and habits are such she could not have permitted to be separated from 
her child at that age, especially those times. It was hard enough up to 
thirty years ago to get a child of 10 years to leave their Indian parents to go to 
school. It would have been impossible for Clark to retain Baptiste without his 
mother, but as he determined to either adopt or educate the boy, the youngest 
member of the expedition across the continent, he had to provide for the Bird 
Woman in order to keep Baptiste in St. Louis so that he may see to his education 
and as he could not trust Touisant Charbonneau to take the child back up the 
Missouri; therefore he retains him and that is why Baptiste was not mentioned 
in the Orphans Court when Luttig applied for guardian to be selected or 
appointed for the children of Touisant Charbonneau, deceased on August, 

"The evidence given by Wolfe Chief or the Hidatsa and Mrs. Weidemann 
shows that Charbonneau did have two Shoshone wives and a Mandan wife 
besides. They clearly stated that Charbonneau took both of his Shoshone 
wives with him when he visited St. Louis some time in 1807 to 1808 and it is 
evident that he had returned with but one Shoshone wife who died on December 
20, 1812. In the St .Louis Court application for guardians for his children, the 
child of Bird Woman was conspicuously absent. It will seem then that this 
child had been left in St. Louis when Charbonneau returned north in 1811, 
but the child Baptiste would have been too young to be separated from his 
mother, the Bird Woman. 


"When the other two children of Charbonneau namely, Touisant Charbon- 
neau, Jr., and Lizette Charbonneau, daughter, were presented at the Orphans 
Court, John Littig, was appointed guardian but it was scratched off and sub- 
stituted by William Clark. 

"Miss Stella E. Drumm states in her book that Clark was absent at the time 
of the court procedure, but when he returned he accepted the guardianship 
of the other children of Charbonneau. It is natural for the Indian woman, and 
under the circumstances that she would have to become the mother of those 
children until a certain age when they can be sent to school. This is proven by 
the testimony of Eagle Woman and by the statements of Mrs. Weidemann when 
Charbonneau married the bride. Eagle, Hidatsa maiden, in 1819 or 1820. He 
proceeded immediately with a company of fur traders to St. Louis, although he 
was supposed to have been killed in the attack at Fort Manuel by the Sioux 
when they killed many of Lisa's men. He turned up unexpectedly at St. Louis 
with his new wife. Eagle, and he takes his old wife again Bird Woman, and 
the two boys Baptiste and Bazile. 

"Apparently Touisant Charbonneau, Jr., had a name of his own by 
that time, namely, Bazile. These two boys had been educated by William Clark; 
one was sent to a protestant missionary teacher and the other was sent to a 
catholic missionary teacher, namely, Mr. Welch and Father Neil, until in 1820. 
Bazile must have been 17 years old and Baptiste 15. 

"Eagle said they were about 18 and 15. Not more than a year or so re- 
maining in St. Louis according to Mrs. Weidemann' s statement and Eagle's 
own account that Charbonneau had obtained employment with one of the 
fur companies together with his sons and the whole family departs for the 
southwest. They worked as guides and interpreters in one or two forts in the 
neighborhood of Neosho and Washita Rivers. During that time they visited 
some other forts, among them some Spanish or Mexican trading posts where 
Eagle gives account of seeing "so many sea shells and beads and beautiful 
blankets." While they were in that part of the country (it appears to be the 
western part of Oklahoma and Kansas), when Charbonneau takes another 
wife, namely a Ute young woman, which causes trouble with the Bird Woman. 
Charbonneau whips Bird Woman during the absence of his two sons on a 
trip. The Bird Woman disappears. This statement is corroborated by the 
statement of Bazile' s son, namely Andrew Bazile, Exhibit A. Afterwards she 
drifted among the Comanches. The Comanches were originally a part of the 
Shoshone Nation; they spoke the same language with a dialect and local 
difference, just like we say high and low Dutch language. 

"The evidence of the Comanches, or rather the statements of the Comanche 
people, bear out this fact although there is no one now living who knew just 
how and when she appeared among them. In due time she married a man by 
the name of Jerk Meat by whom she had 5 children. All died in infancy ex- 
cept one son and the youngest child, a girl. She lived approximately 26 
or 27 years among the Comanches when her husband. Jerk Meat, was killed 
in a battle. It is a fact this was the first husband of her own choice and appar- 
ently she was devoted to him, therefore at his death she was heartbroken and 
very much depressed. At that time she was not in harmony with the relatives 
of her husband, therefore, she declared she would not live among them any 
longer. When she said this the people did not take her seriously but she was in 
earnest for one day she disappeared, taking with her her little girl. She had 
in her family a Mexican captive girl whom her son had captured in war and 
Bird Woman had raised her. She was 15 years old. She gives the information 
that Bird Woman had taken a small perfleche bag containing dried buffalo 
meat. It appears from this that she had a definite purpose and point toward 
which she was going. 

"Her son hunted for her everywhere, in fact her whole band searched for 
her in vain. He visited many of the adjacent tribes, namely, Wichitas and 
Kiowas, but she was not found. A rumor came to them that she was among 
the white people, whether this was true or not they did not know. She was 
gone forever. After this they called her Wadzewiper, the lost woman. During 


her life with the Comanches she was called Porivo, which means Wife or 
Chief Woman. Nothing was ever heard concerning her until the Indians all 
were placed in reservations and schools were established. Carlisle also came 
into existence. The son that she left among the Comanches was called Ticannaf. 
He had three or four children, all dead except one living now, a woman whose 
name is Tahcutine who gave the story of the life of her grandmother or Porivo 
or Sacajewea, the Bird Woman. The great grandchild from the Comanches 
and the great grandchildren from the Shoshones met at Carlisle. They in- 
guired of each other their great grandmothers descendants, which developed 
that they were many living among the two tribes at the present time, and for 
the first time they learned that Porivo had reached her tribe the Shoshones; 
some fifty years after she disappeared from the Comanches. This story of her 
life as given by the Comanche descendants confirms the testimony of the 
Shoshones; that when she returned to her tribe she told them that she came 
from the Comanches, although it took her several years to reach there. 

"The story of her separation from her husband and her children is corrobo- 
rated by the statement of Andrew Bazile, a grandchild and the son of Bazile, 
saying that his father told him that the Bird Woman and her husband separated 
in the southwest country when he and his brother were young men and they 
have never seen their father since. They only saw their mother when she came 
back to them at Fort Bridger, a grey haired woman. The next place where 
she appeared was in the testimony of Edmond LeClair in Exhibit C. 

'The story of Sally Ann who accompanied the Bird Woman or Porivo 
from Portage the Sioux is given fully by this witness, namely, Edmond LeClair. 
She reached St. Louis somehow a year or two after she disappeared from the 
Comanches and remained perhaps a year or so at that place, then proceeded 
up the Missouri River with some of the river fur men. At this time she married 
an old Frenchman who was employed by the company; the name of this man was 
not given. 

"Information came to me indirectly from the Sioux country along the 
Missouri River that the Bird Woman is known 70 years ago, but the testimony 
of Wolfe Chief or the Hidatsa and Mrs. Weidemann shows that she had passed 
up the Missouri River stopping at the various forts until she reached Fort Union 
at the mouth of Yellowstone river. It does not clearly state how many years she 
traveled up the Missouri River or how many years she remained at Fort Union, 
but the story is clear that she proceeded from Fort Union up the Yellowstone 
River, Big Horn and Wind Rivers in company with French Indian Traders who 
were sent out from Fort Union to trade with the Rocky Mountain Indians. This 
story is that her husband was left behind for a few days at Fort Union with the 
intention of joining the party at the mouth of Big Horn River, but he never 
appeared. It was supposed he might have been killed by some Indian War 
party. Thus she lost her husband. On this trip she succeeded in reaching the 
upper branches of the Snake River when she learned from her tribe, some of 
whom she met, that her two sons were at Fort Bridger. She worked her way 
south until she reached Fort Bridger where she found her two sons. The 
family reunion was natural and a happy one. Bazile, the oldest son, or her step 
son whom she raised and called her own son was exceptionally devoted to her. 
It was in his family that she lived and died. 

"The testimony of Mr. F. G. Burnette, Edmond LeClair, and Andrew 
Bazile corroborate Porivos traveling from Fort Union to the Snake country. 
Porivo's life among the Comanches is proved by the testimony of Mrs. Weide- 
mann and the story of Eagle Charbonneau. Hidatsa wife and Andiew Bazile 
proves the separation of Charbonneau and Bird Woman in the vicinity of the 
Comanche country which identifies that the Bird Woman and Porivo are the 
same person, and that Bazile and Baptiate were sons of Porivo or the sons of 
the Bird Woman. Bazile was not a real son but was a step son whom she raised 
as her own son. There are many instances among the Indians where a nephew 
or step son has been more devoted to the mother than the real son, this was the 
case in the relation of Bazile and his mother. 


'The Shoshone woman who died at Fort Manuel, was Otter Woman, the 
other Shoshone wife of Charbonneau who was Bazile's mother.* The child 
(girl) Lazette does not appear anywhere after the court procedure. It is likely 
she died in childhood. The child that Porivo or Bird Woman carried away from 
the Comanche Tribe had reached womanhood among the Shoshone people 
and married a Frenchman by the name of Ely Mayer, who left and went to 
California; then she married Shade Large. She died soon after without any 
issue. The testimonies concerning this woman are not taken in due form as I 
did not think it was pertinent to the investigation of the burying place of Saca- 

"In the testimony of Mrs. Weidemann, and Eagle tells the story of her trip 
with Charbonneau to St. Louis and the southwest, and after the break with 
Bird Woman they joined another large party of fur traders who proceeded to 
Salt Lake in which Charbonneau was employed, taking with him his Ute wife 
and the Hedasta wife, but after winter guarters had broken up, they decided 
to proceed northeast into the Wind River country. The Ute wife left him. They 
then proceeded over the mountains towards the Wind River. When they 
reached that point they followed down the Big Horn River, thence to the Yellow- 
stone River. When they were in this vicinity they met a large body of Crow 
Indians in camp. Here Eagle found some relatives who gave a white horse to 
Charbonneau. They proceeded down the Yellowstone River until they reached 
the Missouri River and down that river they arrived at the Hidatsa village 
which they had left four or five years before, when they went down to St. Louis. 
This was about 1825 when they arrived at the village of Hidatsa. 

"It was on the basis of this wonderful trip that her grandson, Bull Eyes 
makes the claim that his grandmother was the Bird Woman who accompanied 
Louis and Clark, but it was fully 15 years later that this trip was made as the 
statement of his own tribeswoman and Mrs. Weidemann who clears the case 
and in the part of his own statement that it was an entirely different trip. 

"It is also apparent that Charbonneau considered his Shoshone wife, 
Otter Woman, as his favorite for he named the first child by this wife. Eagle, 
the same name, namely. Otter the mother of Bull Eyes. The evidence gathered 
by Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard is authentic because it came from the Bird 
Woman at the time, although she was an old woman then, she spoke of the 
incidences on the Louis and Clark Expedition. At the time history was unknown 
to even some of the Rocky Mountain white men, much more so with the Indians. 
One of the striking characteristics and habits of the Bird Woman is that she 
is very modest in claiming any honors of being guide to that party; one reason 
for this is the Indian woman will put her husband as the head in any matter 
of that kind. She never considered herself as a guide or interpreter. She 
evidently assumed that the great duties performed by her were the natural 
conseguences of the expedition; that she was not interpreter and guide as she 
did not receive any salary and it will not bear too much assumption to say that 
she did not consider herself important or noted until prehaps some time after, 
even then she could not have received any published statement about herself 
as her people were very illiterate at the time of her death; and, as regards to 
her silence about her wonderful traveling and career, because it was not her 
choice but fate seemed to have compelled her to live the life that she did, ex- 
cept when she married the Comanche man. She was then a real wife and happy 
with her husband. Therefore when he was killed she was heartbroken and dis- 
satisfied with the tribe with whom she lived and again the thought of her 
nativity and tribe took strong hold of her, therefore she departed with her 
youngest child on her back. Her purpose was clearly defined for she carried 
it out and in the end she defeated fate. 

*NOTE — This statement that Otter Woman was Bazil's mother does not 
agree with other historians. The fact is well verified that he was the son of 
Sacaiawea's sister who had died, but she adopted him as her son at the time 
the Expedition came upon her brother and other relatives, whom she rejoiced 
to see. — Erl. 


"Within a short time that I am allotted to investiagte and locate the buria 
place of this woman, it was difficult for me to go into all the trails and evidences 
of her wanderings, but I have only gone to the important points where she actu- 
ally lived and the tradition still exists of her being there, and follow her back 
to her nation as hereintofore stated. She died April 9, 1884, and was buried by 
Missionary Roberts at Fort Washakie, Wyoming. 

"Not only the identity of Sacajawea, the Bird Woman is proven by the 
accompanying testimonies taken in the very wide parts of the country in such 
a manner that they could not have known what the other tribes knew and still 
they corroborated the truth of the history of her travels. 

"Porivo or Chief Woman and Sacajawea, the Bird Woman are one and 
the same person. 

"Bazile and Baptiste the sons of Porivo or Sacajawea are the same sons of 
Touisant Charbonneau's wife, Sacajawea or the Bird Woman of the Louis and 
Clark Expedition, namely; Touisant Charbonneau Jr., and Baptiste Charbon- 
neau. This is proven by the statement of Mrs. Weidemann of the story of Eagles 
trip with Charbonneau to St. Louis, southwestern territory and through Salt 
Lake Country; thence back by the way of Wind, Big Horn, and Yellowstone 
Rivers into the Missouri and back to the Gros Ventres village reaching there 
about 1825. 

Charbonneau was absent from that part of the country between 1819 to 
1825 after which he was seen in that part of the country again by the Govern- 
ment officials, Atkinson and O'Fallon. 

"From there on he was seen by Prince Maximillian, Mr. Larpenteur, and 
others up to 1839 when he appeared in St. Louis and he has never been seen 

"By the testimonies gathered by Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, Baptiste 
was seen among the trappers in the Lemhigh Country in 1830. Faris speaks 
of having been lost in the trapping trip for two or three days, but he appeared 

"William Clark Kernley spoke of meeting him in 1843 in the vicinity 
of Fort Laramie, Wyoming, as a guide, and Fremont in his exploring trip 
across to the Pacific meets a body of employees of the fur traders. Bent and St. 
Vrain not far from Ft. St. Vraine on the south fork on the Platte in a camp which 
was managed by Charbonneau. 

"It is stated in Jim Faris' s account of a trapping party in which Bazile 
Charbonneau and his brother who were employed by Bent and Robideau at 
Bents Forts in the southwest on some branches of the Arkansas. Bent and St. 
Vrain later on opened forts on the south forks of the Platte River and sent 
their men into the recesses of the mountains for trapping and gathering furs 
from different Indian tribes. 

"It is natural that these two men being employed by that fur company 
wandered up into that country which was approximately adjacent to the 
country of their ancestors, namely, the Snake Indians to which their mother 
was a member, namely. Bird Woman. Evidently the older one took upon him- 
self the leadership of the uncle's tribe at the same time he was still serving 
Robideau, Bent, St. Vrain, and later Jim Bridger. 

"What evidence Dr. Hebard gathered came from very competent people, 
both intelligent and strong men. 

"The testimony of Dr.'s Erwin, Patten, and Roberts cannot easily be dis- 
puted. In the first place they were simple men, secondly, they were Christian 
men for all three of them were missionaries at different times or simultaneously 
in which they were engaged in work among the Indians, and all of them had 
known Porivo, Bazile' s mother or Sacajawea, the Bird Woman. 

"Sacajawea, the Bird Woman was not much older than her sons. She 
was 17 when she gave berth to her son, Baptiste. Bazile or Touisant Charbon- 
neau, Jr., the son of Otter Woman the other Snake wife of Charbonneau was 
born nearly two years before Baptiste. Therefore he was only 15 years younger 
than the Bird Woman. At the time their mother died they were very old men, 
she being 96 years old. Not knowing the exact age the Indians said she was 


about 100 years of age. Baptists was 80 years old and Bazile was 83. There- 
fore they did not appear much younger at that age than their mother and they 
all died within three years. 

"I submit the testimonies of three different Indian nations, namely, Sho- 
shones, Comanches, and Gros Ventres, the first in Wyoming, the second in 
Oklahoma, and the third in North Dakota. As there were no authentic records 
to be found after Clark had finished with them. Bird Woman and sons, we have 
to accept the tribal traditions and when they corroborated so strikingly well, 
we must accept it as the truth. 

"I report that Sacajawea after sixty years of wandering from her own 
tribe returns to her people at Fort Bridger and lived the remainder of her 
life with her sons in peace until she died on April 9, 1884, at Ft. Washakie^ 
Wyoming; that is her final rseting resting place. 


Inspector and Investigator." 


(Bird Woman) 
By Porter B. Coolidge 

strangely sweet and darkly fair. 
An Indian girl with raven hair 

In silken strands of gloss and gloom 
Oft mingling with the rose's bloom; 
And wildly sweet the melody 
Her tameless spirit sings to me. 

1 stooped where swift Poposia flows 
And plucked for her a fresh, wild rose; 
Her dark gaze cast a snowy rim 

With twilight's purple shadows dim; 
Then softly, guaintly she did sing 
Like bird at eve with folded wing. 

Now sunset's golden dreams are dead, 
The Indian girl from me hath fled; 
Still linger in the star-lit skies 
The dusk and splendor of her eyes; 
And voice of distant waterfall 
Sweet echoes of her song recall. 

— From "Songs of the Last West.' 


By Henry J. Peterson* 


This article, "Statehood for Wyoming," is a resume of conditions in the 
Territory of Wyoming, as well as the views and opinions of prominent leaders, 
together with public opinion in general, immediately preceding the historical 
Constitutional Convention, which convened in Chevenne on September 2, 

The story of that conclave, which was concluded on September 30, 1889, 
is told by Dr. Peterson in a previous treatise entitled, "The Constitutional 
Convention of Wyoming," published in the University of Wyoming Publi- 
cations in May, 1940, and distributed as a supplement to the October, 1940, 

The convention was attended by delegates who had been elected from 
the ten counties then existing, and the laws for the proposed new state were 
drafted and signed. The treatise gives a bird's-eye- view of the more important 
bills submitted, many of the controversies which took place, and personal side- 
lights on numerous personalities who took active part in the deliberations of 
that historic body. For his sources of information for both articles. Dr. Peterson 
has drawn generously from the news and editorial columns of the Wyoming 
press, as well as from the 700-page volume entitled, "Journals and Debates 
of the Constitutional Convention, Wyoming." 

The two articles by Dr. Peterson, together with the series of biographical 
sketches on the 55 men who attended the Constitutional Convention, as pre- 
pared by the Wyoming State Historical Department and published in two in- 
stallments in the Golden Anniversary volume (1940) of THE ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, July and October numbers, respectively — give a concise, though 
complete, history of the preparations of the Territory for Statehood, the framing 
of the laws by which the State is now governed, as well as offering a personal 
acguaintance with each individual member of that great body of lawmakers. 

Accompanying the biographical sketches were photographs of all the 
signers of the constitution, with the exception of only three, obtained from 
widely diversified sources through the efforts of the staff of the Wyoming 
Historical Department. 

■ — Editor. 

'BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Dr. Henry J. Peterson, Professor of Politi- 
cal Science and Chairman of the Department, University of Wyoming, Laramie, 
was born on September 3, 1878, at Story City, Iowa. He received his higher 
education at Si. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn.; the University of Chicago 
and the University of Iowa at Iowa City. He came to Wyoming in 1909 to 
assume the position of Superintendent of Public Schools at Diamondville, for 
one year. From 1910 to 1920, Dr. Peterson was Professor of Political Science 
at Iowa State Teacher's College, Cedar Falls. 

In 1920, he returned with his family to Wyoming, having accepted his 
present position. 

He and Miss Katharine W. Constant, of Buffalo Hart, Illinois, were married 
on December 26, 1914, and they have one son, Robert Constant. Dr. Peterson 
is a Mason and a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

He is the author of Chapter IV, headed "Wyoming: A Cattle Kingdom," 
in a volume entitled "Rocky Mountain Politics," edited by Thomas Claude 
Donnelly and published by the University of New Mexico Press, Albuguerque, 
1940, also a 30-page paper, entitled, "The Constitutional Convention of Wyo- 
ming," published in the University of Wyoming Publications in May, 1940, 
and distributed as a supplement to the October, 1940, number of The Annals 
of Wyoming. 


It is usually the more alert and aggressive of the middle 
class who, dissatisfied with home conditions, are willing to 
endure the hardships of pioneer life. Frontier Wyoming was 
no exception to this rule. Among the early pioneers were men 
like Brooks and Carey and Warren. They were men of vision, 
not easily discouraged by seemingly insurmountable obstacles, 
who battled for what they thought would advance the interests 
of their community. 

As early as 1885, Governor Francis E. Warren, in his 
Annual Report to the Secretary of Interior,! elaborated on the 
territory's excellent climate, its richness of natural resources, 
its live stock interests, its educational advantages, its railroad 
facilities, and its recreational possibilities. He also called at- 
tention to the fact that Wyoming was the only community in 
the United States that permitted women to vote. He recom- 
mended that the territory be considered for statehood "at the 
earliest possible date." The governor admitted that Wyoming 
at the date of his report might be somewhat lacking in population 
but thought that, with its present rate of increase. Congress, 
before its adjournment, mightly safely add the Territory of 
Wyoming to the sisterhood of states. 

The territorial legislature was also in favor of admission. 
In 1888 it passed a loint House Resolution in which Congress 
was petitioned for admissions. 

Under the caption ''A Clamor for Statehood" the Laramie 
Daily Boomerang, in the issue of January 8, 1889, reported 
a series of interviews with Wyoming citizens on statehood for 
the territory as published in The New York World. 3 Having 
heard rumors of the "'clamor" in this far-away country. The 
World was curious to know on what sort of a foundation Wyo- 
ming based her claims for statehood. All those interviewed 
favored admission and gave plausible reasons for such action. 

The Cheyenne Leader of January 24 suggested that the 
"legislative miemorial to Congress may not result in much 
practical good for the present, but it will show that Wyoming 
is beginning to feel her oats, and when she sees something 
she needs in business she is not ashamed to ask for it. "4 

The Laramie Daily Boomerang was guite sure that the desire 
for statehood was almost egually as strong in Laramie as in 
Cheyenne and that it was favored by the best known and most 
enterprising men in the Territory. s "No one but a blunderer 
could contend that the people of Cheyenne would be the only 

1. Report of the Governor of Wyoming Territory to the Secretary of 
Interior, November 25, 1885. 

2. Session Laws of Wyoming Territory, 1888, p. 226. 

3. Reprint in Laramie Daily Boomerang, January 8, 1889. 

4. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 24, 1889. 

5. Laramie Daily Boomerang, January 10, 1889. 


ones to reap .^benefit. All should consider what statehood 
would bring Wyoming — settlement, railroads, development, 
prosperity, growth, wealth, power, making her, not in dreams, 
but in reality, the "Pennsylvania of the west.' " 

Opinion was not, however, unanimous for statehood at 
this time. On January 22, The Cheyenne Daily Leader sug- 
gested that "Ve do not believe that the territory is now ripe 
for statehood or in a condition to bear the burdens of increased 
taxation which it will entail, but by the time our case can be con- 
sidered through slow processes of legislation, we will have 
reached a stage which will justly entitle us to recognition. "e 

There was, moreover, some partisan objection to state- 
hood at this time. While most of the Republicans favored 
admission some Democrats were rather dubious. The Republi- 
cans controlled the territorial government and would very 
likely elect both state officers and members of Congress if the 
territory were admitted. The Republicans were also suspected 
of planning to dominate the constitutional convention as well 
as to control the first state elections. This suspicion was es- 
pecially directed at the so-called ""ring of Cheyenne politicians." 
It was believed that the argument would be made that election 
of Republican officials would be desirable in order to influence 
the Republican Congress to vote for Wyoming's admission. 
"The politicians of Cheyenne," said The Sheridan Enterprise, 
""are the only ones, with a few scattered exceptions, who insist 
that Wyoming should immediately be made a state. "7 

The Rock Springs Miner suggested that "" . . .it was only 
selfish Cheyenne that desired statehood for Wyoming. State- 
hood would help to lift the Magic City from its present state of 
lethargy, and force, through high taxation, the rest of the 
territory to pay for its revival and growth. "s The Rawlins 
Journal believed that the convention ought to be postponed 
until after the meeting of the legislature the following winter. 9 
The Journal had in mind the possibility of the Democrats 
getting into power and electing the first United States senators. 

Meantime, Joseph M. Carey, our delegate to Congress, 
had interested Congress in statehood for Wyoming. The 
Republican party had failed in its eftort to perpetuate Republican 
control of the national government by Freedmen's votes in 
the South. The party was, therefore, more than willing to admit 
western states which gave promise of adding to its vote in 
Congress. Representative W. M. Springer, on January 29, 
1889, introduced an omnibus bill for the admission of Arizona, 
Idaho, and Wyoming. lo The bill was reported favorably by the 

6. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 22, 1889. 

7. Reprinted in Laramie Daily Boomerang, June 10, 1889. 

8. Ibid., June 10, 1889. 

9. Ibid., April 15, 1889. 

10. Congressional Record, Vol. 20, Pt. 2, p. 1253. 


House Committee on Territories the following month and during 
the same month the Senate Committee approved the Mitchell- 
Teller bill for the admission of Wyoming. Congress, with only 
five days left of its session, adjourned without taking action. n 

By this time those who favored statehood for Wyoming 
were getting impatient. In an editorial of March 28th, the 
Laramie Boomerang wanted to know if it might not be desirable 
to call a Constitutional Convention to draw up a constitution 
and present it to Congress, thus avoiding the delay involved 
in passing the Enabling Act. 12 

On May 13, 1889 the Democratic and Republican Central 
Committees circularized the commissioners of the various 
counties on the guestion of statehood. 1 3 The committee said 
that they believed the best interests of the Territory would be 
served by immediate action. The only objection which had 
heretofore been urged against statehood was that of increased 
expense. However, since the Senate Committee on Territories 
had unanimously presented a bill for the admission of Wyo- 
ming which contained so many generous grants of land and 
such a liberal cash revenue from sales of public lands, it was 
very doubtful if taxes would be appreciably larger, if as large, 
under state government than they were under territorial govern- 
ment. Nor would anything done toward statehood curtail the 
terms of county officers; they would serve out their terms of 
office at any event. In response to the suggestion the County 
Commissioners of seven counties voted by June 1 in favor of 
a Constitutional Convention. 1 4 Without waiting for Congress 
to take further gction. Governor Warren, Chief Justice Mag- 
innis, and Secretary of State Shannon agreed, at a conference 
held June 3d that the Governor should call for the election 
of delegates to a Constitutional Convention. 'The Territory 
of Wyoming," read the Governor's proclamation, ''has the 
population, material resources, public intelligence and morality 
necessary to insure a stable government therein. "is The 
Senate and House Committees on Territories, the Governor 
went on to say, had both reported in favor of Wyoming's admis- 
sion; many members of Congress had expressed themselves 
as agreeing; and a majority of the citizens of the Territory 
favored statehood. 

In order to get a more favorable reaction when Congress 
did act on the petition for admission, Carey's suggestion to 
follow the plan laid down in the bill reported by the Senate 

11. Beard, Wyoming From Territorial Days to the Present, Vol. I, p. 429, 
(The American Historical Society, Inc., Chicago and New York), 1933. 

12. Laramie Daily Boomerang, March 28, 1889. 

13. Circular letter printed in Laramie Daily Boomerang, May 14, 1889. 

14. Laramie Daily Boomerang, June 1, 1889. 

15. Ibid., June 4, 1889. 


Committee on Territories was adopted. According to this 
plan the Convention was to consist of 55 delegates, selected 
from the counties. The number of delegates from each county- 
was fixed in the Governor's proclamation on the basis of votes 
cast in such county for Delegate to Congress at the last general 
election, the unit being a delegate for every 327 votes cast. 
The selection of delegates was to take place on the second 
Monday in July, with the Constitutional Convention meeting 
the first Monday in September. The Constitution adopted 
was to be submitted to popular vote on the first Tuesday in 
November of the same year. 

In reporting the action of the Governor, the Omaha Bee 
declared that "... any state in the union would be glad to have 
the people that inhabit the Territory of Wyoming added to 
its population." 16 The Chicago Tribune commented thus: 
"The arguments her people set forth are convincing. They 
claim not only a first class population which is a matter of 
course, as the inhabitants are largely Republican, but they 
claim they have increased with great rapidity, having far 
exceeded 100, 000. "i7 The Denver Times was also guoted as 
saying that "'Wyoming has the population and the wealth for 
a state. She has the enlightenment, the intelligence and the 
culture for self-government. Therefore, in justice to her people, 
she should be admitted. "is 

Meantime, some political leaders schemed to secure 
partisan control of +he convention. With the selection of dele- 
gates to the convention in mind, Mr. Alf G. Rex, Chairman of 
the Uinta County Democratic Committee, addressed a circular 
letter to the Democrats of the county. 1 9 He called attention 
to a supposed Republican plan to control not only the Con- 
stitutional Convention but also the following election of state 
officers. He suggested, therefore, that the Democrats try to 
get a split county delegation in Republican counties and solid 
Democratic delegations from the Democratic counlies, and, in 
this way, control the Constitutional Convention. In accordance 
with this scheme he wanted six ''reliable and intelligent" 
delegates from Evanston. 

The action on the part of the Uinta Democratic Chairman 
caused hard feeling in some counties and led to the election 
of partisan delegates in such counties. Both Albany and Carbon 
Counties elected Republican delegates. The Casper Mail in 
commenting on the result in Carbon County, said that "... it 

16. Reprinted in Laramie Daily Boomerang, June 6, 1889. 

17. Ibid., June 7, 1889. 

18. Ibid., June 7, 1889. 

19. Ibid., June 24, 1889. 


would seem that ^ the managers of the Democratic party in 

Carbon County- 
Digged a pit and digged it deep; • ■ 
They digged it for their brothers; ;. 
But for their sin they did fall in; 
The pit they digged for others. "20 

Meantime, Cheyenne leaders were growing apprehensive 
in regard to these rumors that spread over the territory regard- 
ing the supposed plans of Cheyenne Republicans. A joint 
conference of Democrats and Republicans was called which 
declared in favor of a non-partisan Constitutional Convention. 21 
Also a resolution was passed declaring against the choice of 
state officers before Congress had taken action on Wyoming's 
admission. In the discussion Judge Lacey declared that it 
was best for Cheyenne not to assume too much in the direction 
of affairs throughout the territory. Mr. Kelly also spoke of the 
prejudices existing in various parts of the territory '"against 
Cheyenne politicians, as they are called." He wished to see 
other counties also adopt non-partisan resolutions. The confer- 
ence finally agreed to divide the Laramie County delegation, 
the Republicans getting six delegates and the Democrats five 

Mr. Baird favored a joint meeting of the two territorial 
central committees. They could agree in honor that no parti- 
sanship should enter into the selection of delegates. On June 
26th, the Republican Territorial Committee met in Judge 
Lacey' s off ice. 22 This committee favored a non-partisan Con- 
stitutional Convention and opposed the election of state officers 
until after Wyoming had been admitted as a state. However, 
only two members of the Democratic Committee appeared 
and they declared they had no power to unite with the Repub- 
licans in the adoption of any resolutions. 

No uniform method of procedure was followed in selecting 
delegates. In some counties local caucuses selected delegates 
to partisan or bipartisan county conventions. In other counties 
joint meetings of the Democratic and Republican County com- 
mittees agreed on a bipartisan group of delegates. In one or 
two counhes the county commissioners made the selection. 
The Convention of Johnson County selected two Democratic 
delegates and one Republican. According to the Laramie 
Daily Boomerang, '" . . . the Democrats of the convention also 

20. Ibid., July 18, 1889. 

21. Cheyenne Daily Sun., June 12, 1889. 

22. Ibid., June 26, 1889. 


made fools of themselves by passing a set of rules denouncing 
the statehood movement. "23 

The delegates selected from the various counties met at 
Cheyenne on September 2, 1889, organized themselves into 
a constitutional convention, and adopted a constitution which 
was then submitted to the people and Congress for approval. 

23. Laramie Daily Boomerang, July 9, 1889. (Opposition to statehood at 
this time reflected northern Wyoming's antagonism to Cheyenne as 
well as Democratic fear of Republican domination of the Constitutional 
Convention and later control of the admitted state. 


What appropriately might be considered as Cheyenne's 
first city business directory appeared as a series of ten install- 
ments in the CHEYENNE LEADER, Cheyenne, Dakota Territory, 
beginning on December 21, 1867, under the impressive head- 
ing, "Business and Financial Statistics of the 'MAGIC CITY', 

The explanatory opening paragraph stated the object of the 
series was 'To give to the world, outside of our corporate 
limits, a more extensive knowledge of the importance of Chey- 
enne." That 'The publication of these articles will be continued 
from day to day until the size, cost and use of every building 
in our city shall have been given, with the owners' names, 
names of persons occupying the buildings as tenants, their 
business, etc." Mr. Charles V. Arnold was the reporter in the 
undertaking, and respectful reguest was made 'That our 
citizens will furnish him the reguisite information, whenever 
he calls upon them." 

The first article covered "Seventeenth street, south side, 
from O'Neil east to Eddy street — two squares," and contained 
21 items, including the following: 

"One story frame, 30x100- — addition, 10x60, Harper, Steel & Co., Hard- 
ware dealers, owners and occupants- — entire cost, $4,000. 

"One story frame, 16x14, saloon, D. Cunningham, owner and occupant 
—cost, $175. 

"Two story and a half frame, 26x66 — addition, 20x60, Wyoming House, 
Holliday & Thompson, owners and occupants — one of the most imposing and 
popular hotels in Cheyenne- — cost, $10,000. 

"One story frame, 22x41, Keg House, Champion & Fetter, owners and 
occupants — cost, $1,400. 

Space totaling approximately eighty-five column inches 
was used in the ten issues of the ambitious early-day newspaper 
to "give to the world" a bird's-eye- view of the "Magic City" as 
it was in those pioneer times, the first year of Cheyenne's 






By Alice Mathews Shields* 

More than a half century has passed since ''Billy" Johnson, 
young Yankee lad, left his father's farm in Iowa, and like his 
father, his grandfather, and his uncles before him, started out 
to see the world. 

He inherited the Johnsons' yen for the open, unpeopled 
and new spots of the earlh. The elder Johnsons were seafaring 
men — sailors and whalers. When Billy's grandfather William, 
was a young man he sailed his own vessel to South America 
where he bought logwood which he freighted to Uncasville, 
Connecticut, where he owned a dye mill on a cove of the 
Thames River. There he extracted dyes from the woods. 

William's wife, Ellen, was a New England girl. On one 
of their voyages to Souih America they stayed for a while in 
Buenos Aires. There their son Nicholas, Billy's father, was born. 

When Nicholas became a young man he also shipped his 
sailing vessel, Nancy, to southern waters. He went to South 
Africa where he became established with the African ivory, 
rubber, and guano trade. He married Ellen Raymond of the 
old Raymond family of Connecticut, well known and remem- 
bered for the library in Uncasville which carries the family 

Eventually Nicholas lost his vessel, Nancy, to pirates off 
the coast of Brazil. 

Nicholas and Ellen had two children, Ellen and William 
Gail (Billy). The mother died when her children were yet 
quite young, and after several years Nicholas, their father, 
went West to Iowa, where he bought the Badger Grove Farm 
of nine hundred and sixty acres in Madison County, sixteen 
miles south of Des Moines. 

Billy and his sister Ellen stayed on in Connecticut to attend 
school. After a few years their father re-married and Billy went 
to the Iowa farm to live. Ellen married John Townsend of a 
prominent Connecticut family and remained in the New England 
State until her death. 

Makes Home in Wyoming 

In 1879, young Billy Johnson left the Iowa farm and arrived 
in Cheyenne the same year. He was very young, alone, and 
Cheyenne, in its twelfth year held no interest for him. He 

*See biographical sketch of Mrs. Shields in ANNALS OF WYOMING, 
Volume 13, No. 1, page 58, January, 1941. 


stayed only a short time and then went to Colorado. Two years 
later, in the spring of 1881, he returned to Wyoming — this time 
to become an integral part of the state. He went directly to the 
town of Rawlins in the Medicine Bow country on the eastern 
slope of the Continental Divide. There he hired out as a cow- 
puncher for Tom Sun, owner of the far famed Tom Sun Ranch, 
located on the Oregon Trail near Devil's Gate where the Sweet- 
water comes through the mountains. The hub and spoke brand 
of the Tom Sun Ranch marked the left rib of thousands of 
Durham cattle grazing in the Sweetwater River country. 

Independence Rock, named ''the register of the desert" in 
1840 by the missionary priest, Father DeSmet, past which every 
traveler journeyed as he followed the Oregon Trail, is on the 
Tom Sun Ranch. The old Sweetwater stage station, built in 
1861, was located on this land. 

Becomes Full-Fledged Cow-Puncher 

The first major assignment given Billy Johnson by Tom 
Sun, was an order to join the rancher and a bunch of cow- 
punchers on a trip into the Oregon Country to buy cattle. 
There were six or eight in the party who ''staged it" over the 
Overland stage line to Boise, Idaho, from where they traveled 
on horseback. 

"We made good time over the wagon trail," W. G. (Billy) 
Johnson, now United States Land Registrar, four times State 
Representative, twice State Senator, and holder of many other 
public offices, said ,as he settled back in his swivel chair, in a 
mood to talk about his life on the range. "Our stage was drawn 
by a six-horse team which was changed for fresh animals every 
ten miles of the way. The stage seated nine or ten men with 
room for one more on the seat with the driver. We traveled 
through the mountains, forded the streams and crossed the 
Boise River at the mouth of Sucker creek. 

"After we traveled a hundred miles or so, some of the 
boys got homesick and turned back. Four of us who had no 
home — just drifting cowpunchers — went on. We deserted the 
stage at Boise and rode our horses to Tilton, and then staged 
it to Baker City, Oregon. We carried the money with us to pay 
for the cattle. We had many thousands of dollars tied around 
our bodies in money belts. A well-known character, commonly 
known as a bad man, got on the stage with us and rode some 
distance. Tom Sun, who was known the country over as a good 
shot, kept his gun ready for a draw, and his eye on this man, 
so nothing ever happened. 

"We collected twenty-five hundred head of Durham cattle 
in that country, and, with the herd, started out on the return 
trip to the Tom Sun Ranch. We followed the Oregon Trail, 


swam the rivers, climbed the mountains, and then followed 
the Indian River. We were five months making the return 

"We drove herd all day long and camped at night. The 
cook prepared our meals in the mess wagon. The ground made 
a good bed and we had tarps (tarpaulins) to keep the rain off. 
We pounded our ears' until early morning; were up and had 
breakfast and were ready for the trail before daylight. We 
took turns as night-herder to keep the cattle from straying from 
the camp during the night. The cowboys were paid $40.00 
per month — extra good boys were paid $50.00. 

'There was another buyer returning with us who kept 
his herd with ours until we got to a certain point. There we 
divided the herd and made the money exchange in the shadow 
of a gulch. 

''When we got as far as Boise we went shopping for new 
clothes. The only underwear we could find was the red flannel 
variety. We were glad to get it — and to get a bath. 

''We kept our route south of Boise — crossed Snake River 
at the mouth of Eagle Rock (Jackson Hole country) , came through 
South Pass at the Continental Divide and down the Sweetwater 
to the ranch. 

"I stayed on with Tom Sun for four or five years and 
herded cattle in the Sweetwater Country. Sun had a herd of 
six thousand cattle at that time." 

Mr. Johnson said the feeling of contentment and the joy 
of living known to the cowpuncher in his saddle can never be 
experienced by the office-chair sitter. 

He said the round-up was not a lark but rather meant 
long, hard hours for the cowpunchers. He explained: "When 
round-up time came we threw a few sacks of flour in the wagon 
and were told to rustle our own beef. We had a mess wagon 
and a cook to prepare our food. Beef, bread and coffee was 
our fare. In later years potatoes were included. No milk or 
butter! Cowpunchers refused to milk. There were usually 
eight or ten men to the wagon and each man had several 
horses. Often, there were between one and two hundred 
head in an outfit. A night herder was pul on duty to watch the 
herd and to keep it intact during the night. We breakfasted 
before daylight and were glad for the chance to sleep after 
the day was over. 

"There was no singing, nor playing of the fiddle around 
the campfire as the story writers would have you believe. Such 
things are from the imagination of some fellow who never saw 
a cow. We were on the open range many miles from any sign 
of civilization. However, we did play poker now and then. 
But we worked hard until the cattle were rounded up, branded, 
or cut out to drive to market, and then went back to the ranch. 


' There is not much else but hard work in the Hfe of a cow- 
puncher. Between round-ups, during the winter time, we 
broke our horses to ride. Horse-breaking was an occasion 
then. We bhndfolded the wild horses and rode them until 
they gave up. Each man broke his own string. There was no 
fanfare such as shouts and pistol shots that you hear at the 
wild west shows. It was honest to goodness work, but we en- 
joyed it. 

''No, there were no women within a hundred miles of us — 
if a ranchman happened to have a wife, she lived in town — The 
cowpunchers cabins had signs posted, 'No women or barbed- 
wire allowed'. The former were as scarce as the latter. There 
was none of either. 

"However," he punned, "we had plenty of rattle snakes. 
We often killed them on the kitchen floor either by hitting 
them with a guirt or by shooting them. Many times we found 
the snakes in the beds when we turned back the overs to 
climb in. They had crawled in there in the day time to get 
warm. There was no danger of the rattlers wandering around 
after nightfall, however. 

"Quite often the boys were struck by a rattler, but no 
fatalities occurred, because we immediately cut the flesh out 
around the wound and sucked out the poisoned blood. Some- 
times we burned or cauterized the bite with a hot iron." 

He added that wild game was plentiful and that the cow- 
boys had an ample supply of it to eat. "Antelope roamed the 
hills and plains by the thousands. Deer and elk were plentiful 
in the hills and on the plains. The cowpunchers often roped 
an elk calf for the fun of branding him and then turned him 
loose. A horse can easily run down a young elk." 

As to marketing the cattle, Mr. Johnson pointed out that 
there was no railroad in the Sweetwater Country at that time, 
and it was therefore necessary to herd the cattle either to 
Rawlins or to Rock Creek for shipment. "It was a two weeks 
drive to take a herd from the Tom Sun Ranch to Rock Creek, a 
distance of about one hundred miles to the south and east, 
and across the Medicine Bow River. We moved slowly so that 
the cattle could graze all the way over. Our shipping points 
were Omaha and Chicago." 

He said that there were fifty thousand cattle on the range 
in the Sweetwater Country at the time he herded there. "Other 
herds", he called to mind "were the seventy-one guarter 
circle, 71, owned by an English company with stockholders 

in Scotland and England. The herd was known to have nine 
thousand head. I was in charge of the 71 herd for a year. 

Another large herd was the Goose Egg herd. The Searights 
from Texas built the herd and later sold it to the Careys who 
then had a herd of thirty thousand head." 


The Blizzard of 1883 

Up to this point the long and severe winter, and its effect 
on herds and cowpunchers, had not been mentioned. Billy 
Johnson said, '1 was a cowpuncher for over fifty years in all 
seasons of the year, and I can say that the strong lived through 
the hardships and that the week did not last long. The cow- 
punchers were sguare-shooters, upright, and honest men; 
I never heard of a cowpuncher insulting a woman. If they were 
not up to par they were soon run out of the country." He went 
on to say, '1 spent a lot of time on the range in the winter. 
Often we followed the herd for two hundred miles down toward 
Douglas. Sometimes we left the main outfit with a herd and 
would be gone until snow-fly. I remember one time in particular 
that five of us were caught in a blizzard. We were on the 
range between Whiskey Gap and Muddy Creek when the blizz- 
ard came down on us in the afternoon. Our saddle horses 
drifted with the storm, but we managed to keep the work horses 
near the wagon by feeding them grain which we had with us. 
The temperature dropped rapidly and the five of us got into bed 
and stayed there for three days and three nights. The mercury 
fell to forty below zero and we had to stay in bed to keep from 
freezing. One of the men froze his heel. How? He insisted on 
kneeling down to pray. The others were content to pray in bed. 
Most of the boys were Texas men — with the toughest bodies in 
the world. No, we didn't eat. The third day we got out and 
drove to a ranch on Lost Soldier, thirty miles distant. The 
rancher, whose name was Bohawk, fed us and made us com- 
fortable. I've not forgotten the date, February 3, 1883." 

In answer to the guery as to what usually caused cattle 
to stampede, the veteran cowpuncher said, "'A stampede was 
sometimes caused by a gulch into which the cattle stumbled 
and fell during a storm and in which they piled up in great 
heaps. A severe electrical storm often caused a stampede — the 
long horns of the cattle served as lightning rods for the fire to 
jump from the horns of one animal to another all through the 
herd. The herd went mad in an electrical storm. No, a cow- 
puncher will not leave his herd. To do such a thing would be 
against his code of honor." 

Since the Oregon Trail cut its way thru the Sweetwater 
range country — and passed by the Tom Sun Ranch, I was curious 
to know of some possible experience he may have had with +he 
emigrants traveling through a strange country. Mr. Johnson 
said, 'yes, indeed! I saw hundreds of emigrant trains on the 
trail. The prairie schooners were hauled by bull teams and 
by mule teams. Invariably, the milk cows were tied behind 
the wagons. Many of the travelers camped near the Tom Sun 
Ranch, and often sickness kept them in camp longer than usual. 


Often too, death took one of their party, as the graves along 
the trail show. 

"No, I never attended the funeral of an emigrant, but on 
one occasion I was asked to take charge of the burial of a Texas 
cowpuncher, a handsome six-footer. He had been sick only a 
short time. I had ridden to Lander, about fifty miles, for medi- 
cine; although I lost no time and used relay horses, he died 
before I got back with the medicine. I read the burial service 
from the Episcopal prayer book, preached the sermon, and 
put him away right. His nam.e was DeBardelaben. 

After five years or so, Billy Johnson bought a ranch of 
about five hundred acres on the Sweetwater near Rongis — 
stage station on the Signer ranch — (Rongis is Signer spelled 
backwards). He remained on this ranch for several years 
building up a herd. Late in the eighties he sold to Senator Jim 
Graham. It was during the years on this ranch that Billy John- 
son was elected commissioner of Fremont County. This was the 
beginning of his many years in public office. 

The Heenan Family 

Meanwhile the Heenan family were living busy lives and 
making history in the South Pass Country. 

In 1868 when the Union Pacific Company was building the 
railroad across the continent many of its builders stopped when 
they reached Cheyenne. Margaret" Burk, who had come to 
America from Ireland with her parents, and whose mother's 
death occured soon after coming to America, came to Cheyenne 
with some friends who were railroad builders. She had learned 
the dressmaking trade and found Cheyenne a good field for her 

Among the many railroad builders in Cheyenne was 
Michael Heenan and his brother, James, who had recently 
left the Fort Laramie country where they had operated a ferry 
on the Platte River. It was in Cheyenne that Margaret Burk 
and Michael Heenan met and were married. After their marri- 
age they left Cheyenne and went on with the railroad builders 
until they reached the Point of Rocks across the Divide — a 
relay point for the Ben Holliday Overland Trail stages. The 
young couple left the railroad there and followed the gold- 
seekers to the South Pass country, pinnacle of the Continental 
Divide. They lived in the flourishing mining town of South Pass 
City for a short time and then went to Atlantic City, site of 
Fort Stambaugh, in 1870. Finally, they moved again, as was the 
custom of the gold-seekers, to Miner's Delight, a few miles 

The Heenans prospered financially. Also, while in the gold 
country, two children, James and Mary, were born to them. 


Michael Heenan's Tragic Death 

Their home was sixty miles from the Shoshone Indian 
Reservation, but they felt no fear from that source, because of 
the distance. However, they soon learned of many depredations 
committed by the Indians. Emigrants and ranchers were being 
murdered and their livestock and provisions stolen. The 
Indians had a wild desire for horses, and it was because of 
their great passion for horses that Michael Heenan met his 
death. He was hauling hay one day on Twin Creek Hill, close to 
Miner's Delight, when he was attacked by the Siouxs. The 
Indians escaped with his mules — four valuable animals. 

Three days after Michael Heenan's death his daughter 
Emma, who was to become Mrs. Billy Johnson, was born. 

Mrs. Johnson told the story of her father's death as her 
mother had often told it to her: "'He wen1 out in the evening 
to gather some hay for his mules. Mother said he told her 
goodbye, and when he kissed her, laughingly assured her that 
the Indians would not get him, and that he would be right 
back. When he failed to return, someone went out to look for 
him and found his body. The evidence showed that the Indians 
had hidden in a grove of guaking aspen trees and had shot 
him from ambush. They did not destroy the wagon, but had 
had cut the tugs of the harness, and made away with the mules." 

Mrs. Heenan, left alone in a strange land with her three 
small children, did the best she could, as many of the pioneer 
mothers have done. She did no^' have time to think of herself; 
it was necessary for her to provide for and to rear her little 
family. She opened a boarding house in Miner's Delight and 
was very successful in her undertaking. Her three children, 
Emma, Mary and Jim spent their early childhood there. 

Mrs. Johnson (Emma) said that her mother was a very good 
business woman and possessed a good supply of natural initi- 
ative. She recalled seeing her mother place gold nuggets in 
a pickle bottle which she kept for that purpose. When the 
bottle was full she had one hundred dollars worth of gold. 
With her savings she bought the first cow of a later sizable 
herd. Her brand was Circle H, for Heenan. She was one of 
the first women in Wyoming to have a herd on the range. 

After several years Mrs. Heenan married Peter P. Dickin- 
son, one of the three original owners of the townsite of Lander. 
He had come to the mountain country from New York to open 
an Indian trading post on the Shoshone Indian Reservation. 
He also opened a store in Lander. Later, he went into the cattle 
business on the Gooseberry, one hundred miles north of Lander. 
Two children, Margaret and William, were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Dickinson. Mrs. Dickinson, reluctant to shift the responsi- 
bility of her first family to Mr. Dickinson, who necessarily 
spent a great deal of time on the ranch in the Gooseberry 


country, opened a boarding house in Lander — -'"Cottage Home 

Early Days in Lander 

Mrs. Johnson's account of her childhood life in the frontier 
town of Lander is enlightening. She said, ""We had a very 
happy life, our chief amusement was horseback riding. We 
took long rides into the hills, mounted on side-saddles or 
bareback; but we girls always rode sideways. I remember the 
firs+ riding skirt to appear in the town. Mrs. R. H. Hall who came 
to Lander a bride, wore the long flowing skirt as she rode along 
the road. To watch her was an event for us. Mrs. Hall was my 
first school teacher, and a most lovable woman. 

""Fishing was one of our favorite sports. We went on 
all-day fishing trips to the North Fork and brought home the 
lovely mountain trout. We had great times sleighing on a 
bob-sled, and sleigh-riding in a cutter in the winter time. 

""Lander has always been a beautiful spot the year round, 
but in the winter season when it is snow-covered, it is like a 
warm nest between hugh white mountains. In my childhood 
it was just a little village of a few stores and home dwellings, 
all built of logs. Originally it was a military camp known in 
1870 as Camp Brown. The population was between seven and 
eight hundred people and consisted of gold miners from the 
South Pass country, both Yankees and Southerners who had 
drifted in after the close of the Civil War. 

""The townsite was originally owned by three men, Peter 
Dickinson, who afterward became my s+ep-father, Mr. Lowe, 
and Mr. Amoretti. Each of them owned a third of the land, and 
it was they who laid out the town. 

""Saloons and gambling places were open twenty-four 
hours a day. People fromi what is now east Sublette, upper 
Sweetwater, Fremont, Hot Springs, and Park counties came to 
Lander to trade. 

""There was a Catholic church, which was later followed 
by an Episcopal, a Congregational, a Methodist, and others. 

""Shoshone Reservation, right at Lander's door, had the 
Saint Stephens, Catholic mission. 

""The Shoshone Indians lived on ihe reservation, in their 
iepees, and traded at the Indian trading post. 

""There was one public school with about twenty pupils 
in attendance. There were the Coffees, the Boyds, and the 
Lamoreux all of half Indian blood. Jean Amoretti had a folding 
slate of which he was very proud. I was the only girl to Whom 
he would lend the slate. Naturally I felt guite flattered. The 
Baldwin children whose parents were Major and Mrs. Noyes 
Baldwin were there with us also. All of the children were 
from wealthy families in the cattle business. There were no 
poor people in Lander at that time and all families were egual. 


The Indian women were good mothers and homemakers, and 
their children were our friends. 

"After I had finished the first school, I attended a girl's 
school where we received special instruction. Later mother 
took us children to Salt Lake City where for a year we attended 
the convent school of the Sisters of the Holy Cross. The two 
years following 1 attended the school as a boarding student. I 
made the trip to Salt Lake City by stage coach from Lander to 
Rawlins, and by train from Rawlins to Salt Lake City. Two days 
and two nights were required to make the journey of one 
hundred and thirty-five miles. Always an admirer of horses, 
I recall the beautiful four-horse teams which drew our coach. 
Four passengers could sit comfortably in the coach and there 
was room for one on the seat with the driver. Generally the 
trips were interesting, but always tiring. Sometimes we were 
caught in a storm, and then the coach wheels would sink in 
the mud up to the hubs. We stopped to change horses every 
ten miles or so at a stage station, where we also had our meals. 

"Tes, the stage stations were rustic as well as rugged. 
Hewn logs formed the side walls, and the floors were the hard 
packed earth. Dirt roofs covered the structure. One long table 
supported by saw-bucks was spread family style, the only 
covering being oil-cloth. There was one exception to the 
regular custom in table covering. One of the stations stands 
out in my memory because its board was always dressed in a 
red table cloth on which stood bright silver casters. Another 
reason the red cloth stands out in my thoughts is the fact that 
good apple pie was served at tha+ particular place. We stopped 
three times a day for meals, and once at night. 

"'My sister, Mrs. 'Missou' Hines, also received her education 
in Salt Lake City at the convent. My brother James, deceased, 
graduated from Notre Dame. My brother Will, deceased, was 
graduated from Illion, New York. Margaret, who passed away 
in 1940, was a graduate of Ann Arbor Law School. Mother 
went to Ann Arbor to live while Margaret attended school." 

Experiences at a Trading Post 

"Tes, I spent a great deal of time in my step-father's store 
in the Indian trading post, helping him regularly on the Indians' 
pay-day which came quarterly. The store was a long low cabin, 
gaily colored with the wares dear to the Indian heart. The 
Indians, bucks, squaws, and their children crowded in, dressed 
in blankets and moccasins; their hair, regardless of sex, hung 
in braids. There was no loud talking or boisterous scuffling 
amongst them. They very seldom talked with us. But if they 
did so, they laughed their beautiful musical laugh when they 
caught us making an error in speaking their language. I knew 
a few of their phrases; enough to be able to transact the neces- 


sary sales with them. The Arapahoes spoke in a guttural tone, 
and the Shoshones used a head tone. The Indian women wore 
beaded moccasins, laced high above the ankle. They had 
beautiful feet and ankles before they began wearing the Ameri- 
can shoe, which invariably is fitted too small. 

'It was the Indians' custom to have their money changed 
into five-cent coins so that it would last longer, and so that they 
could buy candy, popcorn, toys, and other trinkets for their 
children. After the children were satisfied they then bought 
for themselves with what was left of their money. 

''Contrary to common belief, the Indians have a keen 
sense of humor. They also love to gamble, the sguaws being 
inveterate gamblers. They had a hide-out up on the Little Wind 
River, where they went to play cards. (Their game was known 
as Monte.) Very slyly, they called the place the Guild, without 
respect for their missionary training. 

"My brother, lim, and lames Moore, his partner, had a 
store on the Reservation and they knew the Indian sign langu- 
age. They were very popular with the Indians and had a great 
deal of influence with them. The Red Men are very good judges 
of human nature. The Indians, at that time were very fond of 
horses, and they thought nothing of stealing one. In fact they 
did not consider it stealing to take a horse, and I don't think 
they ever will. 

"Many of their young men were sent away to school and 
really became educated in the American way. But no sooner 
did they return to the Reservation, then they donned their 
blankets and moccasins and went back to the tepee. 

'T loved the Indians and often wished that the white man 
had let them alone. They were happier in their own way. 

"St. Stephens Mission on the Big Wind River, conducted 
by the Sisters of Charity who taught the Indian children the 
domestic arts, as well as school lessons and relifgion, was sup- 
ported by the J. A. Drexels of Philadelphia. Many of the girls 
sewed beautifully and were well trained housekeepers. They 
worked for the white families in the country, and on Sunday 
the Indian Boys' Choir sang in church in their Shoshone 
language. The Ethete Episcopal Mission was supported by a 
wealthy New York family. Bishop Thomas, Episcopal bishop, 
established it on the Shoshone Reservation, near the Little 
Wind River." 

Boarders, Motley Array 

Mrs. Johnson's account and description of the patrons of 
her mother's boarding home was to open another door of the 
early life of the town of Lander. She said, "There were only 
a few hundred people in the town then, and there were seven- 
teen saloons. Cowboys ate at the house and men traveling 
through the country also ate there. Oftentimes strangers 


passing through the country stayed for several days, and after 
they had gone we would learn that they were horse thieves, 
rustlers, or bandits of some nature. Nevertheless, . all men in 
the West had a profound regard for women. When I was 
guite a small girl, I remember seeing Butch Cassidy and Haynes, 
his partner in lawlessness, at the house. I thought Cassidy 
very handsome and admired him because he stole horses. Any 
man who loved horses enough to steal them had my childish 
admiration. Horses were my most beloved pets, and were to me 
what dolls are to the average little girl. — Well — yes, I've been 
told that I was a very good rider. 

''Freighters, bull-whackers, and mule team drivers stopped 
at our home too. There was a great deal of money made in the 
freighting business before the railroad was built into Lander. 

"One particular party of men who stopped at the house 
for one summer season, consisted of seven French noblemen. 
Two of them were Counts and one was a Baron. They had come 
to take up the cattle business. I remember how fine they looked 
in their leather boots, large hats, and black moustaches. They 
ate at a special table reserved for them and talked French to 
their interpreter. They had the same items on their menu, 
canned lobster, and sweet oil, for supper every day. They 
furnished the specials themselves. Of course, we children 
were deeply impressed. Some of the French Noblemen settled 
in the Big Horn Basin, and the others went north to the Goose- 
berry, but the hard winters were too much for them and proved 
their undoing and the loss of cattle broke them." 

Romance Follows Graduation 

In honor of her graduation from the convent school in 
Salt Lake City, Emma Heenan's mother gave her a home-coming 
party. It was at this ever-to-be-remembered party that she met 
Billy Johnson. 

''Before I knew him very long," said Mrs. Johnson, "I saw 
him riding into town on 'Black Smith' in a great cloud of dust, 
and waving a gun in each hand. That was when he took my 
eye. 'Black Smith', the great brown horse later became my 
very dear pet. 

"The coming-out party," she continued, "was a huge 
success. The young people in Lander had some grand times 
together. Dances were the chief amusement and everyone in 
town was needed to make a crowd. Guests came from a hundred 
miles around. A stranger's coming to town usually was cele- 
brated with a 'Social Hop'. The invitations were sent by word 
of mouth, and the girls, always in the minority, had a wonderful 
time, and were put on pedestals by the men. 

"Other amusements were roller-skating, and the theatre. 
The theatre building was known as the opera house. We had 


road shows occasionally, but usually local talent supplied the 
entertainment. We were very proud of some of our local talent. 
Mrs. Will Jones, Mrs. George West, and Mrs. P. B. Coolidge 
had studied in the East. Although our town was practically 
isolated, we enjoyed life to the fullest." 

William G. Johnson and Emma Heenan Wed 

One day in Octobei of 1891, the marriage of William G. 
Johnson and Emma Heenan took place in the Saint Stephens 
Mission Church. The Father of the Indian mission performed the 
marriage ceremony. After the wedding breakfast at which 
relatives and many friends were present, the newly married 
couple set out by stage in the direction of Rawlins, Wyoming. 
To thwart the plans of their many friends, to interfere in their 
getting away, the bridegroom cut the telegraph wires so they 
would not be stopped at Rawlins. They wen1 directly to Mr. 
Johnson's old home, Badger Grove Farm near Des Moines, 
Iowa, where they visited and then proceeded to Tacoma, 
Washington, where they remained for the winter. The year 
1891 saw a depression year and business conditions were poor 
in Washington state, as well as elsewhere. With the hope of 
finding improvement in the South they waited until spring and 
then went to Vicksburg, Mississippi, to make their home on 
the plantation of Mr. Johnson's brother-in-law. 

'Tt was beautiful there," said Mrs. Johnson, "cotton, 
magnolia and cape jasmine grew all around us. We could hear 
the cathedral chimes from our home. The ex-slaves, everywhere, 
made me very nervous. They were too humble for human beings. 
I liked the Indians much better. 

""We had beautiful horses and buggies and a lovely new 
home, but we could not stand the insects, nor could we re- 
concile ourselves to living in the South; although the Southern 
people were lovely to us. Perhaps it was that we could not be 
reconciled away from the West. Our first daughter Nellie, 
was born on the plantation. 

""We moved to Badger Grove Farm, Iowa, where we fed 
cattle. Our three sons, Nicholas, Burk and Raymond were born 
there. After five years the drouth and cholera forced us to give 
it up. We returned to Wyoming and to Lander, to start anew." 

Numerous Public Offices Held 

Upon their return to Lander Mr. Johnson again became 
active in public life. He was elected mayor of the town and served 
six or eight years. While in that office he led the movement to 
secure a railroad for the town. In 1905 the Northwestern rail- 
road purchased a right-of-way through Fremont County to 
Lander and occasioned a great jubilee for the townspeople. 


Amongst the notables who were present were United States 
Senator Clarence D. Clark whom Mayor Johnson had invited 
to speak, Ex-Governor of Wyoming, B. B. Brooks, Mr. M. N. 
Baldwin and Mr. S. C. Parks. 

Billy Johnson served two terms as Sheriff of Fremont 
County, and was elected State Legislator and served six 
years. His integrity held the respect and confidence of the 
people. He was an outstanding figure of Fremont County, 
having played a leading part in its organization. 

Mr. and Mrs. Johnson's youngest child, Emma, was born 
in Lander. Each of the Johnson children received a higher 
education. Raymond finished at Harvard; Nicholas left college 
to enlist in the World War ranks, and saw over-seas service 
with the United States Infantry. Raymond was stationed at 
Fort Sill, Oklahoma in the Artillery Division. He is now an 
Electrical Engineer at Tensleep, Wyoming. Raymond was mar- 
ried to Laura Shatto in 1940. 

Nicholas is on the home ranch at Crow Heart Butte where 
he lives with his family. His wife was the former Katherine 
Baker of Ogema, Minnesota. They have three children, Burk, 
Ann, and Billy. 

The third Johnson son, Burk was a student at the Four C 
College in Des Moines, Iowa, when death took him. Nellie 
Johnson, their first child, received her education at Drake 
University and at the University of Wyoming; then her young 
life was cut short by death. The youngest, Emma, was also 
taken in early womanhood. Thus, great sorrow came to the 
Johnson home and as sorrow often does, mellowed their lives 
and drew the surviving members a little closer. 

In 1915 the Johnson family moved to their ranch on Wind 
River near the Shoshone Indian Reservation and across the 
river from Crow Heart Butte. The ranch was then a virgin 
prairie with no improvements. They built their house, as well 
as all the other buildings on the ranch, including the barn, 
stables, etc., of native logs. Raymond made the home modern 
with electric lights and electric heat. Irrigation has made the 
place a beautiful spot. The Johnson Herford herd is known in 
the Wind River Country by the coffee-pot brand, burned on 
the left rib. 

Crow Heart Butte, towering above Wind River across 
from the Johnson Ranch was so named by the Indians. The 
legend relates, according to Mrs. Johnson, that a battle between 
the Shoshones and the Crows took place on the flat top of the 
Butte — several acres covered with a heavy growth of grease- 
wood — Chief Washakie clashed with the Crow Chief, and cut 
out his heart. To prove that he knew savage warfare Chief 
Washakie devoured the organ. Hence, the name. Crow Heart 


When Mr. Johnson was appointed United States Land 
Registrar, he and Mrs. Johnson left the ranch and moved to 
Cheyenne where they now Kve in their comfortable home at 
816 East 19th Street. Mrs. Johnson, a true daughter of the West, 
knows how to live happily in spite of the fact that she has had 
much sorrow. She accepts life as it comes. 

Mr. Johnson is distantly related to the late Dr. Grace 
Raymond Hebard, author of several historical books on Wyo- 
ming subjects. He is a descendent of one of the Raymond 
brothers of Massachusetts and Dr. Hebard was a descendant 
of the other brother. When the two brothers separated, Miss 
Hebard' s ancestor went to Ohio and Mr. Johnson's forefather 
settled in Connecticut. 

William G. (Billy) Johnson, a true cowpuncher of the West, 
gained his higher education by self counsel as he sat in the 
saddle and protected his herd. The power of the mountains, 
always before him inspired lofty ideals; the plains, endless in 
scope, gave him understanding and a breadth of vision which 
could not have been gained in cramped places. The elements 
which he was forced to fight that he might survive gave him 
fortitude. His wife and family gave him the faith, the hope, and 
the courage necessary to succeed. 

Written from interviews with Mr. and Mrs. Johnson in 
1937.— A.M.S. 





Chapter XV 

Laramie County 
Cheyenne Continued — The First Legislative Assembly — 
Woman Suffrage Champions — The Woman Suffrage 
Bill and Its Author — Discovering Its Merits — It Passes 
and Becomes a Law — Great Rejoicing. 

While not properly a part of the history of Laramie County 
— or rather, not exclusively so — yet as one of the important 
events happening in Cheyenne, which has, from the first, been 
the capital of Wyoming Territory, a brief allusion will here be 
made of the passage of the act giving to all women over twenty- 
one years of age the right to vote at any and all elections in 
Wyoming egually with its male citizens. 

As we have already seen, members of the First Legislative 
Assembly were elected September 2, 1869, and in compliance 
with the proclamation of Governor Campbell they assembled 
at Cheyenne October 12, and proceeded to organize, Wm. H. 
Bright of Sweetwater county being elected president of the 
Council and S. M. Curran, then of Albany county, speaker of 
the House of Representatives. The other officers of the two 
branches of the legislature were Edward Orpen, secretary of 
the Council, Mark Parish, assistant, Chas. H. Moxley, sergeant 
at arms, T. S. Poole, chaplain, Peter Lemmon, messenger, and 
Henry Arnesfield, foreman. Of the House of Representa- 
tives, L. L. Bedell was made chief clerk, W. G. Stanley, assis- 
tant, T. S. Poole, chaplain, and Wm. Baker, sergeant at arms. 
The Council had no foreman or messenger. 

The members of the two houses were as follows: Council, 
Wm. H. Bright, J. R. Whitehead, T. D. Murrin, T. W. Poole, F. 
Laycock, J. W. Brady, George Wilson, W. S. Rockwell, and G. 
W. Wardman. House, S. M. Curran, J. C. Abney, Herman Haas, 
Howard Sebree, Lewis Miller, J. N. Douglas, Ben Sheeks, James 
Monafer, James Holbrook, and J. M. Freeman. For want of a 
better place in which to hold the sessions of the legislature, 
Territorial Secretary Edward M. Lee had secured the "Arcade" 
building then standing on the present site of the Germania 
Hall on Sixteenth Street for the use of the House of Representa- 
tives, while for the Council an old wooden building then located 
where the Joslin & Park Block now stands, was secured. i 

It is not proposed to follow the First Legislative Assembly 
and give even a synopsis of its work. It enacted the first civil 
and criminal codes, passed a crime act, and an act locating 

1. Now the Popp block at the corner of Sixteenth Street and Carey Avenue. 


the seat of government at Cheyenne, and in fact passed all the 
laws since formed in what has generally been termed by the 
judiciary and bar as the ''Laws of '69" and did many things 
which might very properly be mentioned, but it is only in 
reference to the passage of the ''Woman Suffrage Bill" that a 
brief record will be made here. Prior to the convening of the 
First Legislative Assembly many men and women of broad, 
enlightened and progressive views had come to Cheyenne for 
the purpose of making it their permanent residence, and this 
class was imbued with the correct idea that in laying the founda- 
tion and corner stone of the political liberties of an embryo 
state, great liberality as well as great care should be taken. 
The large and predominating class of respectable women who 
had at that time become residents of the "Magic City" were 
then, as they ever have been since, far superior to any egual 
numbers of their sisters to be found in any Eastern locality in 
culture, refinement and a proper appreciation of their rights, 
duties and obligations. This fact has always been recognized 
by the male element of the population and there is probably 
not a spot on earth where so much respect is manifested, felt 
and shown to the ladies as in Cheyenne. 

Among the class now being alluded to in Cheyenne at 
that time were Mrs. J. A. Campbell (wife of the Governor) 
Mrs. A. R. Converse, Mrs. Jervis Joslin, Mrs. S. A. Bristol, Mrs. 
M. H. Arnold, Mrs. S. H. Pickett, Mrs. J. T. Chaffin, Miss Bristol 
(now Mrs. N. E. Stark) Mrs. M. E. Post, Mrs. Henry Houseman, 
and others, whose names are not readily obtainable, who 
believed that as a matter of right and justice they and their 
sisters who were to come should be accorded the right of 
suffrage. There were also many gentlemen in Cheyenne who 
believed the same cause right and foremost among them were 
Edward M. Lee, then Secretary of Wyoming, S. A. Bristol, M. 
A. Arnold, Dr. J. H. Hayford, and several others. The result 
was that a woman suffrage sentiment was awakened which 
finally extended to all classes of people in the city. Several of 
the persons who thus believed took active steps to give practical 
effect to their views, and after the legislature had been in session 
for some time it was proposed that a bill be introduced in the 
territorial council granting the right of suffrage to women in 

In order that it might not have the appearance of being 
an exclusively "Cheyenne measure" the friends of the pro- 
ject decided to get some member from the western portion of 
the territory to introduce the bill. 

Wm. H. Bright of Sweetwater county, then president of 
the Council, was selected for that purpose and he consented 
to introduce it, for he also was a firm believer in the right of 
women to the exercise of the elective franchise. The bill, 
which was drawn by Edward M. Lee, was as follows: 


An Act to Grant to the Women of Wyoming Territory the 
Right of Suffrage to Hold Office. 

Be It Enacted by the Council and House of Representatives 
of the Territory of Wyoming: 

Section 1. That every woman of the age of twenty-one years re- 
siding in this territory may at every election to be holden under the 
laws thereof cast her vote and her right to the elective franchise and 
to hold office shall be the same under the election laws of this terri- 
tory as those of electors. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after 
its passage. 

The bill was introduced in the Council by Mr. Bright on 
the 2nd day of December, 1869. At first it was supposed by 
many people that it was meant as a joke, but gradually when it 
came to be understood that it was intended in all seriousness, 
the first feeling subsided and a profound sensation was created. 
When the first surprise was over, it was found that the greater 
portion of the members of the legislature were in favor of it. 
A ladies' committee, with Mrs. M. E. Post at its head, made a 
thorough canvass and it was ascertained that there would be 
no difficulty in securing its passage. The Cheyenne Leader 
and also the Wyoming Tribune came out heartily in its support, 
and as these two newspapers were the leaders of public senti- 
ment nearly all classes of people in Cheyenne fell into line 
and insisted that the bill ought to be passed. With unusual 
promptness the bill was placed on its final passage in the 
Council, December 7th, and passed by a vote practically un- 

The roll being called in alphabetical order, Hon. J. W. 
Brady, a member from Uinta county, was the first man to place 
himself on record in support of the Bill. Several of the members 
of the Council, including Judge J. R. Whitehead, made short 
speeches — the Judge making an earnest and eloguent appeal 
in favor of its passage. The bill was at once sent to the House 
and on the 10th day of December, 1869, it came up on its final 
passage and passed that branch of the legislature by a practic- 
ally unanimous vote. 

While the bill was in committee of the whole in the House 
several members of that body expressed their views and among 
them Hon. J. C. Abney (favoring the bill) made an eloguent 
speech. "Tim" said afterward that he worked several days 
writing up that speech, but when he came to get up to deliver 
it he could not remember a word of that which he had so care- 
fully prepared. He explained that he "'tackled the subject at 
a go as you please gait'." 

The bill was approved by Governor Campbell on the same 
day of its passage and thus became a law of the territory Decem- 


ber 10th, 1869, on the same day that the act granting a charter 
to the City of Cheyenne was also passed and approved. The 
announcement of the passage and approval of the woman 
suffrage bill was hailed with delight by nearly everybody in 
the territory — not because it was something novel and experi- 
mental, but because the people of Wyoming had broad and 
liberal views and firmly believed in ''the greatest good for the 
greatest number." Both of the Cheyenne papers came out in 
approving editorials and announced the fact also in their 
local columns in display type. Speeches were made, music 
was neard, congratulations were in order on every hand. 

When the announcement was flashed abroad it sent a 
thrill throughout the civilized world and from that moment it 
became evident that sooner or later the example set by Wyo- 
ming, the youngest member of the sisterhood of states and terri- 
tories composing the glorious American union, will be followed 
by them all, and that the grandest and purest political liberty 
which the world has ever seen and which, born in the "Magic 
City of the Plains," today clings like gathering mists around 
our mountain ranges, shall become the watchword and the 
motto of civilized people everywhere. 

Kindled in the "Magic City," 

Freedom's brightest flame arose, 
And through the states and empires 

Woke the myriads from repose. 
Hers to lead the march of suffrage, 

Going forward in the van 
In that cause which gives to woman 

Power and equal rights with man. 

Laramie County 

Chapter XVI 

Cheyenne Continued — The County Generally — A Destruct- 
ive Fire in Cheyenne — The Denver Pacific Rail Road — 
Bottsford and Mason — A Clash with the Military — 
Decrease in Population — A Better State of Affairs — 
County and Municipal Elections. 

As before intimated, the history of events throughout the 
county of Laramie are so interwoven with that of Cheyenne 
after the city was once established, that they will be considered 
undfer the head of ''Cheyenne" just as many things in the 
early history of the county were considered under the head of 
"Ft. Laramie and Vicinity" but it is in order at this point to take 
a glance abroad through other parts of the county, and see 
what has transpired since the reader has been watching the 
happenings in Cheyenne. 


In brief it may be stated that the raids and depredations 
of the Indians — though on a small scale — still continued, and 
between the winter and spring of 1868 down to and including 
the year 1870, several persons were killed as was supposed by 
the Indians, that is, they were missed, and never heard of after- 
wards, and a large number of cattle and horses were, from 
time to time, run off by them, and their appearance in the 
region of country between Cheyenne and the North Platte 
River, and beyond, was very freguent. Still they made no very 
serious raids, nor attempted to re-enact the bloody tragedies 
of 1867-1868. 

During this time new settlements — in the way of isolated 
ranches — were being made on the Chugwater, Laramie River, 
Horse Creek, Pole Creek, and in many other parts of the county, 
and people almost everywhere north of Cheyenne had, by the 
summer of 1870, become engaged in the stock business — a 
business destined in a short time to become the leading in- 
dustry of the territory. Nearly every ranchman had a few cattle 
and horses, and some of them guite a large number. As early 
as the fall of 1870 there was much discussion and a comparison 
of notes among the stock men in regard to forming a stock 
association, which has since been done with such important 
and gratifying results. 

The freighting business was becoming very great, and the 
roads leading northward were constantly thronged with trains 
and teams loaded with supplies for the Indian agency at Red 
Cloud, and for the military posts. 

Much prospecting for gold and other minerals was done 
about this time in the region of Laramie Peak and Iron Mountain 
— a genuine mountain of iron which assays 87 per cent of 
pure iron, 55 miles northwest of Cheyenne — but no very 
satisfactory results had as yet been attained except in the 
matter of iron. 

A project had been started having in contemplation the 
construction of a railroad from Cheyenne to Iron Mountain, and 
a company formed for that purpose, but as the necessary funds 
were lacking nothing was done, and the plan fell to the ground 
not to be revived again for years. 

On the 11th day of January, 1870, the most destructive 
fire that has yet ever occurred in Cheyenne broke out in a 
wooden building then standing nearly on the present site of the 
two-story brick building on the southeast corner of Sixteenth 
and Eddy2 Streets in Cheyenne, and before it could be checked 
the Ford House standing near by, and with it every building from 
Sixteenth to Fifteenth Streets, and from Ferguson through to 
Hill Street, was burned to the ground. Other fires had occurred 

2. Eddy Street has been changed to Pioneer; Ferguson Street is now 
Carey Avenue, and Hill Street is now Capitol Avenue. 


before that time which were very destructive — one in 1867 on 
what would now be called the McGregor corner,3 and one 
the following year on the corner where now stands the clothing 
house of M. Marks occupied at this time (1886) by the Kellner 
Bros. 4 A large number of buildings (wooden) were destroyed 
by the flames on these occasions, and to protect the city a fire 
company, the Pioneer Hook & Ladder Company, was organized 
in April, 1869, and shortly after the Durant Fire Engine Comp- 
any,5 which company, with assistance from, outsiders, purchased 
and put in running order the Durant Engine which has ever done 
such good service. 

At the great fire alluded to these fire companies did valiant 
service, but no human power was equal to the task of staying 
the flames. This fire had a very depressing effect upon the city, 
and all kinds of business suffered greatly thereby. 

During the summer of 1870 the Denver Pacific Railroad 
which had been in process of construction southward since the 
spring of 1869, was completed to Denver, and not, as many have 
supposed, from Denver to Cheyenne. This afforded communi- 
cation by rail to the metropolis of Colorado, and had a material 
and beneficial effect on the growing business of southern 

The vigilance committee had by this time about ceased to 
be heard of, for the double reason that there was now but little 
work for an organization of that kind to look after, and also 
because the law and its officers were now amply able to protect 
life and property, although occasionally there would be some 
pretty rough times. One of these occurred August . . . 1870, 
which came near plunging the city into very serioUa trouble, 
but which was happily avoided. At that time there was in the 
employ of the government at Camp;Carlin6 a man named A. J. 
Bottsford, who got into a quarrel with a Lieutenant Mason then 
stationed at the camp. The outcome of the quarrel was that 
Bottsford shot and killed his opponent. He then escaped to 
Cheyenne, where he was taken into custody by the civil authori- 
ties. The commander at Fort Russell demanded that the authori- 
ties surrender Bottsford to him. The demand was not complied 
with, whereupon several companies of troops under arms were 
marched to Cheyenne, and the threat was made that Bottsford 
would be taken from the authorities by force. The whole city 
was ablaze with excitement as soon as the situation was under- 
stood, and hundreds of men armed with revolvers, shot guns. 

3. Now the northwest corner of Seventeenth and Pioneer. 

4. Now occupied by the Black and White Grocery, at the southwest 
corner of Pioneer Avenue. 

5. Now the Cheyenne Fire Department. 

6. Camp Carlin was located one and one-half miles northwest of the 
Cheyenne postoffice, at that time situated at the intersection of Seventeenth 
Street and Carey Avenue. 


rifles, etc., flocked to the assistance of the civil authorities. A 
pitched battle seemed imminent for both sides were determined, 
especially the Cheyenneites. Finally Chief Justice J. H. Howe, 
then the presiding judge of the district, made his appearance 
and most solemnly assured the military commander that he had 
no right to demand the custody of Bottsford; that in all cases 
of that kind, the civil authorities had jurisdiction in preference 
to the military. He further assured the military authorities that 
if the attempt to take Bottsford was further persisted in, the 
matter would be by him promptly reported to Washington by 

These assurances made by Howe as to which really had 
jurisdiction had their weight with the military commander, 
whose name it is not necessary to mention — and the troops were 
withdrawn (Bottsford was eventually tried and acguitted.) He 
remained in Cheyenne for some time and was arrested and 
jailed for several months in 1874 for attempting to shoot Billy 
Jacobs. He was finally bailed out by Major Wooly, and went 
to the Black Hills, made a fortune which he soon sguandered, 
and finally died of the delirium tremens.) 

A word ought here to be said in regard to the courts of 
the territory, or rather of the members of the judiciary. John 
H. Howe, as we have already seen, was Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the territory, and the associate justices were 
W. T. Jones and J. W. Kingman. Judge Howe was the presiding 
judge of the First District (Laramie and Albany counties). 
Judge Kingman, of the Second, and Judge Jones, of the Third. 
Originally Jones had the Second and Kingman the Third 
District, but the legislature of '69 re-arranged the two last 
named Judges as before stated. The first term of court was held 
at Cheyenne (by Judge Bartlett of Dakota) in March, 1868, and 
the second term in September of the same year. In compliance 
with the proclamation of Governor Campbell, another term was 
held in Cheyenne commencing September, 1869. The legis- 
lature which convened in October passed an act dividing the 
territory into judicial districts, Laramie and Albany counties 
constituting the first, and providing that there should be held 
annually three terms of court in Laramie County commencing 
on the third Monday of March, July and November, respectively. 

During the spring and summer of 1870 the population of 
Cheyenne began to decrease very rapidly, owing to the fact 
that the Union Pacific Railroad in its progress westward had 
been the means of starting up guite a number of towns such as 
Laramie City, Carbon, Rawlins, Green River, etc., and to these 
the transient element had at first flocked, but later on the 
greater part of that class had passed out of the territory to the 
westward altogether. This marked decrease in the population 
in Cheyenne was not unlike the experience of other towns in 
the territory, and on the whole was not detrimental to its best 


interests, but beneficial to them, as it took out of the city many 
hundreds of drones and non-producing people who v/ould 
neither try to prosper themselves, nor allow others to do so 
if they could prevent it. To illustrate the falling off in the number 
of population, not only in Cheyenne but throughout the entire 
territory, it might be mentioned here that in the congressional 
campaign in the fall of 1870 the total ■ nuinber of votes polled 
in the entire territory was 3202, whereas in the Corlett-Nuckolls 
campaign of the year before the total vote cast was 5266 a 
decrease of 2064 in one year. 

The election which was held September 6, 1870, was, as 
compared with that of the year before, a very tame affair, and 
yet considerable interest was manifested by the politicians in 
the progress of the campaign. Judge W. T. Jones was that year 
the Republican candidate for delegate in Congress, and Col. 
John Wanless the candidate of the Democrats. The result of 
the election in Laramie county was as follows: Jones 398 votes, 
Wanless 380, a majority of 18 for the former. 

The following was the result on the vote for county officers: 
Sheriff, S. M. Preshaw, 369; T. Jeff Carr, 373; County Attorney, 
I. W. Cook, 391; H. Garbanti, 337; County Clerk, Mrs. C. H. 
Pickett, 339; L. Kabis, 349; Probate Judge, John Slaughter, 
307; W. L. Kuykendall, 421; Assessor, J. K. Jeffrey, 314; John T. 
Chaffin, 413; Surveyor, John B. Thomas, 363; L. L. Bedell, 400, 
Superintendent of Schools, Mrs. M. H. Arnold, 368; W. J. 
Stanton, 402; County Commissioners, J. Joslin, 366; A. R. 
Converse, 322; I. C. Whipple, 318; T. Dyer, 435; M. E. Post, 409; 
J. H. Nuckolls, 358. 

With the exception of county attorneys, the Democrats 
elected their entire ticket in Laramie county at this election. 
Two democratic justices and two constables for Cheyenne 
precinct were also elected at that time. 

At the municipal election in the city of Cheyenne, held 
* * * * (Here the author made skeleton notes for insertion of 
names of trustees and president of the board, as well as for 
names of city officers appointed for the ensuing year. — Ed.) 

Laramie County 

Chapter XVII 

Cheyenne Continued — Cheyenne Prospers — $10,000 
Voted for School Building, Summer, 1871 — Second 
Legislature Members Elected, September, 1871 — Re- 
moval of Capital Attempted — Boisterous Scenes in 
Council and House — "Third House" Inaugrated as 
"Fun" Session. 

He who attempts to write a history is placed at a serious 
disadvantage as compared with the writer of fiction works — 
whether what is termed the "popular literature of the day," or 


the dime novel, for as between them there is a difference in 
degree but not a difference in principle — for the latter can 
invent his own facts, and dress them up in the necessary amount 
of what Webster once termed ''sentimental flap doodle" to 
make them readable, whereas the writer of history must take 
facts as they exist, and if he succeeds in so arranging and plac- 
ing them before the public as far as possible in chronological 
order so as to make of them logical and systematic portions of 
the whole subject, he will be fortunate. 

In the history of a nation, state, county, or city, there can 
be but two points toward which it can tend upward or down- 
ward. There is no such thing as a ''stand still" history, for in 
this day and age of the world to remain stationery while the 
balance of the world is fast moving on is in reality but to fall 
behind. In other words, it is but the downward tendency. 
While at the beginning of the year 1871 Cheyenne had apparent- 
ly, through various causes, come to a standstill, yet events 
occurred before the end of the year that served not only to 
rescue the Magic City from the fate which befell so many 
western towns at about this period — an almost total abandonment 
• — but such as also assured for it a permanent and prosperous 

There is little to record of any importance occurring in 
the spring and summer of 1871. The Indians still continued 
their depredations in a small way in the northern portion of 
the county, the stockmen made arrangements to engage more 
extensively in the cattle business for experience had taught 
them that with the exception of occasional hard storms desig- 
nated as "blizzards," the weather in this part of the country 
for nearly the whole year round was but little else than one 
perpetual summer — hence the safety and durableness of en- 
gaging in the business mentioned, especially as Wyoming was 
found to be one of the best, if not the very best, grazing country 
in the world. 

Notwithstanding the "hard times" which everybody com- 
plained of, a few of the public spirited citizens of the city headed 
by E. P. Johnson, Esg., and Col. E. P. Snow, resolved early in 
the summer of 1871 to build a school house which should be 
commodious and substantial, and suitable to the needs of the 
city. A meeting was called of the gualified voters of District 
No. 1, composed then of the entire county, and as the result 
$10,000.00 was voted for the building of a school house, and 
its erection commenced as soon as practicable although it 
was not completed until the following year. (Here a half page 
is left blank in the manuscript. — Ed.) 

The election held in September, 1871, for members of the 
Second Legislative Assembly resulted, so far as Laramie 
County was concerned, as follows:- 



W. W. Corlett 324 

George Cassels 274 

W. R. Steele 343 

G. W. Corey 295 

Stephen F. Nuckolls 353 

Daniel McLaughlin 274 

House of Representatives 

E. P. Johnson 310 

W. G. Piper 290 

Gibson Clark 314 

Appel 306 

W. L. Kuykendall 332 

John Talbot 315 

(The vote of two precincts in the county were not obtain- 
able, but would not have changed the result.) 

This elected Messrs, Corlett, Nuckolls and Steele to the 
Council, and Messrs. Kuykendall, Clark and Talbot to the 
House — all Democrats except Mr. Corlett. 

The Second Legislative Assembly convened at Cheyenne 
early in November. S. F. Nuckolls was chosen president of the 
Council, and Ben Sheeks speaker of the House of Representa- 

No extended reference will here be made to the pro- 
ceedings of this legislative body, for that properly belongs to 
another portion of this work, but as some important matters 
occurred which had a great influence upon the future of 
Cheyenne, they will be recorded at this point in the history 
of the city. 

Cheyenne was, of course, then the capital of the territory, 
and, whether realized by themselves or not, a purpose existed 
in the minds of the greater part of the members from other 
portions of the territory to remove the seat of government to 
some other town further west. The Cheyenne members and 
people were determined that the plan should not succeed. 

When the appropriation bill came up for discussion in the 
Council toward the latter part of the session, a disposition was 
at once manifested on the part of western members to refuse to 
pass it, thinking (it was supposed) that if they persisted in this 
course Governor Campbell would sign a capital removal bill 
which they expected to pass (and could not do over his ' vote) 
as a compromise with them if they would vote for the appropria- 
tion bill — although there is no evidence whatever -that any 
agreement was made as the subject broached. 

As chairman of the Appropriation Committee, W. W. 
Corlett had charge of the bill after it made its appearance in 


the Council, and at once a strong opposition to the passage of 
the bill was developed. 

President Nuckolls of the Council who had not been let into 
the secret by the western members that their real game was the 
removal of the capital, for that gentleman was opposed to any 
such measure, acted with the opposition to the appropriation 
bill — so far as he consistently could — for the reason that the 
gentlemen opposing it were of his political stripe. This fact made 
the situation, so far as the framage of +he bill was concerned, a 
very gloomy one. During the debates and parliamentary con- 
flicts which occurred while the appropriation bill was pending 
in the Council, the party and friends of both sides became very 
much excited. Armed men thronged the lobby of the Old 
Rollins House (afterwards the American House) which then 
stood where the '"Liberty Block" now stands on Sixteenth 
Street in Cheyenne, in the upper story of which the legislature 
held its sessions. Bloodshed was imminent, and as the debate 
progressed the throng in attendance became more numerous 
and more demonstrative. Col. S. W. Downey of Laramie City 
was a member of the Council, and he, with a few others, labored 
very faithfully to prevent an open outbreak, but at times it 
seemed that a general shooting affair could not be prevented. 

On the day when the appropriation bill was placed on its 
final passage, Mr. Cor left, who had the floor, moved that the 
bill be made the special order for 4 p.m. of the same day. For 
some reason best known to the President of the Council, he 
refused to put the motion. Mt. Corlett then undertook to take 
an appeal from the decision of the chair, whereupon President 
Nuckolls ordered the sergeant-at-arms to arrest him, and re- 
move him from the hall of the house. Instantly a number of 
revolvers were drawn and pointed a+ the officer, who dared 
not move a step. Corlett then, amidst great excitement, moved 
the deposition of the president, and, contrary to the general 
expectation, the motion was carried. President Nuckolls re- 
fused to surrender the chair, and a general uproar followed. 
The friends of those who had moved and carried the motion 
to depose Nuckolls were preparing to put it in force by force 
when some of the cool-headed ones came to their rescue. A 
parley ensued, and a compromise was effected whereby Mr. 
Corlett moved a reconsideration of the vote whereby the 
presiding officer had been deposed, which was carried, as 
well as a motion to expunge from the record all that related 
to the unfortunate proceedings. 

Unknown to Mr. Corlett, and also to President Nuckolls 
(for the arrangement had not in all respects been a very credit- 
able one) an arrangement had been effected by which the 
appropriation bill was not to be further resisted, so that when 
finally placed on its passage there was not a vote against it. 
Neither of the gentlemen last alluded to, nor Governor Camp- 


bell, had anything whatever to do with this "arrangement" by 
means of which this was effected. But the troubles were not 
as yet all through with. The nominations for territorial officers 
had not as yet been sent to the Council by Governor Campbell, 
and part of the original plan was to reject them all in a lump. 
It so happened that just before the nominations were sent to 
the Council, Col. Steele and a Democratic member from the 
western portion of the territory left the Council chamber. While 
they were absent the communication from the Governor con- 
taining a full list of the nominations was received. In an in- 
stant Mr. Corlett moved that the Council go into executive ses- 
sion for the purpose of considering the nominations. The motion 
was put and carried (it having been seconded by Col. Downey.) 
The lobby was at once cleared and the doors closed and locked. 
By this time some of the knowing ones had taken the alarm 
and frantic efforts were made to find Col. Steele and the other 
missing member, for without their votes the nominations were 
sure to be confirmed. They were found at last over at Colonel 
Murrins on important (?) business, and hurried to the Council 
chamber, but when they arrived there the door was still locked, 
and no amount of knocking and expostulations would induce 
the sergeant-at-arms to open it. When the doors were finally 
opened it was too late for the nominees had all been confirmed. 

While these scenes were being enacted in the Council, 
scenes almost as boisterous were being enacted in the House 
of Representatives. A bill was introduced in that body repealing 
the woman suffrage act which elicited much discussion, but 
was finally defeated by a large majority. Then came the capital 

removal bill which finally passed the house by a vote of to 

,* Messrs. Clark, Kuykendall and Talbot having made the 

best fight possible against it. The bill provided thai the seat of 
government should be located at Laramie City. 

When the capital removal bill was reported in the Council 
three days before the final adjournment, Messrs. Nuckolls, 
Corlett and Steele, almost for the first time during the session, 
were found shoulder to shoulder, and it must be confessed that 
they made a pretty strong team. By shrewd parliamentary 
tactics, action regarding the bill was delayed until the last day 
but one of the session. It then came up in committee of the whole 
and after the most protracted debate of the session in which 
all sorts of arguments were resorted to, the committee arose, 
and by a vote of 5 to 3 recommended that ''it do pass." 

After President Nuckolls resumed the chair ''filbustering" 
began. All sorts of motions were made by Mr. Corlett, seconded 
by Col. Steele, and put by President Nuckolls. Some of these 
motions were not strictly in order, but they were entertained 

*Short lines, , indicate either that a word was omitted by Mr. Coutant 

or is not legible. 


by the chair. The yeas and nays were called on every motion 
made, and motions to adjourn were cpjastantly being made. In 
this way the Laramie county members succeeded in carrying 
the bill over until the last day of the- session. Then it was that 
Messrs. Corlett, Nuckolls and Steele proposed, as they termed, 
to "be heard" on the bill. The arrangement, was for Steele to 
speak first, Mr. Nuckolls was to follow, and then Mr. Corlett 
was to take the floor and hold it against "'the world, the flesh 
and the devil" until the session of the legislature should expire 
by constitutional limitation, if necessary. When Col. Steele 
came into the Council chamber the next day he had no collar 
on, but in its stead a red handkerchief tied around hsi neck, 
and when the proper time came he had but little difficulty in 
obtaining the floor to speak on the bill — he might have had some 
difficulty in this respect, however, had not one of his colleagues 
been occupying the chair. 

When Colonel Steele arose to speak on the bill he ex- 
plained that he had tied a handkerchief around his neck to 
keep from taking cold. He also exhibited a box of troches which 
he said he purchased at the drug store as he came along that 
morning as sometimes his throat would begin to get a little sore 
after he had talked a half day or such a matter. With this ex- 
planation the Colonel began, having with him a history of the 
United States, ""Mr. President, three hun-n-d-r-e-d and seventy 
nine years ago Christopher Columbus first discovered America. 
This was in the year 1492. Yes, Mr. President, fou-r-t-e-e-n 
hu-n-d-r-e-d and n-i-n-e-t-y two years had elapsed since the 
crucifixion on Mt. Calvary, and I " ""Mr. President" ex- 
claimed councilman John Fosher of Sweetwater County, ""I 
want to ask the gentleman if he will allow me to make a motion" 
Col. Steele explained that he would give way for that purpose, 
whereupon Mr. Fosher said: ""Mr. President as the gentleman 
chose the date of the discovery of America as the point at which 
to commence his argument, and as he, instead of coming this 
way by one fell swoop, has gone back more than 1400 years, 
and as life is short, I move. Sir, that this bill be indefinitely 
postponed." The motion was put and carried before Col. Steele 
had time to close his book which he had open and spread out 
on the desk before him. 

This ended the attempt to remove the capital from Chey- 
enne and thus it is seen that as stated at the opening of this 
chapter, that what the Second Legislative Assembly did at this 
session — or rather what it failed to do — had a wonderful effect 
on 1he future of Cheyenne, for it settled the guestion which 
had been in the minds of many as to whether the ""Magic City" 
had become and would remain a permanent and prosperous 
town or not. In the minds of sagacious business men there 
have been no misgivings since that legislature adjourned. 


T. J. Street and Warren Richardson, both of Cheyenne 
at that time, were respectively secretary of the Council, and 
chief clerk of the House at that session of the legislature. 

It was during this session that the "Third House" with 
Colonel Murrin as speaker, was first organized. 

This house is composed of regular members and everybody 
else who desires to have a little fun, and from that time down to 
the present time the 'Third House" has been called together 
at nearly every session of the legislature, and has passed some 
truly wonderful bills. 

During the second session the members of the two houses 
presented Colonel Luke Murrin with a large, beautiful and 
costly mirror which he s1ill has in his establishment on Sixteenth 
Street in Cheyenne. 

(To be continued) 



to the 

April 1, 1941, to June 30, 1941. 

Miscellaneous Gifts 

Milatio, Mrs. Paul, Cheyenne, Wyoming^ — Gun used in the Civil War, owned 
by her late husband. Mr. Milatzo was deputy Italian Consul for Wyo- 
ming for 35 years. 

Logan, E. A., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Ten relics from site of old Camp Carlin 
(now Fort Warren) picked up in 1940: Horse shoe; hand made nail, 
5%" long; telegraph insulator; croquet ball; clamp or catch on one 
E'tde of wire splice for splicing telegraph wires; washer from a wagon; 
hand made horse shoe nail; machine made horse shoe nail; belt buckle; 
a tug clevis. 

Ryan, Walter J., 810 N. G. Street, Tacoma, Washington — Diary of his grand 
father, Benjamin William Ryan, written while on a trip on the Bozeman 
Trail in 1864. 

University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming — Nine plaster casts of petroglyps 
from Medicine Creek cave. 

Atherly, Clyde W., Cheyenne, Wyoming, and his sister, Mrs. Doris B. Spurrier, 
McCook, Nebraska — Ivory Gavel, with gold trim, presented to their 
father, J. S. Atherly, Speaker of the House, 6th State Legislature, 1901. 

Henderson, Harry B. Sr., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Printed program and menu 
of Robert Burns Anniversary observance in Cheyenne, 1882. 4^-2 x 6^-4"' 
New Year greeting card, dated 1879, with names of E. A. Slack, editor 
Cheyenne Sun; W. H. Hibbard, old-time official of Western Union, 
brother-in-law of Erasmus Nagle; A. C. Snyder, one of early superintend- 
ents of Western Union, later was postmaster; G. W. Hoyt, druggist; 
W. S. Tobey, Supt. U. P. Express; G. W. Jones, who worked for Western 
Union in Cheyenne. 

Brown, Mary A., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Souvenir metal badge inscribed 
"Opening of the Shoshone Indian Reservation, Lander, Wvo., July 16 
to August 16, 1906." 

Smith, Mrs. Leona, 720 E. 21st Street, Cheyenne, Wyoming — New York State 
World War medal; belonged to her husband, Frank N. Smith, of Buffalo, 
New York. He had received the Purple Heart. 

Pictures — Gifts 

Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado, through James R. Harvey, 
Assistant Curator — Collection of 58 photographs by W. H. Jackson, 
consisting of views ot Yellowstone Park, and other scenes. 

State Engineer's Office, through L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Two 
framed pictures, Yellowstone Park, taken in 1892, by William H. Jack- 
son:- Yellowstone Lake, Mary's Bay, and Yellowstone Lake west of 
Mary's Bay; Teton Range (28I2" wide x 64" long.) 

Gereke, A. J., Cheyenne, Wyoming — Four picture cuts. Albert D. Kelly; Judge 
Samuel T. Corn; Maj. P. A. Gatchell; old Presbyterian Church, Chey- 
enne; old signature cut of Clarence T. Johnston, carved of wood. 


Brown, Dr. Mary, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming — Photographic 
reproduction of geneaology of the late Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, 
prepared by Dr. Brown. 

Spring, Agnes Wright, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Five 1940 photographs: Marker 
at site of old South Bend Stage Station; two views of South Bend Stage 
Station near Granger; two views of the old Almond Stage Station at 
Point of Rocks, Sweetwater County, 31-2" x 5,^". 

Richardson, Warren, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Photographs of membership of 
Cheyenne Bicycle Club in 1893, being 60 pictures, each 3}^" x 43^", 
mounted on a placard 36 x 44", dated 1893. 

Books — Purchased 

Rollinson, John K. — Pony Trails in Wyoming, 1941. 

Blake, Herbert, Cody— ... The Truth about Buffalo Bill, 1929. 

Writer's Program, W.P.A., State of Wyoming — Wyoming, a Guide to its 
History, Highways and People, 1941. 

Newspapers — Gifts 

Goldstein, Abraham, Cheyenne, Wyoming — Complete file, in ring binding, 
of Wyoming Jewish Press, founded in 1930, and published annually 
by Mr. Goldstein, who first came to Wyoming in 1900. 

Clnnals ci Ivu 


October, 1941 

No. 4 


Irene Large and Gloria Isis, great granddaughters of Sacajawea, unveiling 
marker near Fort Washakie, Wyoming, at ceremony presided over by 
L. L. Newton of Lander, September 26, 1941. See account of Dedication 
on page 351. 

Published Quarterly 



Cheyenne, Wyoming 

■>• a\'^ 

Clnnals ot WvcmiHC 

Volume 13 October, 1941 No. 4 



Transcribed and edited by Agnes Wright Spring 

By Alice Mathews Shields 

INDIAN DEPREDATIONS, From the Republican- 
Bulletin, Rawlins, Wyoming 345 


By Douglas C. McMurtrie 




Chapters XVIII and XIX 355 




Pioneer Association of lohnson and Sheridan 

Counties, Wyoming, by Anna B. Smith 
ACCESSIONS to the Wyoming Historical Department 388 



WYOMING, SPETEMBER 26, 1941 Front Cover 







Published Quarterly 




State Librarian and Historian 

Cheyenne, Wyoming 


The State Histoiical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board and the 
State Historical Department assumes no responsibility for any statement of 
fact or opinion expressed by contributors to the ANNALS OF WYOMING. 

The Wyoming State Historical Department invites the presentation of 
museum items, letters, diaries, family histories and manuscripts of Wyoming 
citizens. It welcomes the writings and observations of those familiar with im- 
portant and significant events in the State's history. 

In all ways the Department strives to present to the people of Wyoming 
and the Nation a true picture of the State. The historical magazine, ANNALS 
OF WYOMING, is one medium through which the Department seeks to gain 
this objective. All communications concerning the ANNALS should be ad- 
dressed to Mrs. Gladys F. Riley, Wyoming Historical Department, Cheyenne, 

This magazine is sent free of charge to all State Officials, heads of 
State Departments, members of the State Historical Advisory Board, Wyoming 
County Libraries and Wyoming newspapers. 

It is published in January, April, July and October. Subscription price, 
$1.00 per year; single copies, 35c. 

Copyright, 1941, by the Wyoming Historical Department. 


Nels H. Smith, President Governor 

Lester C. Hunt Secretary of State 

Wm. "Scotty" Jack State Auditor 

Mart T. Christensen State Treasurer 

Esther L. Anderson .... Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Gladys F. Riley, Secretary .... State Librarian & Historian 


Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, Cody 

Frank Barrett, Lusk 

George Bible, Rawlins 

Mrs. T. K. Bishop, Basin 

C. Watt Brandon, Kemmerer 

J. Elmer Brock, Kaycee 

Struthers Burt, Moran 

Mrs. Elsa Spear Byran, Sheridan 

Mrs. G. C. Call, Afton 

Oliver J. Colyer, Torrington 

J. L. Cook, Sundance 

Mrs. Esther Crook, Fairview 

William C. Deming, Cheyenne 

Mrs. Robert Douglas, Newcastle 

Dr. William Frackelton, Sheridan 

Paul Prison, Ten Sleep 

E. A. Gaensslen, Green River 

Hans Gautschi, Lusk 

Burt Griggs, Buffalo 

G. R. Hagens, Casper 

R. H. Hall, Lander 

Jack Haynes, Yellowstone Park 

D. B. Hilton, 

L. B. Howard, Rock Springs 
Mrs. Mary E. Hunter, Gillette 
Mrs. Joseph H. Jacobucci, Green River 
P. W. Jenkins, Big Piney 
E. V. Knight, Laramie 
W. C. Laurence, Moran 
E. A. Logan, Cheyenne 
Howard B. Lott, Buffalo 
Mrs. Eliza Lythgoe, Cowley 
R. E. MacLeod, Torrington 
James L. Mcintosh, Split Rock 
A. J. Mokler, Casper 
Mrs. Elmer K. Nelson, Laramie 
L. L. Newton, Lander 
R. I. dinger, Newcastle 
Charles Oviatt, Sheridan 
Mrs. Minnie Reitz, Wheatland 
E. B. Shaffner, Douglas 
Mrs. Effie Shaw, Cody 
Mrs. Tom Sun, Rawlins 
John Charles Thompson, Cheyenne 
Russell Thorpe, Cheyenne 



The Wyoming Historical Department 


State Museum 

Gladys F. Riley, Editor State Librarian & Historian 

Lola M. Homsher, Co-Editor Assistant Historian 



Ote fettei Sock 



Transcribed and Edited 
By Agnes Wright Spring* 

Part I 


The purpose of this manuscript is to give in detail some of 
the transactions which took place at old Fort Laramie, as re- 
corded in the papers and letters of William G. Bullock, agent 
of Post Sutler Seth E. Ward, covering the years I858-I87I. 

'BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Agnes Wright Spring was born at Delta, 
Colorado, but came with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon L. Wright, to 
Wyoming in 1902. Her Paternal Grandmother, Mrs. Isaac Wright and children 
settled in Wyoming in 1884. Mrs. Spring, a graduate of the University of Wyo- 
ming, Laramie, was an assistant for four years to the eminent historian, the late 
Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, Professor of Political Economy at the University, 
and under whose influence she became absorbingly interested in western 
historical research. 

For hve years, 1913-1918, she served as Assistant State Librarian, and 
from 1918-1921, she held the office of State Librarian when she resigned to 
marry Archer T. Spring. From 1918-1919, she also was ex-officio State Historian 
and State Superintendent of Weights and Measures. 

Mrs. Spiing studied at the Pulitzer School of Journalism, Columbia Uni- 
versity, and has followed a successful career of editorial work and authorship. 

Since 1914 she has been editor of two departments of the Wyoming Stock- 
man-Farmer, published monthly at Cheyenne, Wyoming, and from 1938 to the 
present time (I94I) she has served as supervisor of the Wyoming Writers' Pro- 
ject, with headquarters at Cheyenne. 

While in this latter position, Mrs. Spring supervised and edited a 500- 
page illustrated volume of the current American Guide Series which came 
off the press in Apiil, 1941, wiih the title, Wyoming. A Guide fo [its History, 
Highu'ays, and People. She, also, is the author of many chapters included 
in the book. 

For seven years she was editor of The Arrow, organ of Pi Beta Phi sorority, 
and as historian of the national organization, she was the author of The History 
of Pi Beta Phi. In 1927, her Caspar Collins was published, and she has written 
the Autobiography of William C. Deming, 1940. Mrs. Spring has written 
and sold approximately 300 juvenile stories, plays, feature ai tides and fiction. 

In the early 1900' s, Mrs. Spring's father, a pioneer ranchman on Little 
Laramie river, ran the stageline from Laramie to the Keystone and Rambler 
Mines, and her mother was postmistress at Filmore, Wyoming, in Albany 
County, for more than twenty-five years. Mr. Wright passed away in 1931, 
and Mrs. Wright's death occurred in 1941. 

Agnes Wright and Archer T. Spring, a native of Massachusetts, and a 
graduate of the Colorado School of Mines at Golden, were married at Denver, 
Colorado, on February 14, 1921. They reside at 1722 Warren Avenue, Chey- 
enne, Wyoming. 


Among +hese papers have been found the names of many 
of the prominent citizens of Wyoming and Colorado who served 
in the miHtary at Fort Laramie or who were in some way con- 
nected with its history. These names include such men as: 
O. P. Wiggins, Jim Bridger, Jim Beckwourth, Antoine and 
Nicholas Janis, Malcolm Campbell, Michael Henry, E. W. 
Whitcomb, Kit Carson, James Bordeaux, John Hunton, Hi 
Kelly, James H. Cook, Seth Ward, St. Vrain, Antoine LaDeau, 
Jim Baker, Joseph Bissonette, John Reshaw, W. G. Bullock, Dick 
Parr, J. D. Woodruff, Frank Ecoffey, Gibson Clark, Baptiste 
Garnier and Baptiste Pourier and many others. 

Much has been written about Fort Laramie as a rendezvous 
for trappers and traders and as a military garrison, but com- 
paratively little has been printed about its economic his+ory. 
The sutler's store at the fort served as general supply house 
and was the chief banking institution for the outlying posts for 
hundreds of miles around. Through the hands of the sutler and 
his agent and clerks there passed promissory notes mounhng 
up to thousands of dollars each. There were checks and de- 
posits of credit to be paid all the way from Utah to Ireland and 
from Montana to Virginia. 

The financial affairs of the army in the early days were 
carried on through the office of the Assistant Treasurer in New 
York City. And before the advent of the Pony Express and the 
telegraph, one hundred twenty-three days were reguired to 
transmit papers from Fort Laramie to New York City and return. 

The site of Fort Laramie was originally a rendezvous where 
the white men traded with the Indians under the direction of 
Jacques La Remee (Laramie), a French Canadian. 

I John Hunton,! who worked in the sutler's store tor Seth 
Ward and his assistant, W. G. Bullock for four years, and who 
afterwards was himself post trader at Fort Laramie, said: 'Tim 
Bridger told me that he came to this place in the fall of 1817 
and that old La Ramee and his people or his outfit were here 
then. This outfit, La Ramee would divide up into groups and 
send them to hunt for beaver on the Platte and north to Running 
Water. 2 Bridger said, Tn the last trip or division that was made, 
he. La Ramee, went up the Laramie River in the spring and we 
came back here and stayed around. All of the trappers came 
in from time to time but no La Ramee ever returned.' " Two 
years later in about 1820, according to Bridger's account, a 

1. John (Jack) Hunton, who died in September, 1928, at the age of 88 years, 
knew more about the history of Fort Laramie than any other individual. He 
arrived at the post in 1867 where he worked for four years. For 60 years he 
either lived at that place or in the immediate vicinity, pui chasing the Fort 
from the Interior Department when it was abandoned in 1890. He sold the 
propeity in 1919 and moved to Torrington, Wyoming, but always retained his 
interest in Fort Laramie. -^ 

I 2. Running Water is the same as Niobrara or L'QuicouIt (Lo-Co-Co) j 


trapper brought word that the Indians had killed a man at the 
mouth of Sybille creek and had put the body under the ice at 
the beaver dam. This river, into which the Sybille emptied, 
was -eventually named for the missing trapper. 

(In 1834, Robert Campbell and William L. Sublette, who had 
been^ trapping in the Rocky Mountains for some ten or eleven 
years, having come west as members of the Ashley Expedition, 
decided to build a post on Laramie's Fork. It was necessary that 
Sublette return to St. Louis on business, so Robert Campbell 
remained and with a number of French Canadians and some 
half-breeds from St. Louis, started to work to erect a structure 
on the left bank of the Laramie, about a half mile above its 
junction with the North Platte. ' 

Some say that Campbell called the post Fort William in 
honor of his partner, Sublette. According to Anderson's Journali 
it was named for three men who were present during its build- 
-ing: William Sublette, William Patton and William Marshall. 
In 1835, Campbell and Sublette sold out to a syndicate of 
-trappers at the head of which were Milton Sublette and Jim 
Bridger who had as associates, Fitzpatrick, La Jeunesse, A. M. 
Anderson and old Jack Robinson, who continued the organi- 
zation under the name of Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Later 
the same season they sold the post to Lucien Fontenelle of the 
American Fur Company, which4iad been founded several years 
previously by John Jacob Astor.j 

For a time both names — Fort William and Fort John — were 
used in designating the fort and then, it is said, that a shipping 
clerk made a mistake and marked a box for "Tt. Laramie" in- 
stead of 'Tt. John on the Laramie." Robert Campbell2 saw at 
once that Ihe new name was a good one, so immediately changed 
the name to Laramie. 

In 1842, Fremont mentioned the old Adams Fort at the mouth 
of the Laramie River and then described Fort Laramie as fol- 

'"Like the post on the South Fork (St. Vrain), it was built 
of earth and still unfinished, being enclosed wi+h walls (or 
rather houses) on three sides and open on the fourth +o the 
river. A few hundred yards brought us in view of the pos+ of 
the American Fur Company, called Fort John, or Laramie. 
This was a large post, having more the air of military construc- 
tion than the fort3 at the mouth of the river. It is on the left bank. 

1. See January, 1940, issue of THE ANNALS OF WYOMING, article by 
Dan W. Greenburg, entitled, "How Fort William, Now Fort Laramie, Was 
Named," being a review of "Anderson's Narrative of a Ride to the Rocky 
Mountains in 1834," from Anderson's Journals edited by Albert J. Partoll, 
of Missoula, Montana. 

2. Morris, Robert; Wyoming Historical Collections, Vol. 1: "Mr. Campbell 
changed the name of the fort. 1 have this fact from Mr. Campbell himself." 

3. Fort Adams 


on a rising ground some twenty-five feet above the water; and 
its lofty walls, whitewashed and picketed, with the large bas- 
tions at the angles, gave it guite an imposing appearance in 
the uncertain light of evening. A cluster of lodges, which the 
language told us belonged to the Sioux Indians, was pitched 
under the walls and, with the fine background of the Black 
Hills and the prominent peak of Laramie mountain, strongly 
drawn in the clear light of the sky, where the sun had already 
set, the whole formed at the moment a strikingly beau+iful 

picture the fort is a guadrangular structure, built of clay, 

after the fashion of the Mexicans, who are generally employed 
in building them. The walls are fifteen feet high, surmounted 
with a wooden palisade, and form a portion of ranges of houses, 
which entirely surround a yard of about one hundred and thirty 
feet sguare. Every apartment has its door and window — all, of 
course, opening on the inside. There are two entrances, op- 
posite each other, and midway the wall, one of which is a large 
and public entrance; the smaller en'-rance is a sguare tower, 
with loop-holes, and, like the rest of the work, built of earth. 
At two of the angles, and diagonally opposite each other, are 
large sguare bastions, so arranged as to sweep the four faces 
of the walls." 

Robert Campbell was one of the ablest leaders of Captain 
William Sublette. He was guiet, dignified, and yet a man of 
great force. He settled disputes and bickerings with a word. 
When it was necessary to fight, though, he always gave a per- 
fect account of himself, taking part in several of the wors+ en- 
counters ever fought in the wilderness. He was loved by the 
mountain men throughout the entire country. It is not known 
just how long he stayed at Fort Laramie, but it was not a great 
while until he moved to St. Louis where he headed a large 
merca.ntile establishment which became the most popular out- 
fitting place for fur traders and trappers. Supplies from Robert 
Campbell & Company were sent all over the Rocky Mountain 

V>. is through the letters to Robert Campbell & Company, 
that W. G. Bullock expresses h^'s real views on events that were 
taking place at Fort Laramie in the late sixties. One of the last 
letters in the collection, written by S. E. Ward, relates to the 
expenses of Robert Campbell as a member of the Indian Peace 

Thirty-four years after he built Fort William, Rober+ Camp- 
bell visited the Fort, at the reguest of the Government, to treat 
with the Sioux. Felix R. Brunot accompanied him on this trip. 
Campbell was warmly received by both the white men and the 
red upon that occasion. 

Alter Campbell and Sublette sold out to the American Fur 
Company in 1835, two men, Sybille and Kiplin, were sent out 


lo invite the Indians to come to the post to trade. As a result, 
more than 100 lodges of Ogalalla Sioux under Bull-Bear re- 
turned to make the post their headquarters. 

For the next few years, French was spoken at Fort Laramie 
with some poor English and many Indian dialects mixed in. 
Thousands of Indians and free trappers came to the place, many 
of them being sguaw men. In 1842 (Papin) Papan was the 
legitimate bourgeois ot the post and in his absence Bordeaux 
was in charge. 

When Fremont visited the fort in 1842, he recommended 
to the government that a line of military posts be erected across 
the frontier for the protection of emigrant travel. 

It was not, however, until June 1849, i that the Government, 
ac+ing through Lieutenant Woodbury of the United States Army 
Engineer Corps, purchased Fort Laramie, at a cost of $4,000, 
from Mr. Bruce Husband, agent of the American Fur Company. 
This purchase price was for buildings. It included no land as 
the, land was claimed by the Indians. 

The first troops to occupy the Fort were Companies C and 
D of the Third Regiment of Cavalry, known as the Regiment 
of Mounted Riflemen under Major Winslow F. Sanderson, 
and Company G. 6th U. S. Infantry, comprising fifty-eight men 
and five officers. 

The first report sent to the Secretary of War from Fort 
Laramie was dated June 27, 1849, and was signed by Major 
W. F. Sanderson, commander, in which he said: 'The entire 
command, excepting eight men for stable police, are employed 
in cutting and hauling timber, burning lime, cutting and making 
hay, etc. etc." 

During the fall of that year a bridge was constructed across 
the Laramie River not far from the Fort. 

Although the Government entered into a treaty in 1851 
with some 6,000 Arapahoes, Cheyenne and Ogalalla Brule 
Sioux in which the Indians were to receive annuities to be paid 
in goods, it did not insure peace for very long. Gradually the 
Indian depredations increased until in 1856, the government 
sent more troops to the Fort, making it a great depot for emi- 
grants and the center of most important military operations. 
The Pos1 remained under government control until 1890. 

With the garrisoning of Fort Laramie in 1849, the govern- 
ment appointed John Tutt as the first sutler and he held this 
position until 1857. Tutt, who was in partnership with Dougherty, 
sold out to Seth E. Ward on May 4, 1857 for the sum of $3,000. 
Ward received his appointment at Fort Laramie, Nebraska 

1. According to the records of the Adjutant General's office in Washing- 
ton, D. C, Fort Laramie was first occupied as a military post on June 16, 1849. 


Territory, Irom John B. Floyd, Secretary of War in 1857^ and 
received subsequent appointments, holding the place until 

Seth E. Ward, who was born in Virginia, came to the mount- 
ain country when a young man. In about 1845 he met Robert 
Campbell in St. Louis and they formed a friendship which was 
lifelong. Campbell helped finance Ward and established him 
as an independent trader at Bent's Fork on the Arkansas. Later 
Ward went into partnership with William Guerrier2 and the two 
of them set up a trading post and store nine miles above Fort 
Laramie on the south side of the North Platte River. Hence, 
Ward was well-acquainted in that district when he was made 
sutler at Fort Laramie. 

In Ward's firm +he first year at Fort Laramie was a man 
named Fitzhugh, who retired in 1858 and was succeeded by 
William G. Bullock. Bullock, who was living in St. Louis when 
hired by Mr. Ward, immediately took up his residence ai Fori 
Laramie and served very ably as agent and general manager 
of Mr. Ward's large interests at the Fort from 1858 to 1871. Soon 
after Mr. Bullock went to Fort Laramie his wife joined him. 
Before her marriage, Mrs. Bullock was Mary Eliza Washington, 
a great-great-great niece of President George Washington. 
She was born in Kentucky. Little is known a^ present of her 
immediate family except that she often spoke, while living at 
Fort Laramie, of a brother 'Trank", who resided in Wisconsin. 

The Bullocks had two children, a son and a daughter, the 
latter died in childhood. The son. Captain John Washington 
Bullock, was Captain of Company D, 5th Virginia Cavalry and 
was killed in 1863 in an engagement at Dumfries just out of 

Mrs. Bullock was an ardent and excellent horsewoman 
and rode a great deal with her husband, during the first years 
of her life at the Fort. A small stirrup from her sidesaddle is 
among the treasured possessions of the Wyoming Historical 

Two years after Mr. Bullock took resident charge of the 
sutler's store at Fort Laramie, his employer, Seth Ward married. 
In 1863, Mr. Ward moved his family to Nebraska City and from 
there to Westport in 1872, then to Kansas City. His original 
homestead there was later in the heart of an exclusive resi- 
dential and country club district. 

1. The original copy of the appointment is in the Wyoming Historical 
Department at Cheyenne. See Special Order No. 140. Dept. of Platte. 

2. William Guerrier was killed on February 16, 1858, at the age of 52 
years, when a keg of powder which he was hauling on his wagon, exploded. 
According to the inscription on his tombstone: "He was long known as a suc- 
cessful Indian trader and universally loved and esteemed by all who knew 
him." The stone is in the Burlington depot yard at Torrington. 


For many years Seth Ward did a flourishing business at 
Fort Laramie under the management of Mr. Bullock. They 
shipped thousands of bales of furs and robes which they obtained 
through trade with the Indians; they freighted tons upon tons 
of freight into the West; they served efficiently as supply 
officer and banker for the whole surrounding territory. 

The precious old letter-file journal, kept by means of the 
French ink copying process, has never before been made 
public. It contains the copies of letters written by Colonel W. G. 
Bullock and one or two by Seth Ward during the years 1868- 
1870. Through these letters one catches vivid glimpses of the 
conditions at Fort Laramie and the surrounding country during 
the strenuous time when the government was struggling to 
make permanent peace with the Sioux Indians. 

Though the letters deal for the most part with business 
^here is woven through them a bitterness at the trend of affairs 
and rebellion at the fate which was slowly and surely over- 
taking the trading business at Fort Laramie. 

Mr. Bullock even predicted the entire abandonment of 
the Fort. He was irked and disheartened at what he considered 
the incompetentency of the Indian Peace Commission and the 
military who he thought failed to understand the Indians. 

This feeling, however, was common in miany places at 
that time as can be noted by consulting the newspaper articles 
in the Denver and Cheyenne papers at that date, in which there 
appeared severe criticisms regarding the movements of the 
army and sarcasHc reference to the peace policy of the govern- 

Too, perhaps Colonel Bullock's resentment at the way the 
military managed affairs dated back to previous personal 
incidents. Naturally the Colonel was eager to have peace pre- 
served in the western country so that trade with the Indians 
could be maintained and he was much perturbed in May 1865, 
over the capture of Two Face and Black Foot, Sioux Chiefs of 
the Ogallala tribe, who had bought Mrs. Eubanks, a captured 
white woman from the Cheyennes. When Colonel Bullock 
heard that Colonel Moonlight, then commanding Fort Laramie, 
had ordered these Indians hung he went to the commanding 
officer and told him that in his judgment the execution of these 
two chiefs would not serve any good purpose ''but on the con- 
trary he believed that it would so aggravate the combined 
hostile tribes as to induce them to seek a favorable opportunity 
and then in overwhelming numbers attack the garrison of 
Fort Laramie and carry the place by assault, and then would 
follow a massacre of so barbarous and inhuman a character 
as had never been witnessed in the west. The commander 
heard Colonel Bullock with great courtesy, never once inter- 
rupting him in his plea, not for mercy for the savages but for 


the adoption of a policy which would serve better the purpose 
of the government in its war against the Indians. When the 
plea was finished the post commander very quietly remarked: 
'Well, Colonel Bullock, you thmk there will be a massacre? 
Let me tell you that there will be two Indians who will not take 
part in it. Good day, sir.' The Post Commander followed his 
dismissal of the post trader by politely bowing him out of the 
door of his quarters. "i 

Too, it was Colonel Bullock who wrote a vivid accounts of 
the Platte Bridge Fight to Colonel William O. Collins when his 
son. Lieutenant Caspar Collins, was killed by the Indians on 
July 26, 1865. In this account Bullock blamed the Kansas 
officers for the young lieutenant's death. 

The following winter two men came to Fort Laramie with 
$7,000 in coarse gold in baking powder cans and asked Charley 
Clay, clerk in the Post Trader's store, to put it in the safe for 
them. According to their story seven of them had been working 
in the Black Hills country and had just made a rich strike when 
they were attacked by Indians and five of them were killed. 
The two had escaped, they said, and had made their way to 
Fort Reno. There the commanding officer discredited their 
tale and had them arrested for army deserters. They were 
taken from there to For"" Fetterman and at last released. They 
spent the winter at Fort Laramie and left early in the spring of 
1866 to go back in search of their mine. The ten or twelve 
persons in their party were evidently all killed as they were 
never heard from again. 

Without knowledge of the fate of this Black Hills party, 
Colonel Bullock, fired with enthusiasm at the sight of the 
$7,000 in gold dust which had reposed in the sutler's safe all 
winter — organized a large expedition to find the Lost Cabin 
claims. He had 150 men enlisted and ready to start on the ex- 
pedition when an order came from the commanding ofticer 
of the department forbidding the expedition and ordering out 
the military forces, if necessary, to prevent it, as the 'Indians 
were then hostile and an extensive Indian war was feared." 
To this day the location of the lost claims remains a mystery. 

In the Bullock letters, which deal for the most part with 
the transmittal of money to various parts of the country and the 
payment of promissory notes, orders or acknowledgments of 
same, there are references to polii"ics, to the handling of military 
discharges, also details of various local happenings. 

There are vouchers in favor of the runners who were sent 
out to bring the Indians in to the Peace Commission, there are 
orders relative to Green River knives, a special kind of knives 

1. Coutant: History of Wyoming. Vol. I, pp. 441-2. 

2. See Letter, page 319. 


demanded by the Indians for trading purposes; there are orders 
also for hair pipe used in ceremonials; for garden tools and 
seeds for Fort Fetterman; for fancy preserve dishes and a tea 
tray for a ''small family"; for Italian cravats and a fine whi'e 
Jaconet; for fancy garter lacings; for seins for fishing; for 
mosguito netting; for "a handsome ladies horsewhip"; ref- 
erence is made to hoopskirts and to the purchase of coal oil, 
which had been prohibited by the government due to the fact 
that someone had patented a lard lamp. There are orders for 
magazines such as the North American Review and for the Omaha 
Herald; for percussion caps and powder; for scarlet and blue 
Indian cloth, brooms, macaroni, French ink and writing paper. 

Among the names to whom the letters are addressed we 
find: Robert Campbell & Co., St. Louis; M. Tootle & Co., Omaha; 
J. A. Ware & Co., Omaha and Cheyenne; S. A. Megeath & Co., 
Council Bluffs; Stephens & Wilcox, Omaha; Posey S. Wilson, 
Cheyenne; Gallagher & Megeath, Cheyenne; Curry, Kirby & 
Cooper, Jefferson City, Missouri. 

Under the Act of July 29, 1867 a Peace Commission was 
created with full powers, not only to treat with the Indians, but 
to settle existing differences without loss of time. This Commis- 
sion consisting of Lieutenant General W. T. Sherman, N. G. 
Taylor, J. B. Henderson, Brevet Major General Harney, General 
John B. Sanborn, Brevet Major General Alfred H. Terry, Brevet 
Major General C. C. Augur and S. F. Tappan, arrived at Fort 
Laramie on April 7, 1868. 

The first letters in Bullock's tile are dated April 16, 1868. 
In a letter to Messrs. Robert Campbell & Co., he says: "The 
Indian Commissioners arrived here a few days since to treat 
with the Indians but they found no Indians to treat with, and 
have determined to remain until the arrival of Red Cloud & Co. 

I would like to live until he comes in of his own free will 

There are many Indians expected in with a large number of 
robes and I hope to get my share of them, which will be the 

La%r he wrote: 'Things are working very unsatisfactory 
here for our business which may result in our leaving here. 
The Indian Commission are endeavoring to take all the whites 
and Indians out of this country preparing I presume to abandon 

the post From the operation of the Peace Commission I 

fear we will not have any Indian trade in the future as all 
Indians, half-breeds and white men of the country are to go 
over to the Missouri River near old 'Fort Pierre' where a reser- 
vation is to be established and no Indians are allowed to come 
here. The Indians are kicking against this proposition and it 
will doubtless lead to a renewal of hostilities." 

In July 1868 he wrote: "The Indian Treaty made here will 
prove a failure as a short time since the Indians were fired 


upon at Fort Phil Kearney by order of the Commanding Officer 
when they were peaceably approaching." 

Although the Indians had promised to come in to the peace 
conference at Fort Laramie they took their own time in coming. 
Some did come in during the three months while the Com- 
missioners waited at the Fort and after the usual smoke and 
council talk, they signed the treaty and received a supply of 
provisions, clothing, blankets, firearms and ammunition. 

It was not, however, until November 6, 1868, that Red 
Cloud and Thunder Man visited Fort Laramie and signed the 

Colonel Bullock was fair-minded and after the peace was 
made wrote that he thought that: ''General Sanborn has suc- 
ceeded in making a good peace with the Sioux Indians and the 
Bands of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians, who live in the 
Sioux Country and the country will not in future be shocked 
by more horrid massacres by Indians." 

This treaty did not though result in the hoped for peace 
as some 600 warriors had withdrawn from Red Cloud's camp 
when they learned he was going to sign the treaty and these 
and others continued their depredations. 

Events soon proved that the abandonment of the Bozeman 
Road through the removal of troops from Forts Reno, Phil 
Kearny, and C. F. Smith was a mistake and General Sheridan, 
who then commanded the Department of the Missouri, in his 
official report, dated Sept. 26, 1868, pointed out clearly the 
mistakes of the year. In this report we see the military's view 
of the stand which many of the agents were taking. 

'The motives of the peace commissioners were humane, 
but there was an error of judgment in making peace with the 
Indians last fall. They should have been punished and made ^"o 
give up the plunder captured, and which they now hold; and 
after properly submitting to the military and disgorging their 
plunder, they could have been turned over to the civil agents. 
This error has given more victims to savage ferocity. The 
present system of dealing with Indians, I think, is an error. 
There are too many fingers in the pie, too many ends to be 
subserved, and too much money to be made; and it is the in- 
terest of the nation, and of humanity, to put an end to this in- 
human farce. The Peace Commission, the Indian Department, 
the military and the Indian, make a balky team. The public 
treasury is depleted and innocen^ people plundered in this 
guad rangular arrangement, in which the treasury and +he 

unarmed settlers are the greatest sufferers I desire to 

say with all emphasis, what every officer of the frontier will 
corroborate, that there is no class of men in this country who 
are so disinclined to war with the Indians as the army stationed 
among them. The army has nothing to gain by a war with the 


Indians; on the contrary, it has everything to lose. In such a 
war it suffers all the hardships and privation, exposed as it is 
to the charge of assassination if Indians are killed, to the charge 
of inefficiency if they are not; to misrepresentation by the agents 
who fatten on the plunder of Indians, and misunderstood by 
worthy people at a distance who are deceived by these very 

A severe blow was struck at the sutler's business at Fort 
Laramie when the military issued an order forbidding trade 
with the Indians at that post and commanding them to trade 
only at Fort Randall. 

On November 19, 1868 according to a letter to Messrs. 
Robert Campbell & Company, Bullock said: "I have today re- 
ceived the following copy of Order to Col. Dye from the Depart- 
ment Commanders, presuming it from Genl. Sherman: 

~~H'gr. Dept. Platte, Nov. 4, 1868. Should Red Cloud or 
any other Indians come to your Post or vicinity you will not 
permit any person to trade with them. You must not exchange or 
trade their furs. Give them sufficient provisions to last them to 
Genl. Harney, reporting transaction here. Let the Indians 
understand distinctly +hat they cannot trade with anyone off 
'their reservation' Signed 'C. C. Augur, Commd. Dpi' This 
order is directly con+rary to what has been told the Indians both 
by the Indian Peace Commission and the different Post Com- 
manders who have been acting under their instruction, and 
they induced %e Indians to sign the treaty by their representa- 
tions. These wild Indians were plainly and repeatedly told 
that they need not go on the reservation or anything unless 
they wanted to go but that no presents would be issued to 
them except on the reservation by General Harney but they 
could come and hun1 and trade at Fort Laramie. But I presume 
peace is not wanted by the authorities." 

Again, he wrote Campbell that lohn Richards, Ir., had been 
allowed by General Sherman to +rade with the Indians on the 
North side of the Platte, — Crows, Sioux, Arapahoes and Chey- 
ennes, but ''he has not been able to cross the River as the 
Indians object to having any trader but myself. The Cheyennes 
and Arapahoes who have about two hundred packs of robes 
(and very superior ones) sent word that they would not trade 
their robes to anybody but me, and I must get goods for them. 
Colonel Dye would give me permission, but his orders forbid 
his doing so." 

As the Indian troubles increased Colonel Bullock spoke of 
various raids on stock and on Dec. 3, 1869 he wrote: "The 
Indians are growing more bold and it is becoming dangerous 
to pu+ our heads beyond the Sentinels of the Post. The Mail 
party to Fort Fetterman was driven back yesterday after a run- 
ning fight with the loss of one man and another wounded, shot 


through the thigh with an arrow. And few days since a white 
citizen was killed a short distance from the Post. I am expecting 
daily to hear that all of our stock is run off by the Indians .... Our 
business is not good and if the military commanders by their 
orders can make it worse they certainly will exercise their 
ingenuity to do so." 

Reference to ''all our stock" being run off by the Indians 
is evidently to the stock which Bullock and Mills owned. Evi- 
dently seeing the handwriting on the wall and feeling sure that 
the trading business had passed its zenith, Bullock began to 
prepare for the future and purchased a herd of cattle in par^-ner- 
ship with Benjamin B. Mills^ who had been a trader and a clerk 
in the sutler's store. The partnership was known as Bullock 
and Mills. This was the first and only range stock in the country 
at thai time. 2 

In the summer of 1868, Mills went to Kansas, Iowa and 
Missuri, and purchased 250 cows and one or two bulls, which 
he drove to Fort Laramie, arriving ^"here in October. According 
to John Hunton:" He turned them loose on the Laramie River 
about six miles west of the Fort, and had good success with 
them during the winter and spring. Early in the summer of 
1869, the Sioux Indians raided his herd and drove otf some 
thirty head or more, none of which was ever recovered, as 
no white man was allowed to cross the North Platte at that time 
for any purpose. About October 1869 the Indians made another 
raid on the herd and drove off sixty odd head, consisting of cows 
and calves. On this raid the Indians dangerously wounded 
the herder, Michell Miguel, a Mexican. In March, 1870, the 
Indians again raided the herd and drove off some 25 or 30 
head, which reduced the herd to about 120 of the original 
stock, but there had been a fairly good increase. Soon after 
the last raid, Mr. Mills moved the herd from the Laramie River 
to Chugwater Creek, and located it four miles south of Bordeaux, 
at the junction of Richard Creek, swhere he established a camp 
with 3 herders in tents. During the month of June 1870, the 
Indians raided this camp and drove the herders, John Boyd 
and William Aug, off and then killed four milk cows and young 
calves, pillaged the camp and burned everything they could 
find about the camp. Mills then moved the camp to the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Hunton ranch at Bordeaux. "•! 

1. In 1858 B. B. Mills was commissioned by the Indian Agent as a trader 
under Seth Ward. 

2. Hi Kelly: "In the fall of 1870 came my first experience in the range 

cattle business The only range stuff in the country at that time was that 

of Bullock & Mills, later Bullock & Hunton who had a small bunch of cows 
below the mouth of Richard's known as S O Ranch." 

3. Also called Richeau Creek. 

4. Wyoming Historical Department Archives. 


According to a report made by Silas Reed, Surveyor 
General of the Territory of Wyoming on September 12, 1871, 
W. G. Bullock was listed as having 4,000 cattle on Horse Creek. 

In 1871 Benjamin Mills died and John Hunton then bought 
his half interest in the herd. This was the first herd ot stock 
cattle located on Chugwater Creek. Although the firm was 
known as Bullock and Hunton, Hunton +ook entire charge of 
the herd and he adopted the brand SO for the stock ca+tle and 
the brand LD lor the work cattle, making both brands easy to 
vent when an animal was sold. The SO herd was kep+ at Bord- 
eaux until the fall of 1876 and the spring of 1877, when it was 
moved to Box Elder Creek southwest of Ft. Fet^erman, which is 
now the location ot the very celebrated ranch, Careyhurst,i 
formerly owned by the late Senator Robert D. Carey. The SO 
brand is still used by the Carey family. 

In the spring of 1871 Colonel W. G. Bullock put up a 
house, stable, corral and small shop on Laramie River near the 
present site of Uva, and put a few head of cattle and horses 
there, but the Indians were so annoying he moved all his stock 
to Bordeaux in the spring of 1872. As there were no other 
ranches or cattle on the Laramie River at that time, the hay on 
Bullock's ranch was cut and hauled to Bordeaux for two years 
and for four years was sold at Fort Laramie. The buildings a^ 
the Bullock ranch were covered with three inch plank that 
had been used for flooring in the wagon bridge constructed 
across the Laramie at the Fort in 1853. The planks were laid 
on the stringers or joists and then covered with earth. All the 
buildings have been torn down and moved away except the 
main log building which is in fairly good condition and is only 
kept as a relic of the early days. It shows some of the lumber 
made by the first sawmill located at Fort Laramie more than 
eighty years ago, — the plank supporting the earth roof. 

After Seth Ward was displaced as sutler at Fort Laramie 
in 1871, Mr. and Mrs. Bullock disposed of their furniture and 
much of their personal belongings and moved the small re- 
mainder to the house of John Hunton at Bordeaux. 

Bullock continued to be interested in the cattle business 
but turned the active management of it over to Hunton, while 
he and Mrs. Bullock took up their residence at the Railroad 
House in Cheyenne, which was then the best hotel in the region. 
They lived there unhl the death of Mrs. Bullock which occurred 
on Aug. 8, 1879. Her remains were taken to Bedford County, 
Virginia, and laid to rest beside those of her two children. 

An incident concerning W. G. Bullock and 'Tim" Hunton 
as told by Hunton follows: "In February 1874, Col. Bullock 
and Tim' Hunton left Bordeaux to go to Fort Fetterman. They 

1. Now owned by W. E. Bixby of Kansas City, Mo. 


drove a pair of mules to a spring wagon. There was no one 
living on the road between Bordeaux and Fetterman at that 
time. John Hunton had constructed a small two room log house 
on Horse Shoe Creek at the Fetterman road crossing the winter 
before, but it was not occupied at this time. It had no fireplace 
or stove. Bullock and Jim got to this house about sunset; watered 
the mules and put them in one room of the house; made a small 
fire in front of the other door; and made coffee and ate their 
supper by the light of the fire. They then spread buffalo robes 
on the ground in the room and were ready for bed. Both were 
tired, but stood and sat a while by the fire. The mules seemed 
to get uneasy and would jump and stamp as if something was 
wrong. Mr. Bullock suggested that they had better put the fire 
out and lie down. Jim had just finished extinguishing the fire 
and started for the door when they heard an Indian yelling 
to another one something about ^he water in the creek. Neither 
of them spoke Sioux, but Mr. Bullock understood a few words 
and knew when they spoke of water or creek. The two men 
went into the house and spent an uneasy night, making their es- 
cape early in the morning to Fetterman. There they found a 
telegram from Fort Laramie saying that there was little doubt 
but that Bullock and Hunton had been killed by Indians the 
night before, as the Indians had been raiding." (Jim Hunton 
was killed two years later by Indians in Goshen Hole.) 

After Mrs. Bullock's death, Mr. Bullock made his home 
much of the time at Bordeaux^ where he later married a Sioux 
woman. A half-breed son of the couple, is said to have been a 
splendid horseman and rode with Buffalo Bill's show for a year. 

According to Mr. Hunton, Colonel Bullock left Wyoming 
the last time on September 29, 1885, in company wi+h Mrs. 
John Hunton and her father. Dr. John W. Taylor, going to New 
York by train, thence to Richmond, Virginia, on a s+eamboat. 

Colonel William Gait Bullock, son of John Bullock and 
Lucy Novell Bullock, died in Virginia on Jan. 22, 1896, and is 
buried in the family lot at St. Stephens Church, Bedford County, 

J. S. McCormick succeeded Seth Ward as Post Trader at 
Fort Laramie, with E. B. Tayloy as his clerk. He was followed by 
Gi]ber^ Collins who remained four years; then his brother, 
J. S. Collins, served as sutler until 1881. John London next 
occupied the position for seven years, then in 1888 John Hunton, 
who had spent so many years in the vicinity of the Fort, took 

1. Accoiding to the records of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, 
1873 to 1880, brand 16 left hip was of record to W. G. Bullock. The brand book 
of 1881 shows this same brand of record to John Hunton of Bordeaux and 
Cheyenne. (The book of 1880 shows this brand of record to W. G. Bullock.) 
In 1882 this isrand is shown of record to Bullock and Hunton, Bordeaux, Wyo., 
range Chugwater Creek. 


over the trading post and ran it until April 20, 1890, when the 
United States troops left this noted Fort. Hunton purchased the 
site from the government and lived there many years, selling 
it in 1919. 

Through the years of wind and weather +here still remain 
at old Fort Laramie: the old post trader's store, frequented by 
Jim Bridger and other famous scouts and noted army officers; 
the guard house, which held not only military prisoners, but 
also stage robbers and notorious desperadoes; ''Old Bedlam", 
officers' club and quarters; the ruins of the old hospital which 
still overlooks the entire fort and is the most far-seen of all the 
fort buildings; the old cavalry barracks now used as head- 
quarters for +he National Park Service Custodian; the old Hunton 
residence; remnants cf barracks; the bridge over the Platte 
river, built by the U. S. Government and afterwards given to 
Laramie County and the Goshen County. 

The Twenty-First Wyoming State Legislature made an 
appropriation of $15,000 for the purchase of old Fort Laramie 
in order that it might be preserved as an historic shrine. The 
purchase was made, and in 1938 the State transferred the 
title to old Fort Laramie to the National Park Service. It is now 
a National Monument. 

Part II 


Fort Laramie, April 16th, 1868 
Messrs.. M. Tootle & Co. 


Lhad the pleasure by the last mail which arrived yesterday 
of receiving your letter of 7th inst. with enclosed invoice, for 
which please find S.E. Ward's check on Messrs. J. A. Ware & 
Co. Omaha for five hundred twenty four 40 /lOO Dollars. Please 

*NOTE — The old letter -book containing the accompanying correspondence 
of Bullock and Ward was in the possession of the late Dr. Grace Raymond 
Hebard, of the University of Wyoming, who ,in 1935, granted to Agnes Wright 
Spring the privilege of making a transcript for such use as she might see fit. 

An interesting old relic in itself, the file is in the form of a bound volume, 
an inch in thickness and is inscribed in gilt, "Letter Book." Its white pages are 
of almost tissue thinness and texture upon which imprints of the original letters, 
hand-written, were made by the old French ink method of keeping a corres- 
pondence record. The file was transcribed verbatim by Mrs. Spring. Its 
■ownership passed to the Wyoming State University with Dr. Hebard' s death 
in 1936, and is now in the Hebard Collection at the University Library. 

A typewritten label on the front cover gives the following information: 
"Presented by Mrs. Lee Root to Grace Raymond Hebard, July, 1930. (From 
Torrington)" — Ed. 


send me at your early convenience 3Coo 16 stran cotton twine 
with bill I want the twine for making a seine. 

Mark S E Ward care Megeath & Co. Cheyenne and ship 
to him. Please accept my thanks for your prompt attention. 

I am Very Respectfully 
Your Obt Svt. 

Fort Laramie April 16th 1868 
Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. 
St. Louis 

I had not the pleasure of receiving any of your esteemed 
favours by the last mail. The Indian Commissioners arrived 
here a few days since, to treat with the Indians but they found 
no Indians to treat with, and have determined to remain untill 
the arrival of Red Cloud & co. I would like to live until he comes 
in of his own free will. There are many Indians expected in 
with a large number of robes and I hope to get my share of them, 
which will be the Lions. 

Will you please make the following remittance and charge 
to Mr. Ward's account 

To Mrs. Carroll H Potter No 11 Bo vision Place 

Boston Mass. $100 from Col. C.H. Potter 

To Benjamin Schell 10th and Vine St 

Philadelphia Pa from Dr. H.S. Schell $500 
Will you please get M. McQuaig to make a Seine 60 feet 
long and 6 feet wide in the center of the size of the twine sent and 
ship to the care of Megeath & Co Cheyenne. Care LA. Ware 
& Co. Omaha. 

Yours truly in haste 

Fort Laramie April 16th 1863 
Messrs. LA. Ware & Co., 


I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your 
esteemed favour of the 8 inst. with package of Boys clothes ^ 

Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following 


No. 7 Fort Fetterman Mar 31 /68 on 1st Nat. Bk Omaha in fav 
John Finn Fred F. Whitehead 1st leut. 18 infy for $2,000 
39. Ft. C.F. Smith Jany 24 on Dr 1st Nat. Bank " in fav 

P.B.Gayhard Walter F. Halleck 1 Lt. 27 inf. $74.56 

24th Thomas Walton 

Walter F Halleck 58.28 

Two thousand one hundred and thirty two 

84 /OO dolls $2,132.84 

Very Respectfully 

Your Obt.Svt. 

* * * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co., Ft. Laramie April 16th 1868 


Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit John Finns 
draft on Messrs Kountze & co. Cheyenne in favor of B.B. Mills 
for (Four thousand four hundred and eleven dos. $4411.00. 
You will perceive the draft is dated on the 20 proximo. Mr. 
Finn will leave here in the morning and he wishes to reach 
Cheyenne before the draft is presented. I suppose he will reach 
Cheyenne Saturday or Sunday. 

Very Respectfully, 

Your Obt. Svt. 


P.S. Please send me bill of the cotton cloth and 
Plaister Paris you purchased for me. 

Messrs. J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie April 22 /68 


Your favour of the 15th Inst came duly to hand with the 
book but you omitted to put the price of the Book. I have re- 
ceived the Butcher Knives. They are unsuitable for the purposes 
I wanted them for (Indian Trade) The Indians only trade the 
Ebony handle Ames or Green River knives. i Please find enclosed 

L Green River Knives. Green River Knives were first manufactured by 
John Russell, who founded the Green River works, near Greenfield, Massa- 
chusetts in 1835. He also was one of our first American cutlers to produce 
knives in wholesale quantities. The knives were stamped,"]. Russell & Company, 
Green River Works," and later changed to "John Russell Mfg. Co." In 1873 
it was reorganized and the name changed to the present one, "John Russell 
Cutlery Co." Apparently the Green River knife was a favorite with mountain 
men and Indians, and one time Mr. John W. Russell, a descendant of the 
original manufacturer stated, "I remember hearing it said that one shipment 


for Mr. Wards credit the following checks list of which please 
find on next page 

Yours truly 

No. 68 Ft. Phil Kearney Jany 27 /68 infav John Andersonon 
Omaha Nat. Bk. signed C.H. Wasens Lieut 27 
Infy AA QM $25.33 

31 Apl. 22 /68 William Rush E.B. 
Grimes Q M 30.00 

67 Ft. Fetterman Oct. 31 /67 1st Nat Bk 
Omaha in fav Arthur Juliett by Thos 
F. Quinn 35.35 


If you can procure it will you please send me three or four 
Bottles French Copying ink have it well packed send to care 
your house Cheyenne 



Messrs S A Megeath & C^ Fort Laramie May 13, 1868 

Council Bluffs 

Your fav of the 6th inst with Bill for blankets came to hand 
by the last mail which arrived yesterday and please find en- 
closed S E Ward check No. 2 on Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. 
Omaha for the amount Three hundred and three 50 100 

Very respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 

of hunter's knives, some 60 or 70 cast, that went lo the old Indian trader, 
Pierre Chateau, contained more knives than there could be inhabitants, red 
or white, in the Northwest." I have seen and handled a number of these 
knives and almost invariably, Indian owners beveled the blade on a cutting 
edge, in order that it might make a good skinning knife. I became interested 
in these knives a number of years ago and in the October 1927 issue of Indian 
Notes published by the Museum of American Indian, Heye Foundation, ap- 
peared a brief article by myself entitled, "Those Green River Knives." — 
Arthur Woodward, National Park Service, Berkeley, California. 

1. In 1868 Gallagher & Megeath also did business at Bryan, Wyo., a 
"temporary" terminus of the U.P.R.R. 


Messrs M. Tootle & C Fort Laramie May 13th, 1868 


I had the pleasure of receiving your esteemed favour of 
29th ulto with enclosed bill of blankets Please find S E Wards 
check on Messrs J. A. Ware & co., Omaha for the Amount One 
hundred and eighty nine 25 /1 00 Dollars. 
Please acknowledge receipt 

Yours Respectfully 


Col M T Patrick Fort Laramie May 13,1868 

North Platte City 
Dear Sir 

Enclosed please find an order on you of Leo Pallady' for 
one hundred and fifty dollars which please remit a check to 
Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Omaha for the amount Genl. Sanborn 
informed me you would pay this as you were furnished with funds 
to pay. 

The Indian guestion progresses slowly here but 'The Man 
afraid of his horses" is expected in here during the week 
and I suppose everything will be settled. 

Yours truly, 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie May 13 1868 


I received your amount by the last mail but without any 
letter. Please find for collection and S E Wards Credit: 

John Finn on Kountz & Co. Cheyenne for $5,940.26 /OO 

I enclose Lt. Brents check on 1st Nat Bank Omaha for five 
dollars for which please send me the amount in Revenue 

L In a lettei written by Colonel W. O. Collins in 1862, and quoted in 
Spring's Caspar Collins, he said: "I have employed an excellent interpreter 
whom I intend to keep permanently if the Government will pay him. His name 
is Leo Pallardy, a Frenchman, cr rather of French parentage, born in St. Louis, 
raised in St. Charles, Missouri, and for the last seventeen years a resident among 
the Indians and agent and trader. He was interpreter for General Harney and 
also for the Sioux chiefs at Washington City on a visit to the President a few 
years ago. He is about 32, a very good scholar, a capital hunter (he brought in 
an antelope yesterday) and thoroughly acquainted with the country and the 
Indians from the Rocky Mountains to the Missouri. His dress is a black buck- 
skin hunting coat, highly ornamented, and light buckskin pantaloons with 
moccasins. He occupies the tent with Caspar and myself and makes himself 
generally useful in packing, unpacking, loading, etc." 


Stamps as follows $1 in 50c $2 in 25c $2 in 10c stamps they 
are for Lt. Brent 

This check for stamps I have not charged to your account 
therefore do not charge me with stamps; Did you send over 
an express package for Col. Dyei by last mail if so what was 
the charges. Mr. Ward will go over tomorrow I presume 

Yours truly 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie May 13,1868 


Please find for collection and Mr. Wards credit the follow- 
ing checks and a note of John Finn. Sixty days after date pay- 
able at 1st Nat Bank Omaha No. 2665 Cert Dep Omaha Nat 
Bk. Feby 20 /68 infav Capt Wm P. McCleery A.M. Wyman 
Asst. Cash signed John A Schmidt Teller $306.00 

8 Phil Kearney Apl. 14 /68 on 1st Nat Bk infav 

W C O'Boyle C H Wasens 107.50 



John Finn's note 60 /ds date infav S E Ward at 

1st Nat Bk 6,300.00 

193 Omaha Apl. 23d /68 A Wright Post Chap. 

Omaha Nat. Bk R D Clark Paymaster 38.93 

Nine thousand two hundred and Eight 76 , 00 Dollars $9,208.76 

Yours Respectfully 

Your Obt Svt 

Fort Fetterman 20 " 

do Douglas Reid 
Thos L. Brent 


Fort Laramie May 12 

do Lieut.W.W. Bill 
E B Grimes 


"do Apl. 30 

do W G Bullock 
E B Grimes 


~'C.F. Smith Dec.31, 1867 

do Henry Korn 

W F Halleck 


C.F. Smith Feb. 1, 1868 

do Feather in the 
Neck do 


do Jny 24 

do Aaron Levy do 


I. CoL William McEntire Dye. 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co Fort Laramie May 13th 1868 

St Louis 

Your two favrs to Mr. Ward came duly to hand. Mr. Ward 
speaks of leaving in the morning for Cheyenne where he will 
remain some days on business. The Indian guestion still drags. 
Genl. Sherman has arrived here and left for New Mexico, 
leaving Genls Harney and Sanborn here to finish up the 
business of peace. Please iind for collection for Mr. Wards 

6 John B. Sanborn^ Ft. Laramie May 4th /68 infav 

Thil Bodernyeron $60.00 
Asst Mg. New York 
5 " ~~ 4th/ "Herman Ries do 64.00 

3 -" " " Wilham Smith do 60.00 

7 " " 7 / " Joseph B. Mayo do 64.00 

22 " " 11 /'' Jchn B. Sanborn do 250.00 

180 Genl B. Alverto Mar 26 /68 Musician William 

A. Stanton on N.Y. 10.00 

2675 Phil F. Kelly &c. Phila Apl. 21 /68 in fav 

Chambers McKebben Endorsed R.P. McKeben on 

Jay Cook I Co. N.Y. Asst Try U.S. 300.00 

11327 Washington Feb. 8 /68 on Asst Try N.Y. in fav 

John Piro L R Tuttle 10.00 

Eight hundred and fourteen Dollars $814.00 

Please remit to Mr. William Rowlson Sacket Harbor New York 
from Capt. Geo. W. Dost ($20) Twenty Dollars 
and to Mrs. Capt. George W. Dost ($10) Ten Dollars 
Sacket Harbor New York from Capt. G.W. Dost 

Things are working very unsatisfactory here for our business 
which perhaps may result in our leaving here the Indian 
Commission are endeavouring to take all the whites and Indians 
out of this country preparatory I presume to abandoning the 

Yours truly 


L A member of the Peace Commission. 


Collins Dixon Esq Fort Laramie D.T. May 13, 1868 

Dear Sir 

Your favor of the 25th ult. is at hand and I now enclose 
you the statement desired and will sell upon the following 
terms viz. 

For goods on hand I will take the original cost with transporta- 
tion at the rate oi Q}/2 cents per lb. and 10 per cent upon the 
original cost added, cash in hand upon delivery and compari- 
son of Invoice. For corn of which I have about 3000 bushels, I 
will take in cashe the selling price at Cheyenne City D.T. 
with the cost of transportation from that point to this added. 
For the mules 136 one hundred and thirty six head, I will take 
four hundred Dollars per span and take note at (60) Sixty and 
(120) one hundred and twenty days with satisfactory security. 
For the mule wagons twenty in number and Harness, I will 
take one hundred and fifty dolls each upon the same terms as 
for the mules. For the work oxen and ox wagons, consisting of 
(130) one hundred and thirty yoke of oxen and twenty six ox 
wagons. I will take one thousand and twenty Dolls per team of 
five yoke of oxen and one wagon upon the same terms viz note at 
sixty and at one hundred and twenty days with satisfactory en- 
dorsers. For the buildings consisting of a comfortable dwelling 
house with four rooms, a kitchen and a storeroom and other 
conveniences and of a store with two warehouses and a sit- 
ting room and sleeping room for the clerks, I will take $8000.00 
Eight thousand Dolls accepting note at one year with satisfactory 
endorsers. The outside property consisting of mowing machines 
and Hay Press &c. I will sell at a fair valuation and accept note 
at one year with good security. I am now selling my mules and 
cattle and wagons as rapidly as I can but would of course 
prefer to close out my whole business in one lot to one purchaser. 
I also have here a billiard Room and two tables which we could 
make I think a satisfactory arrangement about. 

I leave here in the morning for Cheyenne City D.T. Please 
direct your answer to the care of J.A.Ware & Co. Bankers, 
Cheyenne. Hoping to hear from you soon 

I remain 
Yours Truly 

* * * * 

William Micheal Esq Fort Laramie May 21st 1868 

Kankakee, 111. 
Dear Sir 

I received your letter with enclosed receipt for discharge 
and agreeable to your request I herewith enclose you your 
discharge which I hope will reach you safely. 

Yours Respectfully, 

Your Obt. Svt. 


Messrs. M. Tootle^S Co Fort Laramie May 21st, 1868 


Please find enclosed S E Wards check No. 11 on Messrs 
J. A. Ware & Co, Omaha for the amt of your bill for cotton 
seine twine Seventeen 50 /OO Dollars 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt 

Messrs. Robert Campbell &C., Fort Laramie May 21,1868 

St. Louis 

I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your letter 
of the 11th Inst, with stated Enclosures. The Hair Pipe^ ordered 
some time since we will not want as it will arrive too late for any 
trade with the Indians, and the trade for the present will be 
more limited than I anticipated and from the opperations of the 
Peace Commission I fear we will not have any Indian trade in 
future as all Indians half breed and whitemen of the country 
are to go over to the Missouri River near old ' Tort Pierre' ' where 
a reservation for the Sioux is to be established and no Indians 
are to be allowed to come here. The Indians are kicking against 
this proposition and it will doubtless lead to a renewal of hostil- 

L"The Hair Pipe was an ornament which was in great demand on the plains, 
from the early decade cf the 19th Century until recently. The name "hairpipe" 
was one which travelled from the frontier trading posts east of the Mississippi, 
into the plains region. 

During the 18th century, the Shawnee, Kickapoo, Illinois, Miami, Ottawa, 
etc., used thin tubes of silver which they obtained from the traders in which 
they confined individual locks of hair. These were known as hair pipes. The 
plains hair pipe was not of silver, however, but of shell. These shell pipes or 
"hair pipes" as they were termed in the trade, were made in great quantities 
at this time by the Campbell Brothers, Wampum factory in Pascack, Bergen 
County, New Jersey. These were made from the interior portion of the Bahama 
Conch shells. They were made up to 6" in length and such 6" pipes were 
sold for 48 cents apiece. 

Shortly before 1850 the Campbell Bros, in New Jersey invented a machine 
whereby they were able to drill six pipes at a time. This factory supplied the 
bulk of such ornaments to the various trading concerns, operating west of the 
Mississippi River. This same outfit also supplied traders with the round curved 
shell disks, so popular with the plains Indians. In later days, toward the end 
of the 60s, 1 would judge, the Indians began making breast plates of these 
pipes. Later, as the supply of shell beads dwindled, imitation pipes of bone 
were imported to the plains and today one sees these bone pipe beads on some 
of the costumes of 35 or 40 years ago and modern Indian costumes often in- 
clude these breast plates. . Incidently, the Robert Campbell Company was 
listed as a buyer of the hair pipes from the Campbell Brothers in New Jersey." — 
Prof. Arthur Woodward, National Park Service, Berkeley, California. 


ities. I herewith enclose you the letters of N.G. Taylor Com of 
Ind. Affairs and E.B. French 2d Auditor. 

In relation to an account of Mr. Wards in which $300 cash 
advanced H.M. Mathews Special Agent for the Crows, has been 
suspended by Mr. French. I also enclose the receipts in dupli- 
cate of H.M. Mathews for Mr. French who will allow the sus- 
pended three hundred dollars to be paid on the receipt of these 
receipt's. The original amount was for $1936 55 /OO which 
audited by the Indian Department and ^'hree cash items sus- 
pended when sent to the auditor for the want of the receipts of 
H.M. Mathews which are the receipts enclosed for the auditor. 
Will you please make the following remittances and charge to 
Mr. Wards account. 
To George Schuler jeweller Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich 

One hundred and forty dollars from Capt. Atcheson 4 Inf 
To Alvin S. Clark Riverside Detroit Michigan Twelve Dollar;: 

from Capt. Atcheson 4th Inftry. 

I am Yours truly, 


Fort Laramie D.T. June 3d, 1868 


I have the honour to state that in accordance with your 
reguest, I have taken all the affidavits that was necessary to 
develop the facts connected with the shooting affray which 
occurred at '"Curry's Ranch" on the evening of the 30th ulto 
and also to state that I have especially endeavoured to ascertain 
wheather or not this affray had any connection with the emi- 
gration of the Halfbreeds and Indians to the reservation to be 
established upon the Missouri River. In the Investigation I do 
not find any person or persons that have endeavoured to stop 
the expedition. But their are some white men who are acting in 
such an improper and illegal manner that they should not be 
allowed to go. I have examined many persons whose affidavits 
I have deemed necessary, who corroborate the affidavits as 
far as they concern certain parties who are above alluded to 
as improper persons to accompany the expedition and who 
might defeat the object which the Indian Peace Commission 
are so desirous of accomplishing. Enclosed herewith please 
find the affidavits I have taken and a list of the names of the 


white men who have created the disturbance at the Indian 
Camp at Currys Ranch. 

I have the honor 

to be Your Obt. Svt 
United States Commissioner 
To Bvt Brig Genl 
A J Slemmer 

Fort Laramie ' ■!..■■■• 


* * * * ,, ; 

Messrs J. A. Ware & C Fort Laramie June 4, 1868 


Your several letters are to hand, but no packages for Col. 
Dye Dr. Schell or Col. McKibben. In the future please do not 
take from the express office any packages that is not addressed 
to my care or for me as the packages are brought here by the 
mail and I never see them. When you send packages by mail 
ask the driver to deliver all packages received from you to me 
in person. Please say to Lt. O'Brien to deposit the $100 or any 
other amount he may collect from the Co with you. Please find 
for collection 

No. 13 Wilson & Cobb infav C E Clay on J.A. Ware 

&c Cheyenne $200 

John Finn infav M. Dickinson on Kountze & 
Co. Cheyenne 1,792 

8 Wilson & Cobb infav E.B. Griffin J.A. Ware 

&c Cheyenne 10 

do Infav E.M. Watson do 41 

Two thousand and forty -three dollars $2,043 

I return you the Gillespie note and I can hear nothing of 
him after diligent enquiry. I think he must have been at Frank 
Ecoffey' ranch near Cheyenne on Horse Creek. 

Yours truly 


P.S. I have a bill of clothing which will be sent from Chicago 
to your care to collect on delivery which please pay and 
send by first safe opportunity. 


L Letter of Contant published in ANNALS OF WYOMING, Vol 3, No. 2, 
page 47 "Frank Ecoffey was a native of Switzerland. B. 1836. Came to Fort 
Laramie in 1854. Herded stock and clerked for Bissonnette, the celebrated 
interpreter. He was with Bissonnette until 1861. Was Asst. Postmaster for 


Fort Laramie May 13, 1868 
Messrs Robert Campbell Co. 

St. Louis 

I had this pleasure this morning enclosing letters and re- 
ceipts for Indian Department. 1 have now to trouble to make 
the following remittances for Col. R.P. McKibben (who general- 
ly comes in at the 11 hour). 

To J.R. Ackerman 763 Broadway, New York City 

Eighty Eight 50/00 Dollars 
To Hughes & Miller, 841 Chestnut St. 

Philadelphia, Penn. Seventy-two Dollars 
To S.P. Bradly &c., Detroit, Mich. 

One hundred and twenty Dollars 
To Henry Lux 745 Broadway, New York City, $17.00 

In all Two hundred and Ninety Seven 50 /OO Dollars. 

Yours Truly, 


Messrs. Stephens & Wilcox Fort Laramie. May 21, 1868 


I had the pleasure by the last mail which arrived yesterday 
of your letter of the 12th inst with enclosed bill of Hair Pipe 
amounting to two hundred and three 61 ,00 Dollars for which 
please find S E Wards check No. 12 on Messrs J. A. Ware & Co 
Omaha for two hundred and three 61 ,00 Dollars. I would be 
pleased to have you send me 100 yards tent cloth. You can box 
it and send as freight to the care of Messrs Megeath & Co. Chey- 
enne. I will forward check for the amount on the receipt of your 

I am Very Resptfy 

Your Obt Svt 


P.S. Please mark the Box 

S E Ward Fort Laramie care Megeath &c Cheyenne. 


Bissonnetie in 1859-60. Went to Colorado, later was a guide for an expedition 
to recapture stolen stock from emigrants, cut hay along Sweetwater river for 
troops, kept a store at Platte Bridge. Was in charge of a wagon train for his 
brother for a time, later had charge of a ranch 6 miles east of Fort Laramie. 
Established a ranch in 1867 with Hi Kelly on Horse Creek. In 1867 married 
a daughter of Interpreter Bissonnette." 


Fort Laramie. May 21., 1868 
Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. 


I had this pleasure on the 13th with remittance of checks 
and a note of John Finn payable at 1st Nat Bank Omaha, which 
I omitted to request you to put the requisite amount of stamps on 
the note before maturity. Please stamp it and charge to Mr. 
Wards account. Please purchase and ship to Col. Carlingi A Q M 
Fort D A RusselP the following articles, as pr order enclosed for 
Col. W. Mc E Dye Fort Fetterman and charge to Mr. Wards 

Yours truly 


* * * 

Order for Col. W. Mc E Dye which mark and ship as follows: 

Col. W. Mc E Dye Fort Fetterman 

Care Col. E.B. Carling, A.Q.M. Fort D.A. Russell. 
Please send the articles at your early convenience and send 
bill by mail to me 
1 medium size plows 
Yi doz. garden hoes 
3^ doz large watering pots 
Yi " iron rakes 

12 paper Radish. 20 Paper Beets 
20 Papers early yellow six weeks beans 
Y cw turnip seed (different varieties) 
20 papers (large papers) Sweet corn 
6 papers Early York cabbage 
6 papers Early Short Cucumbers. 

The Garden seed please send by express to Posey Wilson 
marked Col. Dye care W.G.Bullock Fort Laramie 


\. Camp Carlin was opened in 1867, one and one-half miles west of 
Cheyenne, selected by the War Department, as the main distributing point 
for supplies to the various forts and military camps throughout the West. 
According to J. F. Jenkins of Cheyenne, who was Captain of Commissary, 
U.S.A. in 1876, this camp was "named for Colonel Carlin, the Commander." 
The correct spelling of his name was Col. Elias Brown Carling but the "g" was 
seldom used. Perhaps his name was confused with that of an army officer 
named W. P. Carlin, who was stationed at Ft. Laramie with the 6th Inf. Reg. 
in 1855. He, however, left the country and went to California in 1858 and 
did not return to Wyoming until 1882. W. P. Carlin wrote various papers of 
historical significance dealing with Wyoming. Col. E. B. Carling took his 
own life at Ft. Sanders after leaving Camp Carlin. 

2. Ft. D. A. Russell was renamed Ft. Francis E. Warren by Act of Congress 
effective January 1, 1930, in honor of Senator Francis E. Warren of Cheyenne. 

3. In a report made by Capt. W. H. Evans at Ft. Laramie in 1866 he said 
that they were experimenting with gardens. 


David Smith Esq. Fort Laramie D.T. May 28,1868 

Spring Dale 

Leavenworth Co Kas. 

I am requested by Mr. John Mclver of this place to remit 
to you Eighty Dollars agreeable to his request I herewith en- 
close you S.E. Wards check on Messrs Robert Campbell &c 
St. Louis for Eighty Dollars for which acknowledge receipt for 
the same. Any Bank or Banker in Leavenworth will cash the 

I am very Respectfully 

Fort Laramie D T May 28, 1868 

George Schuler Esq 

No. 160 Jefferson Ave., 

Detroit, Mich 

I am requested by George Stels to remit you fifty Dollars. 

Please find S.E. Wards draft on Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. 

St. Louis. Mo for that amount ($50) please do me the favour to 

acknowledge receipt of the draft. 

Respectfully yours, 

* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie June 4th 1868 


Your favour of 27th ul+. which stated enclosures was re- 
ceived by yesterdays mail. I herewith return you the note of 
W.H. Brown for $150 as Mr. Brown declines paying it and says 
he will write you on the subject as he has offsets against said 
note. Please find for collection and Mr. Wards credit the fol- 
lowing checks and notes. The three notes will reqiure stamps 
which please place on the note and inform Mr. Ward of the 
amount of these and the other note of Finns on which you place 
stamps as Finn promised to pay him the Amt. Mr. W will be in 
your city in a few days. 
No. 211 Ft. Fetterman. Oct. 31 ,67 on 1st Nat. Bk. Omaha 

Michael McGrath by Thos T. Quinn Bvt Capt. and 

act QM $10.40 

32 Ft. C.F. Smith. Jany 24 68 Allen Bowles 1st Nat Bk. 

Walter F. Halleck $220.00 

Note John Finn First June /68 infav S E Ward 30 dys. $5557.15 

" do 1st June "~ do 60 ^' $7000.00 

1st "~ '' " " 90 '' 7000.00 



Please purchase and send to the care of Posey Wilson 3 common 
swinging coal oil lamps for a room 12 feet high (each one 
separate not chandalier) I want them for a company guarters 
of the most common kind please have them securely packed 
and send bill. 

Yours truly 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co., Fort Laramie, June 4th, 1868 

St Louis 

Your esteemed favour of ^"he 22d ulto came to hand by the 
last mail which arrived yesterday. Mr. Ward left here on the 
27th with Genl Sanborn and the tail of the Indian Peace Com- 
mission for Cheyenne where he had sent the mule train which 
he intended to sell and has succeeded in doing so as he has 
informed by letter, reserving two teams for the use of the store. 
The trading brought $29,000. He also sold his cattle to John 
Finn for beef which brought($20,700) Twenty Thousand seven 
hundred Dollars at 30,60 and 90 do /dys. I think a permanent 
peace has been accomplished and it only reguires judgment 
and good management by the military to make it lasting. 
Please find enclosed for collection and Mr. Wards credit the 
following checks. 

No. 8016 J.H. Mellord cash on Nat Bk State Missouri infav of 
Chas Holburt $997.00 

No. 6186 Nat Insurance Bk Detroit. Apl. 24 /68 infav R.P. ) 

Tomson Metropolitan Nat Bk. N.Y. Chas E. Cadman ) 

A Cash )$250 

12981 W^ashington Apl. 25 /68 on Asst Try N.Y. infav 

John Dickert Thos H. Gardiner Pay M. $100 

Will you please enclose a check for fifty dollars in each of the 
letters enclosed payable to the order of the address of each of 
the letters, and charge to Mr. Wards account. The Indian peace 
commission have recommended Mr. Ward as a special trader 
with the Indians the application I will forward by the next mail 
for your transmittal to the Indian Bureau for confirmation as 
Genl Slemmer has been much troubled by references from 
Washington in regard to the Maguiere claim against Mr. Ward 
(the woman who presented the receipt from Mr. Ward for 
money collected by Capt. Wells) You had better pay them or 
her the amt the receipt calls for as by with holding it it might 
do more injury at HdQuarters than the contesting would be 
•worth. Please pay her and charge to Mr. Wards account. 

Yours truly 


Messrs. Robert H. Campbell & co. Fort Laramie June 4, 1868 

St. Louis 

I have the pleasure this morning making a small remit- 
tance, and I have to trouble you with another letter on business 
for some of the officers. Will you please remit to Edward Mc 
Bennett, Hunters Point, Long Island, New York, Thirty Dollars 
from Elizabeth Mc Bennett and also have 2 seines (two seines) 
made 60 feet long and 6 feet deep of the same size that you had 
made recently and ship at your early convenience as usual 
care Megeath &c Cheyenne D.T. 

Yours Truly 


(Note: The following letter was very dim with the names 
almost indistinguishable. — A.W.S.) 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co., Fort Laramie June 6th 1868 

St Louis 

Mr. Ward arrived here yesterday from Cheyenne and will 
return tomorrow. Having sold out his mule train and all his 
oxen. I herewith enclose you for collection the following 
vouchersi on the Indian Department for account of Mr. Ward 
and'other parties; these vouchers are predicated upon appropri- 
ations yet to be made by Congress (unless passed recently); as 
th^Commission has made a good peace which I think will now 
be kept by the Indians. I presume Congress will pass the 
necessary appropriations to carry out the treaty. 

Please find a list of the vouchers enclosed. 

Yours truly, 

List of vouchers the Indian Department sent 
Messrs R. Campbell, St. Louis, Mo. for collection and S A Wards 
credit. June 6th 1868 

1868 May 27 in favor Nicholas Janis $68.60 

>, 11 - - - 77.00 

L Because most of these men were scouts and because runneis were 
sent out in the spring of 1868 to try to bring the Indians in to the Peace Confer- 
ence, it is logical to suppose that the above payments were made for scout 
service, and for interpreting. On the important Sioux Treaty of 1868 there 
appear the names of Interpreters: Chas. E. Guern, Nicholas Janis, Leon F. 
Pal lardy, Lefroy Jott, Antoine Janis, Joseph Bissonette. 



May 7 

Antoine Janis 68.60 

,, 11 


>, 11 

Lefroy Jott 

>^ 25 

(Too dim to read) 


,, 27 

\\ w 

" 2 

Charles E. Guern 

'' 28 


,> 11 

Charles E. Richard 919.18 

» 19 

John Richard Jr. 406.61 

» 21 

Louis Richard 

March 23 " 

Wilson Crook 

May 18 

Charles Janis 200.00 

„ 15 

H.M. Matthew 106 

June 1 

William Tucker 

S E Ward (Looks like four figures) 


May 20 

Samuel Deva $17204.08 

Messrs Sanborn & King Fort Laramie, D.T. June 6th /68 

Atts at Law 

Washington City 


Please find enclosed thirteen claims on the U.S. Govern- 
ment for depredations committed by the Sioux and other Indians 
also a power of att. from Martin fJogan for a previously sent 
you also two claims from Indians which your Genl S reguested 
me to send you when I had the pleasure of seeing him here. 
Genl Sanborn has succeeded in making a good peace with the 
Sioux Indians and the Bands of Cheyenne and Arapahoe 
Indians, who live in the Sioux country and the country will not 
in future be shocked by more horrid massacres by Indians. 
Please acknowledge receipt. 

I am very Respectfully 
Your Obi. Svt. 

Beach Hinman Esg Fort Laramie D.T. June 8th 1868 

Atto At Law 
North Platte City, Neb- 
Dear Sir 

1 herewith enclose you a note on Leon F. Pallardy for Two 
Hundred and Eighty eight 92 /OO Dollars, which please do me 


the favour to collect at your early convenience. The note was 
given cash which Mr. Pallardy collected for me and used some 
eighteen months since Please acknowledge receipt of same. 

I am Very Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 
P. S. I am very well known to your brother 
W.M. Hinman of your town 

W G B '■ ■ 

* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie June 10th 1868 

Cheyenne riA 


Your letter of the . . . came to hand today with enclosed amount 
Please find for collection and S.E. Wards credit as follows. 
37. on 1st Nat Bk Denver. 1 May /68 in fav Wm H. Powell 

George P. Ihrie $80.69 

P. Master 
4003 Cert Deps. Colorado Nat. Bk. May 9 /68 infav J. Basil 

J.G. Raymond AQM 126.51 

Two Hundred and Seven 20 /lOO Dollars 207.20 

I have ordered some cloths to be sent me from Chicago to 

your care together with bill which please pay and send over 

by mail courier or by first opportunity. 

Yours truly, 

* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie, June 10, 1868 


Enclosed please find for collection and for S.E. Ward's 
Credit a voucher drawn by A.T. Chamblin Special Indian Agt. 
to be paid by H.B. Denman Supt Int Indian Affairs in favor W.H. 
Brown for $680. Will you please purchase for me and send care 
of Megeath & Co. Cheyenne 

2 sides good sole leather. 2 quarts 5 /8 pegs and 
2 quarts 7/8 pegs and send bill by mail. 

I have forty-five acres of land which I purchased of Mr. 
E.B. Chandler, Clerk of the U.S. Court. Will you please do me 
the favour to pay the taxes on it Chandler told me, he would 
attend to it but I presume he is otherwise engaged and I am 
affraid the property may be sold for taxes Your early attention 
to this will very much oblige 

Your friend truly 



Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie June 10, 1868 

St. Louis 

Enclosed please find for collection and Mr. Ward's credit. 
R.W. Clark Paymaster Check No 109 on Asst. Try New York in 
fav W.G. Bullock for $10,000 

Please make the following remittances and charge to Mr. Wards 
account to Benjamin Schell 10 & Vine St Philadelphia Penn 
from Dr. H.S. Schell 500 and charge Mr. Ward up and credit 
James Bridgen 1,200 

In my letter enclosing Indian vouchers I enclosed one in 
favour of Charles E. Guern for one hundred and ninety Dollars 
which should have been forwarded to H.B. Denman Supt. Int 
Indian Affairs, Omaha. Should think it best you can return it. 
Business is very dull and I fear will continue so as our com- 
mand is small. Mr. Ward will have reached home ere this 
reaches you. 

Yours truly 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie June 10th 1868 

Dear Sir 

Our Post master here Sgt L. Schnyder2 has received a 
letter from A. Lagendorf PostMaster Denver, Colorado Territory 
informing him (Schnyder) that he holds a draft on him for 
Eleven Hundred and twenty-one 85 /OO Dollars($112I.85) Mr. 
Schnyder has deposited that amount with me. Can you not 
get your correspondent to take up the draft and charge to Mr. 
Wards account. Please be particular in regard to paying 
this money as Mr. Schnyder has not been officially notified 
that the draft was sent to the P.M. in Denver by the P.M. General 
as is usual or should be. 

Your Prompt attention will much oblige 
Your friend truly 

1. Major James Bridger was employed by the Government as a guide and 
scout with the Western Division of the Powder River Expedition under direct 
command of General P. E. Connor. After the expedition he returned to Fort 
Laramie and spent the winter of 1867-68 at the Fort, having come direct from 
Fort Phil Kearny. In March 1868 he went with Major Grimes to Fort Fetterman. 
As a guide, Bridger traveled with his party or company in order to show the 
road and to keep the soldiers from becoming lost; as a scout it was necessary 
for him to be out in front well in advance of the company so that he could 
report all impending dangers. 

2. Sergeant Leodiger Schnyder was stationed at Fort Laramie on con- 
tinuous duty thirty-seven years. He arrived at the Post with Co. G, 6th Inf, 
Aug. 12, 1859 and was ordered east to take charge of an abandoned post in 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie June 18, 1868 

St. Louis 

Your esteemed favour of the ist inst came to hand by yester- 
days mail. I note your remarks about the missing letter of date 
13th ult. Their was no missing letter. It was a mistake of my 
making in the date, caused by my having my letter book before 
me at the time of writing and having much business on my 
mind. I am much pleased to learn of the safe arrival in New 
York of your Mr. Robert Campbell and family and hope they 
will reach you in the enjoyment of excellent health after their 
very delightful trip to Europe. Will you please do me the favour 
to remit to Miss Mary E. Reynolds, 224 South 40 St., Philadelphia 
Penn ($500) Five Hundred Dollars from Mrs. Genl. Slemmer 
and charge to Mr. Wards acct. Laramie is very dull but little 
business doing. 

Yours truly 


Messrs J. A. Ware &c Fort Laramie July 2d 1868 


Your favour of the 29th ult. came duly to hand with stated 

enclosures. I herewith return you the letter of the Auditor of 

the P O which please find enclosed. Please find enclosed for 

Mr. Wards credit the following checks and Act Deposits 

#2 Whittingham Cox infav T.E. True on Colorado Nat Bk $20.29 

6 do '' Harriet L.R. Cox Kountze Bro & Co 

do " W.G. Bullock do 40.00 

8 do " Banger Ludlow do 200.00 

2335 Cert Dep. infav Lt. Theo E. True Kountze Bro 

&co. do May 27 470.15 

4 R.P. Barnard Lt. 4 Inf. A AQM Martin Hogan on 1st Nat. 

Bk. Omaha 84.92 
8 do R.C. Walker do 77.85 

276 R. D. Clark Pay M W.G. Bullock on Omaha Nat. Bk. 76.75 

277 do do 250.00 
22 Theodore E. True A C S W H Powell do 43.21 
182 Thos F. Quinn Francis Hughes 1st Nat Bk. Omaha 10.00 
217 Henry Almstedt Pay M Henry Lemley Corpl on do 200.00 
2 R. P. Barnard Fred Hanson on 1st Nat .Bk. Omaha 60.00 

Fifteen Hundred and Eighty three 16 00 Dollars $1583.16 
I have been suffering with toothache and neuraliga I can 
hardly write 

Yours truly 



Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie July 2d 1868 

St. Louis 

I have the pleasure of receiving your two favours of 13th 
and 16th ult. together with the two seines. Some months since 
I wrote you ordering some papers and periodicals for Col. 
W. Mc E Dye^ which you ordered for him. Col. Dye having 
gone up to Fort Fetterman D T. wrote to the Editor of the North 
American Review has received the enclosed answer from them. 
I enclose you his and the editors letters will you please attend 
to the Cols reguest. I know I am giving you a great deal of trouble 
but the Col. is a very clever gentleman and I cannot refuse 
him a favour. I also enclose two letters which please put in a 
check for the amounts called for in the letters. One hundred 
and one hundred and twenty dollars and mail and charge to 
Mr. Wards account. 

Yours truly 

Checks to enclose in letter 
Mr. Charles E. Bogardus $100 
Mrs. S.H. Bogardus $120 

Fort Laramie July 8th 1868 
Luke Galo Esg. 
Col. E.B. Carling 

Fort Russell. 
Dr Sir 

I received your dispatch in which you reguest me to send 
your check for Navy Bounty to you. I received the enclosed 
letters from Genl. Slemmer which will advise you that the 
check referred to from the Auditor for your Navy Bounty was 
sent to your agent Messrs Casey Frazier & Co., Washington 
City. Please find enclosed Mr. Tabors letter. 

Very respectfully, 

Your Obt. Svt. 


P.S. Agreeable to Messrs Frazier & Co. letter herewith enclosed 
M.J. Higgins & Co. New York has not the money for your claim 
and you had better write to them without delay. Yours 


L CoL William McEntire Dye. 


P.S. Wilson Esq. Fort Laramie July 8th, 1868 

Dear Sir 

Your letter of 4th inst came duly to hand a part of its con- 
tents were somewhat obscure. You have endorsed on the letter 
successor to J. A. Ware & Co. I presume, has the firm been 
dissolved and you doing business yourself. Capt. Henry W. 
Patterson has some packages direct to Cheyenne to the care 
of J. A. Ware & Co by my instructions. Please keep a lookout for 
them at the Express office and the freight Depot or give Messrs 
Megeath & Co instructions to do so. Some of the packages may 
be too large to send by mail, if so keep them at Megeath & Co 
untill the opportunity occurs to send over; A trip to Va would 
be very pleasant especially if Seymour or Pendleton was our 
next president but that would be too much ot a good thing to 
come to pass. 

Yours truly 


S.P. Wilson, Esq Fort Laramie July 16th, 1868 

Dear Sir 

Your letter of 13th inst came duly to hand. I did not know 
you had withdrawn from the firm of J. A. Ware & Co. I took the 
enclosed package addressed to J. A. Ware & Co Laramie. I 
presume it is a mistake or intended for Laramie City. I have 
taken the liberty of sending it you from this office as it seems 
to be valuable and you can give it its proper destination. I 
notice an error in the addition of your last account of $200 
the account adds up $10,657.08. It should be $10,457.08. To 
Balance should be $1867.15. I regret that I am behind I have 
expected the Paymaster here for the last ten days, or I would 
have drawn on you as I have a large balance below. I will 
remit you as soon as I can get a check or will remit you the 
money. I am very well pleased with the nomination of Seymour 
as I think him an honest patriot. Frank Blair is all for himself 
so he floats and cares nothing for country or anything else 
Whaht is the chance of electing the Ticket 

Yours Truly 


Messrs Gallagher & Megeath Fort Laramie July 16, 1868 


Your letter of 13th inst came to hand yesterday with enclosed 
account of James Bordeau.i Mr. Bordeau left here for the Mis- 
souri River on the 7t.h of June and settled up his account. I 
would pay the account for Mr. B with pleasure but as he never 
mentioned the subject to me I do not feel at liberty to pay with- 
out his order. I expect him back here this fall and will retain the 
account. I do not know where a letter would reach him as has 
gone over to the Missouri River with some loafing Indians 
somewhere near the mouth of the White River. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

Dr. Sir Fort Laramie July 23, 1868 

Your letter of . . inst to Mr. S.E. Ward came to hand by yester- 
days mail. I wrote to Mr. Ward in regard to the corn as I was 
not authorized to sell the corn for less than four dollars. Knowing 
Mr. Ward would visit Omaha I presumed he would meet with 
Genl Myers as a previous letter to him from you had informed 
me that you had referred the matter to Genl M. but he did not 
see Genl M and he instructed me to say to you that he would 
deliver the amount wanted at $3 three dollars as he was anxious 
to dispose of it. 

To Col. E.B. Carting I am Very Respectfully 

A Q M Your Obt. Svt. 

Fort Russell W G BULLOCK 


* * * 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co Fort Laramie July 23, 1868 

St Louis 

I had the pleasure by yesterdays mail of receiving your two 
favours of 30th June and 13th inst with stated enclosures. Our 
business is very dull. I may say we are doing nothing. I very 
much fear the treaty made here with the Indians will amount 
to nothing more than a renewal of hostilities on the part of the 

I. During the summer of 1867, James Bordeaux built a house at the point 
where the new Government road intersected the Fort Laramie and Fort D. A. 
Russel road on Chugwater Creek. His small store and road ranch were located 
about 250 feet west of the LD Ranch. Bordeaux placed Hugh Whiteside in 
charge of the new place, and returned to his roadhouse and small trading 
place about nine miles east of Fort Laramie. 


Indians and a peace never accomplished as long as Government 
send such imbecils out to treat with them as Genl. Harney and 
his like. Will you please purchase for me about 300 # of Whit- 
akers best hams (bacon) and ship as usual and please remit to 
Robert A. Jackson Gordonsville Virginia ($44.50) Forty-Four 
50 /OO Dollars from John Hunton of this place. 

I am Yours Truly 

P.S. Wilson Esg Fort Laramie July 25, 1868 

Dear Sir 

Enclosed please find for collection and Mr. Wards credit 
the following notes and checks as follows. 
July 23 /68 John Strailer in favour of W G Bullock on 

John Finn $142.20 

23 /68 do " do M. Dickerson 

do $2675.60 

23/68 Whittinaham Cox '^ W G Bullock 

Kountze &c 85.00 

Four thousand one hundred and eighty-two 80 /lOO Dollars 

The amount you paid Frank Gordon was all right. 
If Mr. Finn is not in Cheyenne his agent W C Slicer will attend 

to these notes or drafts the one given in in . . . have 

been paid here by Mr. . . . 10th inst. It was deducted from 
one of John Finns notes which was payable in Omaha for 
cattle sold Finn and he asked as a favour to pay the amount 
($1421.20) here which I consented to. If you can purchase for 
me a handsome ladies horsewhip I wish you would do so 
and send by mail. Do not get it unless it is something nice as 
I want it for a present to a lady here. 

Yours truly 

Hamilton Dague Esq Fort Laramie D.T. luly 29, 1868^ 

Jersey Postoffice 

Licking Co. Ohio 

I am requested by John Dague a soldier in Co A 4th U.S. 
Infantry to remit you fifty Dollars. In accordance with his re- 
quest I herewith enclose you S.E. Wards Check No. 547 for 
fifty dollars drawn on Messrs Robert Campbell Co. St. Louis, 

1. The Territory of Wyoming was organized July 25, 1868, but word had 
evidently not yet reached Fort Laramie. 


Mo. which any Bank or Banker in your state will cash for you. 
Please acknowledge receipt of this letter and also to your son 
John Dague who is at Fort Fetterman, D.T. 

Very Respectfully, 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie July (date did 

St. Louis not trace) 

Gentlemen A.W.S. 

I had the pleasure by the last mail which arrived yesterday 
of receiving your esteemed favour of the 8th inst with stated 
enclosures. The seine came safely to hand some days since. 
Please remit to Mr. Benjamin Schell 10 & Vine St., Philadelphia, 
Penn Three hundred Dollars ($300) from Dr. H.S. Schell of 
this place. The Indian Treaty made here will prove a failure as 
a short time since the Indians were fired upon at Fort Phil 
Kearny by order of the Commanding Officer . . . when they 
were peaceably approaching. 

Yours truly, 


P.S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie Aug. 6, 1868 

Dear Sir k^ • 

I had the pleasure mail before the last of receiving -your 
two favours of 25th and 27th ult. Mr. Slicer Mr. Finns Agent 
is here and owing to the Officer in Command at Fort Fetterman 
failing to send down the voucher for the delivery of Beef at that 
post Slicer has run short of money but he will promptly pay as 
soon as the voucher reaches Cheyenne or Mr. Finn. I was 
anxious to have the money paid as I had overdrawn my account 
with you. Which I did very thoughtlessly and which I promise 
not to do so any more. 

Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit the following Checks 
Wilson & Cobb on P.S. Wilson Cheyenne for $96.32 

Thos. F. Quinn Ft. Fetterman Oct. 31.67 John Darcy 23.60 

Genl. Atcheson '^ July 5, 1868 Edward Sims 9.50 


J have requested Lt. S.H. Norton 2d Cavalry to deposit with you 
$258 money collected from his Co. I will also request of the 

same Regt. and Company to deposit of his account 

of $252 50 /OO 


P.S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie August 6th 1868 

Dear Sir 

I wrote you this morning enclosing a small remittance 
since then I have settled up Mr. Slicers ace for which he gave 
me his check on Messrs Kountze Bros & Co. Cheyenne for 
$202.25 which please collect and place to Mr. Wards credit. 

Yours truly 


* * * ■* 

Messrs. Robert Campbell & C. Fort Laramie August 13th, 1868 

St. Louis 

"Your esteemed favour for Mr. David Runkin came duly 
to hand by the mail yesterday with stated enclosures. I have 
not yet received the bills of the shirts and shoe lasts. Please 
remit the proceeds of twenty-six Dollars ($26.00) to Walter 
Joyce High Street Westport County, Mayo Ireland from Patrick 
Corcoran Co. F 4th Infantry of this place. Should Mr. L.F. 
Jones, a young man who lives with G.R. Robinson Esq of your 
city, present a bill for a suit of clothes for Hopkins Clark, please 
pay it and charge to Mr. Wards account and send me the bill. 
Mr. C is one of our clerks. 

I am having a very unpleasant time the post now. 

Yours truly, 

* * * 

Charles King Esq.i Fort Laramie Aug. 13, 1868 

Washington City 
Dr Sir 

Your favour of the 1st inst came to hand by the mail yester- 
day John Richard Jr. is absent from here at present. When he 
left here I advanced him several thousand dollars on his voucher 
as he informed me he had requested Genl. Sanborn to remit 
the check to me. He also left several amounts for me to pay from 
the proceeds of the check to other parties who are in want of 
the money and I would be very much obliged if you would 
send me the check on New York. Your Genl. Sanborn knows 
I am entirely responsible and that I do all of his business for 
him and without this amount his credit will seriously suffer. 

Yours Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 

I. Charles King was. stationed with the army in the West for many years. 
He wrote several novels including, "Laramie — Old Bedlam." He was later 
made a General in the United States Army. 


Genl. J.B. Sanborn Fort Laramie Aug. 13th 1868 

Washington City- 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure by the last mail of writing to Me,-'srs 
Sanborn & King in which I referred to the Indians and also to 
remarks made by Genl W.S. Harney in regard to myself. In 
which Genl H. wantonly done me great injustice and stated 
what he nor anyone else never had the slightest grounds for 
his assertion as it was contrary to everything I have said and 
done since 1 have lived in this Country. 1 herewith enclose 
some copies affidavits I have taken agreeable to the order or 
reguest of Genl. Slemmer. I do not wish to bore you but I do 
not wish a Gentlemen who I esteem, to think I was acting 
differently from what I was professing to do and when my whole 
energies was directed to carrying out your views and those 
of the Commission. 1 take the liberty of enclosing you the 

1 very much fear that the peace with these Indians will be 
interrupted from recent occurrences at Fort Phil Kearney of 
which perhaps it is not proper for me to speak as doubtless it 
will be reported upon by the military. I also take the liberty of 
enclosing an account made here by Adolph Cuny which he 
said he was authorized to make by you which please collect 
and remit me a check for amount less your commission. 

I am Yours Truly 

P.S. No Indians has visited this post since the lOth July when 

three came in here from ''Red Clouds" Camp said they were 

looking for "Man Afraid of his horses" as they had heard 

nothing from him since he left the Fort Laramie. 

Yours :: .1 

WGB :;i 

* * * ^ 

Col. W. Mc E. Dye Fort Laramie Aug. 13,1868 

Fort Fetterman 
My Dear Sir 

We last night had a meeting of the Billiard Club and it 
resulted in my having to take the tables, as but few persons 
had paid their portion of the shares and I to refunded what had 
been paid. Upon examination I find but three persons at your 
Fort who are now shareholders: Yourself, Lieut R. Brown and 
Lieut. Simonton. Capt. Atcheson had a share but I have given 
his account credit for his share. I herewith enclose you the 
amount of the three shares amounting to One Hundred and 
twenty dollars which please oblige me by paying Lts. Brown 
and Simonton their share forty dollars each Am sorry I could 
not have this thing settled up any sooner as I was afraid to 


interfere in any way in regard to it as we are not harmonious 
here as I could wish. Neither is the garrison as pleasant as it 
ought to be. Mrs. B joins me in kind regards to Mrs. Dye and 
the Ladies and gentlemen at your post. 

Believe me Your Friend 

* * * 

E.M. Pollock Esq Fort Laramie D T Aug. 27. 1868 

Dear Sir 

I have received a letter horn Col. C.H. Carlton Fort Fet- 
terman a few days since in which he instructed me to remit 
you our check on St. Louis Mo. for forty one Dollars. Please 
find enclosed S E Wards check No. 551 in your favour on 
Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. St. Louis, Mo for that amount. 
Please acknowledge receipt to Col. Carlton for the same. 

I am Very Respectfully 
Your Obt Svt 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie Aug. 27, 68 

St. Louis 

Your letter of 28th ult. with stated enclosures came to hand 
by the last mail having taken a trip to Salt Lake. Will you please 
remit the proceeds of ($50) fifty Dollars in Greenbacks to Mrs. 
S. Fleming, No. 5 Back Armitage Street Manchester England 
from John Fleming Fort Laramie 

Yours Truly 


P.S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie Sept. 3, 1868 

Dear Sir 

Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit the following 

John Finn infav W.G. Bullock on Kountze Bro & C. $200.00 

#2 Thos. H. Powell Bvt Maj infav Lt. Geo. O. Webster 

1st Nat Bk. Omaha 12.73 

3 G.F. Luhn Post Trv '^ dD Omaha Nat Bk. O. 97.51 

7 R.P. Barnard A A QM in fav Chris Heinen 1st Nat Bk. O. 29.75 

24 ~' "' Fred Hanson ^^ 75.00 

Five Hundred and fourteen 99 100 Dollars $414.99 

\. This evidently was a mistake as Posey Wilson was located in Cheyenne. 


I telegraphed you today to let Nicholas Janis have One 
Hundred Dollars. 

Yours Truly 


How are the Red Skins About Cheyenne 

Messrs Stephens & Wilcox Fort Laramie. Sept. 3d 1863 


I have today sent over to Messrs Megeath & Co Cheyenne 

with instructions to ship to your house 

12 pack Buffalo Robes 

5 Boxes Antelope Skins Marked W A 

2 Boxes Buck Skins '' V/ B 

1 ''for Mr. Ward marked S E Ward, Nebraska 

The Box marked S E Ward please send to Mr. Ward, Nebraska 

City. The Boxes of Antelope and deer skins you had better 

hold unopened untill you hear from Mr. Ward. I will report 

upon the draft on Mr. Strader by the next mail as he has promised 

to pay it. 

Very Respectfully, 

Your Obt. Svt 

* * * 

P.S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie Sept 10, 1868 

Dear Sir ^ 

Your letter of the 31st Aug with ace came to hand by the 
last mail. Please find enclosed an account against Messrs G.H. 
Kimball & co and also one against James R. Whiteheadi which 
is time they were paid. I have no sale whatever for Messrs 
Kimball & co blankets as have no trade here for them. All the 
Indians and white people having left the Country and there 
is not the slightest chance to sell them. The 2 packages referred 
to for Messrs K & co and Wait are here. I had no opportunity 
of sending them forward and business is now so dull that I 
have Hoop Skirts on hand to last me for sometime. Please try 
and collect the enclosed accounts as they have been due for 
some time and I think Mr. Kimball might have said something 
about paying his account as I am not in the habit of being 
treated in this way. 

Your friend Truly 

L James R. Whitehead, considered by historians to be the first permanent 
resident of Cheyenne, was a partner in the law firm of Whitehead and Cor left. 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie Sept. 10,1868 

St. Louis 

Your favours of 22nd and 27th for Mr. David Runkin with 
stated enclosures came duly to hand. Please remit to Edward 
McBennett. Hunters Point Long Island New York ($50) fifty 
Dollars from Elizabeth McBennett of Fort Laramie. Please find 
enclosed two letters from Lt. Bogardus which please enclose 
a check for one hundred dollars each letter to the order of the 
address on the letters and mail the letters and charge to Mr. 
Wards account. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards account. 
No. 40 John B. Sanborn Discharging Agent Ind Peace Com- 
mission on Asst. Try New York in favr of John Richard Jr. for 
(Saint Paul August 31, 1868 $20,875.28 

The Indians on the warpath again. We want some more 
Peace Commissioners here. 

Yours Truly 

Fort Laramie Sept. 25, 1868 
P.S. Wilson Esg; 

My Dear Sir. 

Your letter of the 14th came duly to hand the mail before 
the last, but owing to my indisposition I delayed in writing 
until I was better which I am at this time. I regret I cannot do 
anything for Mr. Kimball in the matter of purchasing his blan- 
kets, as we have no Indian trade here whatever, and very little 
fancy other kind. I will send his articles over by first safe 
opportunity. I notice we are to have a territorial Election on 
the 14th October and I am one of the Judges here who must I 
vote for for Congress & as I have seen no names announced. 
Send me a Ticket to vote anything but a Nigger Ticket and 
Frank Blair Ticket. Whitehead is treating me badly about the 
small account he owes and he ought to pay it promptly. Will 
you please pay the enclosed bill to Herman Hass,i blacksmith, 
and return me the bill receipted and charge Mr. Ward (amount 
of bill $51.25) I omitted to send it by Mr. Hutton. Please find 
for Mr. Wards credit the following checks amounting to $388.- 
44 /OO A list of checks on next page 


L Correct spelling should be Herman Haas. Mr. Haas was one of the finest 
blacksmiths and carriage makers in the West. He was in business in Cheyenne 
for many years after he left Fort Laramie. His son, W. G. Haas is at present 
(1941) Postmaster in Cheyenne. 


List of Checks remitted by mail Sept. 25th, 1868 to P.S. Wilson 
#29 Omaha Nt. Bk. Aug. 8 /68 infav W.G. Bullock 

F.C. Greegan 1st Lt. $62.00 

J. Gillespie Sept. 11 do on H.D. Gillespie 

Cheyenne $45.00 

Cobb Sept. 21 do P.S. Wilson 50.00 

#25 Nt. Bnk Omaha. Sept. 4. A.J. Slemmer R.P. 

Bernard AAQM 22.52 

20 do Sept. 16 do Robert Noonan " 14.00 

27 do ~~ " JohnForde " 14.00 

29 do " " Samuel G. Wright " 13.30 

3 do July 1 B. Barnheisel " 99.17 

31 Sept. 21 Alex J. Cobb " 23.45 

12 Kountze Bro & Co. Sept. 7 W.G. Bullock Whithngham 

Cox 30.00 

14 do Sept. 14 do do 15.00 

Three Hundred Eighty-Eight 44 /OO Dollars $388.44 

P.S. Wilson Esq. Fort Laramie Oct 18, 1868 

Dear Sir 

I received the clothes cotton sheeting and butcher knives 
sent by the mail all correct. Please find enclosed a letter to 
Witter & Clements Claim Agents Denver. I wish you to send 
it to your correspondent in Denver with instj^uctions to pay W 
& Co forty Dollars and get from them a check drawn by some 
Paymaster in favor of Benjamin Barnheisel on Asst Try New 
York for One Hundred dollars this check is for Bounty and 
W & C (will not send the check as it is to Mr. B. order until the 
forty dollars) for commission I presume) is paid which please 
have done and also get Mr. Barnheisels discharge from E & C. 
1 enclose a letter to Messrs W & C from Mr. Barnheisel and also a 
letter from Messrs W. &C. to Mr. Barnheisel. 

Yours Truly, 

* * * 

Messrs LA. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Oct. 18, 1868 


Your favours of the 22d and 23d ult with enclosed letter 
of Messis Jay Cooke Co. came duly to hand. If Genl. Sanborn 
does not pay the voucher please return it without delay to me 
as Genl Sherman is authorized to pay these vouchers. In 
yours of the 23d you inform me that Lt. or Capt. O'Brien had 


paid you sixty dollars for me. About the first day of January last 
this Lt. or Capt. informed me he had collected from his Company 
for us One hundred dollars and wanted to know what to do 
with the money. I by return mail requested him to pay into your 
house in Cheyenne, and Wilson wrote a note to him on the 
subject which this L^ or Capt never noticed and I supose he 
wants to charge forty dollars for collecting. 

Yours truly, 

P.S. I return you J.C. Sco. Letter. 

* * * 

Maj. James Slewart Fort Laramie, Oct. 18, 1868 

Sidney Barracks 
Dear Sir 

Your favour of 27 August did not come to hand until a 
few days since. I herewith enclose you our check for one 
hundred dollars on Messrs J. A. Ware & co. Omaha. I was 
pleased to hear you had a pleasant place which is more than 
we have here. The only excitement we have is the exagerated 
reports about Indian Fights and which may prove a reality to 
some of us all should them Southern Indians come North, which 
they will do soon and you had better keep a sharp lookout for 
them as they will be very numerous. Laramie is very dull and 
the Officers are looking forward to the arrival of iheir new 
Colonel with much satisfaction and pleasure. 

Your friend Truly 

* * * 

Messrs J.A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Oct. 8th 1868 


I had the pleasure by yesterdays mail of receiving your 
favour with enclosed ace. Mr. Ward informed me that Messrs 
Stephens and Wilcox would deposit to his credit with you five 
thousand dollars which I presume they have done ere this. 
Please do me the favour to deposit in the First National Bank 
Omaha to the credit of Nelson Storey i four thousand dollars 
$4000. and get the cashier to telegraph Nelson Storey Helena 
Montana that I have deposited that amount to his credit, he, 
the cashier paying for the dispatch. Please attend to this at your 

I. This undoubtedly was Nelson Story, the man who took the first herd of 
Texas cattle up through Wyoming to Montana. An article entitled, "The First 
Cattle Up From Texas," written by Byron Story for ,the American Cafilc Pro- 
ducer, November 1938 says: "It was in early 1866 that Nelson Story set out 
with two of his men for Ft. Worth, Texas. Near that city he bought 1,000 cattle, 
mostly cows with calves thrown in, at $10 a head. They drove the cattle north 
to the Kansas line, then west along the boundary (a tick quarantine forced 
this) until they were 'past civilization's outpost,' then across Kansas into Neb- 


early convenience. Should Messrs S &W not have deposited the 
amount refered to above Mr. Ward will be in Omaha in a few 
days and attend to it. please find enclosed for Mr. Wards 
credit two checks as follows. 
26 Henry Almstead Pay Master infav Danie M. Austin on 

1st Nat Bk.. $40 

129 Thos F. Quinn A AQM do do 10 

Yours Truly 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Oct. 15,1868 

Omaha ^ 

Your favour of 5th inst came duly to hand. I had this 
pleasure on the 8th inst, making small remittance and request- 
ing transfer of money to First National Bank of your City. I 
herewith enclose you S.E. Wards check on Messrs Robert Camp- 
bell & Co., St. Louis for Five Thousand Dollars ($5000) which 
amount I wish you to place to the credit of Nelson Storey in 
First National Bank Omaha and have the cashier Telegraph 
Nelson Storey at Helena Montana that I have deposited that 
amount the cashier paying for dispatch please have the cashier 
to attend to this at his early convenience.* Should John Finn 
have paid his notes and Mr. Ward have the amount to his credit 
you can cancel the enclosed check and return it to me as I 
would perfer not using the check. May I ask the favour of you 
to call at the Herald Office and pay my subscription to the 
daily Herald as I believe it is past due. 

Yours truly 


P.S. Wil son Esq Fort Laramie Oct 22nd 1868 


Dear Sir 

1 had the pleasure yesterday of receiving your favour of 
19th inst. I regret that Todd was defeated as he is a reliable 

xaska, and then northwesterly to Ft. Laramie, Wyoming. From there to Ft. 
Phil Kearny. A little Indian trouble, and then to Ft. C. F. Smith, in Montana. 
Three weeks of a forced stay at Ft. Smith made my father desperate to the 
point of disobeying the ■officer's orders and stealing off one nigh* so far that 

the officer dared not come after him they trailed up the Yellowstone 

to the present site of Livingston, and there Nelson Story established a permanent 


Democrat. Who is elected. Has Abney & Real paid the Ben Mills 
note of $700 I wish you would hold the draft on Finn and have 
it accepted when he comes over to Cheyenne. Please find 
enclosed for collection the following which please place to 
credit of S.E. Ward — 

Pay in my favour on P.S. Wilson for $668.89 

amount on Megeath & Co " 139.87 

Jesse Brown infav C.E. Clay on A Street 24.89 

Eight Hundred and Thirty Three 65 /lOO $833.65 

Yours Truly, 

* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Oct.22d 1868 



Your favour of the 14th inst came duly to hand. Please find 

enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following checks 

No. 6590 Cert Dep. 1st Nat. Bank of Omaha Apl. 3,1868 order 

Robert Bishop H.W. Yates A. Cechen $140.00 

403 . Omaha. 28 Sept. on 1st Nat. Bank Geo. M.M. Randall 

Ben Alvord paymaster $53.85 

18. R.P. Barnard 2d Lieut. AAQM, infav Chris Heenen $89.67 

Two hundred and Eighty three 52 00 Dollars 

,, ,, Yours Truly 

* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie. Nov. 5, 1868 


I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your favour 
of the 26th ult. Please find enclosed for Mr. S.E. Wards credit the 
following checks 

No 39 R.P. Barnard AAQM infav Chris Duffy on 1st nat Bk.$13.80 
40 do " Benjamin Delby do 15.40 

42 do '' Robert C. Walker do 122.92 


Will you please buy for me and send care P.S. Wilson 
Cheyenne a German Students lamp with 3-2 dozen extra chim- 
neys and 2 doz wicks Please see that it is well packed. 

Yours truly 


* * * 

L.D. Nelson Esg Fort Laramie Wyo Territory 

Farmington Van Buren Co. Iowa Nov. 19th 1868 

Dr Sir 

I am reguested by to remit to you one 

hundred and thirty dollars. Please find enclosed S.E. Wards 


Check No. 567 on Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. St. Louis 

for that amount ($130 please oblige me by acknowledging 

receipt of the check and 

Oblige Yours Respectfully 

* * * 

A Street Esg Fort Laramie 

Dear Sir 

Your favour of the 14th inst came to hand by the last mail. 
The account you refer to was collected from Capt. JJ. S. Hassler 
and placed to your credit. I was absent at the time the box 
arrived here and knew nothing of the circumstances, but I 
find on reference to your account that you are credited with that 
amount and also $2.50 from Lt. Simonton for which please find 
Mr. Wards check on P.S. Wilson Esq for the two amounts viz. 
Hassler $85.71 Simonton $2.50 $88.21 
I return enclosed the B of L. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Nov. 19 1868 

Gentlemen: » 

Your fav of the 10th inst with enclosed letter of Messrs Jay 
Cooke & CO came duly to hand. In regard to the voucher I am 
instructed by the owner to take the amount allowed $340 and 
place to Mr. Wards credit. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards 
credit the following checks 

No. 48 P.O. Barnard AAQM infav B. Barnheisel 

on 1st Nat Bk. $272.50 

26 do " Daniel Card " 5.60 

45 do '' W.G. Bullock " 1000.00 

427 Benj. Alvord Pay M. AA Surgeon J. J. Purcell '^ 43.95 

65 George Atcheson AAQM. Col. W. Mc E Dye 10.00 

One Thousand three hundred and thirty two 05 /OO 

Dolls. $1332.05 

The lamp arrived safe. I would be pleased if you would 
buy for me extra shades or globes for the same lamp and send 
by express care P.S. Wilson Cheyenne, as the person for whom 
it was ordered wants them. 

Yours Truly 
P.S. I return J. Cooke & co letters. 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie Nov. 19, 1868 

St. Louis 


I returned home yesterday after being absent several days 
hunting in company with Col. Dye the Commander of the Post, 
we were not very successfull on account of unpleasant weather 
but succeeded in killing nine elk and several deer and other 
small game. Red Cloud the Indian Chief came in here on the 
5th inst with his band and signed the treaty and said the war 
was ended and his talk with Col. Dye was very satisfactory and 
I anticipated a large trade with the Indians this winter. In 
fact they said they would not trade anywhere but with me. 
I have today received the following copy of Order to Col. Dye 
from the Department Commander, presuming it from Genl. 

''WQr. Dept. Platte Nov. 4, 1868. Should Red Cloud or any 
other Indians come to your Post or Vicinity you will not permit 
any person to trade with them. You must not exchange or trade 
their furs Give them sufficient provisions to last them to Genl 
Harney, reporting transaction here. Let the Indians understand 
distinctly that they cannot trade with anyone off their reserva- 
tion." Signed C.C. Augur Comd Dpt.^ This order is directly 
contrary to what has been told the Indians both by the Indian 
Peace Commission and the different Post Commanders who 
have been acting under their instructions, and they induced 
the Indians to sign the treaty by these representations. These 
wild Indians were plainly and repeatedly told that they need 
not go on the reservation for anything unless they wanted to 
go but that no presents would be issued to them except on the 
reservation by Genl Harney but they could come and hunt and 
trade anywhere they wanted to on the North side of the North 
Platte and trade at Fort Laramie. But I presume peace is not 
wanted by the authorities. Will you please remit the following 
amounts and charge to Mr. Wards Account. 
To Mrs. Mary Clark Niagara Canada West a check on New 
York Payable in currency for $140.00 

To Revd. Michael O'Donnell P.O. Killmeena, Near West Port, 
County Mayo Ireland for the widow Corcoran the proceeds of 
$37 from Patrick C. Company F 4 Infantry. 
Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following checks 

1. General C. C. Augur was put in command of the Department succeeding 
Brig. Genl. P. St. George Cooke, 1867. Camp Augur, established on the 
present site of Lander, was named for the General. Later the name of the 
Camp was changed to Brown. After Camp Brown was moved it was re-named 
Fort Washakie. 


amounting to Six Thousand Three hundred and Ninety Five 

20 /lOO Dollars. Business is dull with us and I do not think we will 

again do a good business. Yours Truly 

* * * 

P.S. Wilson Esg Fort Laramie Nov. 26, 1868 

Dear Sir 

Your favour of the 20th inst. came duly to hand with 
acknowledgment of Capt. Deviso deposit. Please find enclosed 
for Mr. Ward credit Wilson & Cobb on infav S E Ward on your- 
self $156.26 also H.B. Kellyi note in fav Mr. Ward tor $1350.00 

Kellys note is not due until December 6 /9th /68 
but I presume he will pay it at any time. Please notify him that 
you have it. Seth Ward who lives with S.F. Nuckolls2 can in- 
form you where he resides. In regard to the weather and 
coming win+er I think all appearances tends to a favourable 
and pleasant winter. Can you inform me wheather Todd is 
elected to Congress from this Territory. 

Yours Truly, 

P.S. Please charge Mr. Y/ard account with $19.60 amount due 
you from Gibson Clark. 3 

1. Hi Kelly, one of the early settlers of Wyoming wrote for the Wyoming 
Historical Department as follows: "I left Independence, Missouri the 8th day 
of May 1849, for California, up the North Platte, by way of old Fort Laramie 
then in the Dakotas, now Wyoming, at that time an American Fur Company 
post. . In '58 I took a train of supplies 36 eight mule teams from Atchison, 
Kans. to Salt Lake City. Mules got so thin and poor that we had to winter at 
Fort Laramie. In spring of '61 got a hay contract at Ft. Laramie to furnish 100 
tons of hay at the post at $29 a ton. In '62 the mail line was moved south and 
I followed it. In '63 went back to Fort Laramie and traded with the emigrants. 
Would trade them well stock for lame stock. In 1869 John Richards and I took 
a wood and hay contract for Fort Fetterman. The next fall came my first ex- 
perience in the range cattle business. That fall I bought 200 head of two year 
old heifers on the Chugwater. The country was all open then and I had good 
success with the cattle." 

2. Stephen F. Nuckolls was the first delegate to represent the Territory 
of Wyoming in Congress. In 1859 Robert Hawke and S. F. Nuckolls had the 
principal outfitting depot west of the Missouri river and in 1860 they established 
a branch house at Central City, Colo. From 1864-67 Nuckolls lived in New 
York City where he accumulated a large fortune in mining speculations. 
Following construction of the Union Pacific railroad in 1867 he engaged in 
the sale of general merchandise at Cheyenne, and upon organization of the 
Territory of Wyoming was elected in 1869 as a delegate for the term of two 
years. In 1871 he was chosen as presiding officer of the Second Legislative 
Council of Wyoming. 

3. Gibson Clark was at one time a clerk in the Sutler's store at Fort Laramie 
as was also his brother, Hopkins Clark. Gibson Clark became one of the state's 
leading citizens, being a member of the Wyoming State Supreme Court. 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Dec. 17, 1868 


On my arrival yesterday at home I found your esteemed 
favour of the 24ult. Please find enclosed a certificate of Deposite 
of Omaha National Bank in favour of Daniel Horgan bearing 
6% int. also our check on you for $100. Please hand in the 
Cert. Deposite and the $100 to Omaha Nat Bank. Have the 
Interest calculated and get then to issue a Cert Dep. in favour 
of Daniel Horgan for the total amount and send to me. I found 
the weather fine on my arrival here and no snow or severe 
weather during my absence. 

Yours truly 

Fort Laramie Dec. 24, 1868 
P.S. Wilson Esg 

Dear Sir 

I received the bill of Capt. Luhn last night. Please pur- 
chase for me one pair Colts Army size Pistols with scabbards 
and moulds and send over by old George. Please find en- 
closed for Mr. Wards crdit No. 25 Whittingham Cox Dec. 11 
onKountze Bro & Co Cheyenne for $20. I have had my pulse 
felt by the doctor here several times since my arrival at home 
but he cannot make it more than seventy to the minute. I can- 
not account for the unusual rapidity unless it was the excite- 
ment of travel and wine I drank while in Cheyenne. When 
at home I may say I do not drink anything. 

Yours trul^ 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Dec. 31, 1868 


Your esteemed favour of 22nd inst came duly to hand. In 
regard to certificate Deposit of Horgan he wanis it payable on 
demand so he can draw the money when he .... but have the 
back interest on the certificate of $500 added in to the total 

Please find enclosed lor Mr. Wards Credit the following 
checks totalling Seven hundred and seventy 64 00 $770.64 

Yours truly, 


Messrs Thomas & Co. Fort Laramie. Jany 6th 1869 


I am requested by Lieut Henry Seaton to remit you thirty 
dollars. Please find enclosed S E Ward check on Messrs. 
J. A. Ware & Co. Omaha for the amount $30. 

Please oblige me acknowledging the receipt of the check. 

Very Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

Fort Laramie. Jany 6,1869 
Messrs Stephens & Wilcox 


I received by todays mail your bill for blankets &c. amount- 
ing to one hundred and ninety two 44 /lOO for which please 
find S.E. Wards check on Messrs LA. Ware & Co. Omaha for 

(rest is dimmed out. — A.W.S.) 
Order for Goods from Messrs Stephens & Wilcox 

Omaha Jany 6, 1869 
4 ps Blue Indian Cloth 
2 ps Scarlet Indian do 
6 Mexican Blankets 

2 Ps Brown Opera Flannel. Medium Color not too dark 
6 doz. brooms 

3^2 gross Each Gentlemen and Ladies Gartfer laces 
10 M Elys Water Proof Percussion Caps 
300 # lead 

3 kegs powder 

3 doz.. Kerosene Lamp Chimneys small size about 13^ inch in 

diameier at base 
^2 Doz Lamp chimneys for small size German Student Lamps 

4 Boxes Italian Macaroni or about 100 =ff 

6 Doz Green River Ebony Handle Butcher Knives. 
. . . .S.E. Ward Fort Laramie Care Megeath & Co. Cheyenne 


Messrs Robt. Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie. Feby 11th 1869 

St. Louis 

It has been some time since I had this pleasure. I received 
your favour with receipt of the St. Louis Republican for which 
please accept my thanks for your kind attention. Our business 
is not good and if the Military Commanders by their orders can 
make it worse Ihey certainly will exercise their ingenuity to do 


so. What with Sherman with Indians and Dye with whisky 
our business is seriously curtailed. 

Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following 

Edward Yard Phila Dec. 22d /68 infav Clara A. Price on Nt. 

Bk. Republic, N.Y. $500 
T.B. Blecher Jr. V. Pres, Feby 9,69 in fa W.P. 

Hansford N. Bk. Om 180 
W.J. Canole Pen agt. Thos S. Bell Dep. U.S. Balitmore 179.85 
Marshall & Illsley Hon. A.G. Miller on Drexel & Co 100.00 

do " do 100.00 

One Thousand and Seventy-three 35 /OO Dollars $1,073.35 

Please make the following remittances and charge to Mr. 
Ward's account. To Mrs. Anna E. Webster care E.B. Webster, 
Bridgeport, Conn — One hundred dollars from Lieut. Geo. O. 
Webster Fort Laramie 

To Widow Ann Monahan Dromskinney, County Fermanagh, 
Ireland, the value of $30 in currency from Bridget Monahan. i 

I am doing all I can to keep our Indians guiet under Genl. 

Sherman's prohibition to trade here and hope I will succeed 

and disappoint his hopes of more glory in exterminating a few 

vagabonds. We have had a most delightful winter and the 

weather continues as mild as if we were in the tropics. 

Yours truly, 

* * * 

Fort Laramie April 1, 1869 
William Wilson Esg 
Helena Montana 

Your letter of Mar 5th came duly to hand by yesterdays 
mail, and agreeable to your reguest I herewith enclose you 
S.E. Wards check No. 581 on Messrs Robt Campbell &c St. 
Louis Mo. for the balance due you on your discharge papers 
which I collected from the paymaster thus amount due on 
discharge $69.85 

Charges for collection 5.85 

Balance due you. (Check enclosed for amt.) $64.00 

I had much difficulty and delay in collecting this money 
as the papers were improperly made out and I had to place 

I. Bridget Monahan may have been one of the women who washed and 
mended for the soldiers. Caspar Collins in writing of Ft. Laramie said: "There 
are five women allowed to a company, who are furnished with transportation 
and rations and wash and mend, etc. Their pay is kept out of the soldiers' 
wages and given to them on pay day. In this post there are little houses pre- 
pared for their especial benefit, of two rooms each. They are nearly all Irish 
and Germans, but are a great deal more intelligent than I expected to see 
them." — Spring: Caspar Collins. 


them in the hands of a lawyer hence the charge for collecting. 
Also find enclosed|your discharge. The amount paid me by 
the Pay Master is endorsed by him on the back of the discharge. 
Please acknoivledge receipt. 

Yours respectfully, 


Fort Laramie. April 1, 1869 
Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. 

St. Louis 

Will you please remit the following amounts and charge to 
Mr. Wards account. To Miss Mary Irvine, 202 South 12 Street, 
Philadelphia Pa. Eighty-five dollars ($85) from Mrs. James M. 

To Hugh Broderick Boleshun Dunngriffin P.O. Galway Co. 
Ireland, from her daughter Margaret Glenn the proceeds of 
Twenty Dollars in Greenbacks. We have had for some time 
some two thousand Indians in this vicinity in a starving con- 
dition. They were allowed by Genl Sheimans order to trade 
two hundred and fifty rations from the company of Subsistance 
at the Post they have left in great want and I am informed that 
many of the women and children have perished since they left 
here. Genl. Harney has not had the provisions to feed these 
Indians on during the winter and spring if they had gone to 
the much talked of reservation. John Richards Jr.i has been 
allowed by Genl Sherman to trade with all the Indians on the 
North side of the Platte, Crows, Sioux, Arapahoes and Chey- 
ennes. But he has not yet been able to cross the River as the 
Indians object to having any trader but myself. The Cheyennes 
and Arapahoes who have about two hundred pack robes (and 
very superior ones) sent word that they would not trade their 
robes to anybody but me, and I must get goods for them. Col. 
Dye would give me permission, but his orders forbid his doing 
so. We have very severe weather during the last month but have 
been very fortunate in not losing any stock. 

Yours truly, 

I. John Richards, Jr., evidently was a son of John Reshaw. The first bridge 
built across the North Platte river in what is now Natrona County was built in 
1854 and 1855 by John Reshaw, or Richard, a French-Canadian^ about 3 miles 
east of Casper. Reshaw was married to a squaw, and had five or six children. 
He did a thriving business at his bridge in high water time. Usually charged 
$5.00 for a team and wagon to go over his bridge. Reshaw and his family moved 
in 1867, after the Indians burned their bridge, to the Red Cloud. Agency on 
the White River, east from Fort Laramie.— ANNALS OF WYOMING. 


Fort Laramie. April 14, 1869 
Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. 

St. Louis 

Please make the following remittances and charge to Mr. 
Wards account. 
To Mrs. Mary Clark Niagara Canada West from her 

husband John Clark $100.00 

To Revd Paul Heany P.P. Kiltelly, County Limerick Ireland 

from Denis Hickey . . . .Pounds 10 
To Timothy Ryan Tower Hill, County Limerick, Ireland for 

Mrs. Ellen Hickey from John Hickey. . Pounds 5 
Please inform me if convenient what the 1wo amounts £10 and 
£ 5 amount in Greenbacks so that I may charge the amounts 
to the soldier who has about two hundred dollars on deposite. 
If you can get a check on the Bank of Limerick it would be more 
convenient for the parties to collect. Our business has a pro- 
spect for the better as we have an addition to our post of two 
Cavalry companies The Indians still hang around the vicini+y 
of this post in a starving condition. But I nor anyone else is 
allowed to trade with them but John Richard Jr. 

Yours Truly, 


Messrs. J.S. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie. April 15, 1869 


I received your letter some time since in which I perceive 
I overdrew my account. Please find enclosed Mr. Wards 
Credit No. 555. R.D. Clark, Paymaster, Ft. Laramie Apl. 12 on 
First Nat. Bank in favr W.G. Bullock for $3000. Will you 
please purchase and send me I pr silver bars for 1st Lieut. 
Epaulets by mail. 

Yours Very Respectfully 


Fort Laramie, Wyoming Territory 
April 29, 1869 
J.S. Whitehurst Esq. 

San Jose, Cal. 

Your letter of Feby 12th came duly to hand some days since 
and agreeable to your request I herewith enclose you your 
discharge and R.D. Clark's Paymaster U.S.A. check on the 


Asst. Treasury U.S. New York No. 25 for $53. the balance due 
you as follows: 

Amt. due on your discharge $58.59 

Charges for collecting 5.59 

Balance due you $53.00 

Maj. R.D. Clark Paymaster U.S. Check 53.00 

I would not have charged you any commission for collecting 
but I had to pay it an agent at Washington as the papers were 
improperly made out and I had to have the papers sent to 
Oregon where the mustering out officer had gone. Please 
acknowledge receipt. 

Very Respectfully. 


Fort Laramie April 29th, 1869 
P. Wilson Esg 
Dear Sir 

Your letter with bills of Capt. Miller and Maj ColUer came 
duly to hand with Bods and box of sleeve buttons from Joslin 
& Park the latter bill very high. Please find enclosed a note of 
W.S. McKenzie and F. Lund in favour of John Richard Jr. for 
$3000 I am reguested to send this note to the First Nat Bank, 
Nolen & Wery, Helena Montana Territory can you collect this 
note. If so please do so without delay. 

Very truly yours, 


Posey S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie May 6th 1869 

Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your two 
favours with amount currency. 

Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following 
Checks and Certif Deposit 

B.B. Mills May 6th, 1869 on Posey S. Wilson $1223.52 

No. 3791 Cheyenne Mar /16 /69 infav Faederich Eich 

Kountze Bro 101.50 

One Thousand three hundred and twenty-five 02.100 
Dollars $1,325.02 ,j 

Please purchase and send by George 1 Brass hoop cedar 
bucket 1 wooden foot bath. 1 Doz Kay's Cue Cement 2 pounds 
Oxalic acid 

Yours Truly 



Sent Fletcher & Thomas Dft on Fort Topeka, Ks. lor $200 — 
fav. Lambert White lor collection. (In pencil. — AWS) 

* * * 

Messrs. J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie May 6th 1869 


I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your 
esteemed letter of the .... with the epaulette bars. Please find 
enclosed for Mr. Wards credit 

No. 567 Ft. Fetterman Apl 15 /69 on Isf Nat. Bank Omaha 
infav Patrick Gallagher Co. E 4th Inf. R.D. Clark Pay M $350 

Yours Truly, 


* * * 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie May 13, 1869 

St. Louis 

Your esteemed favour of 29th inst came duly to hand by the 
last mail which arrived yestedray. I had a list made which 
should have accompanied the mutilated currency which was 
sent from Cheyenne. On my arrival at Cheyenne I was suf- 
fering from a severe cold which I contracted in a severe snow 
storm in going over as I went over with our wagons and had 
to sleep out without shelter during the trip, and gave the money 
to our banker in Cheyenne to send to you and did not put it in 
a package myself, the amount sent was $3,035 70 /lOO. 

Please find enclosed for collection for Mr. Wards credit 
Henry W. Patterson dft infav of S.E. Ward on Alfred Patterson 
Esg (President of the Bank of Commerce) Pittsburg, Pa for 
$150 — also find enclosed Our Indian ace amounting to $8,- 
966.90 which I am directed by Mr. Ward to send you for 
collection. The amount over runs the amount authorized by 
the letter of the Indian Commission, but Genl. Slemmen died 
before he approved account as the accounts were all made 
out for his approval a few days before his death. He died sud- 
denly, having gonne to bed in apparent good health, he was 
a corpse before one o'clock in the morning said to have died 
with disease of the heart. I hope there will be no difficulty in 
collecting the ace as I have attached my affidavits with In- 
terpreters and a certificate of Col. R.B. McKibben who was 
a part of the time in Command of the Post and was always 
present at the distribution of these goods to the Indians. We 
have a new Commanding Official Genl F.F. Flint, Col. of the 
4thTnfantry. He is an officer of the Old School and formerly of 

L Heitman Histary Register, GeneraL Adam J. Slemmer died Oct. 7, 


Ihe 6 Infy an accomplished Gentleman and a superior soldier. 
We are very much pleased with him and I really feel like one 
reprieved out of the Penitentiary. Col. Dye has not yet re- 
ceived his New York Herrald Could you have it sent to Fort 
Fetterman as he has been sent up their. 

Yours truly 


Fort Laramie, Wyo. Ty 
Charles King Esq June 4th 1869 

Washington City 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your 
esteemed favour of 20th ult. with enclosed treasury draft for 
$397 12 /lOO for which please accept my kind thanks. Please 
find enclosed Edward Wright Paymaster U.S.A. check No. 122 
on Asst Try New York for $39.71 /lOO which I hope will be 

I am Very Respectfully 

Your Obt Svt 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie June 4th 1869 


Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following 
checks. No. 4 G.L. Luhn Lt. 4 Inf. on 1st Nat. Bk. Omaha in my 
fav for $1200 433 Edward Wright Paym. on Omaha Nat. Bk. 
Posttrader bearer 5.00 

407 Edward Wright Paym. on Omaha Nat Bk S E Ward 

order 20.00 

364 ~^ ^' do ^' 12.00 

311 '^ '' do ^^ 12.00 

Twelve Hundred and Forty nine Dollars. $1249.00 

Yours Truly 


Messrs Robert Campbell & co Fort Laramie June 4, 1869 

St Louis 

I had the pleasure yesterday of receiving your two favours 
of the 24th and 27th ult. the former containing "Invoices". 


Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following checks 
No. 2443. S. B. Tuttle Asst Treas infav S.E. Ward $397.12 

121 Edward Wright Paymaster infav W.G. Bullock on 

Asst. Try. New Yor. $7,000.00 

6205. Marshall & lllsley Milwaukee Apl. 10th /69 infav 
Hon. A.G. Miller on Drexel & co Phila 
Seven Thousand four hundred and Ninety seven 12 TOO 

Dolls $7,497.12 

Yours truly 

P.S. Please find below a small order which please fill at your 
early convenience and forward as Mr. Ward has forwarded 
his other goods. 

5 M White Letter Envelopes good guality 
3 Rms. Letter Paper. 2 rms Note paper. 1 Rm French note 
1 Doz Blk Ital Cravats (28 inches) 1 ps. Fine White Jaconet 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie June 21 1869 


Your letter containing account current came duly to hand 
by yesterdays mail, please find enclosed a Certificate Dep from 
Omaha Nat Bank. No. 4754, payable 6 mo. after date in favour 
of Daniel Horgan. Horgan wishes the interest calculated on this 
Cert. Dept. and $60 46 /lOO added (for which please find our 
check on you) and a certificate Deposit for Eight Hundred 
Dollars payable 6 mo after date bearing 6 pr ct. interest, which 
please return to me. The Enclosed Ceri Dep is not due until 
July 2d 1869. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit G.L. 
Luhn ck on 1st Nat Bk Omaha in my favour for $600. 

Yours truly, 

Posey S. Wilson Esq. Fort Laramie June 11, 1869 

Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of receiving your favour with ace and 
check and find some discrepencies. A list of which please find 
enclosed. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit Whitting- 
ham Coxs ck on Rogers & Co. No. 1. June 5th 69 in my favour 
for $250. 

Yours Truly 



Messrs Robert Campbell & co. Fort Laramie June 18th, 1869 

St Louis 

Some time since about the 20th April I wrote you requesting 
the favour to remit the following as the parties have not yet 
received the check I presume my letter must have miscarried. 
If you have not received the letter and remitted please remit to 
Mrs. Sarah Fleming care E.A. Preston Wings Station Dutchess 
Co. Harlem R R New York from John Fleming $40. To Miss 
Maggie McNulty care Theodore Preston Wings Station Dutchess 
Co. Harlem R R New York $40 from George Roswell. 

May we expect the pleasure of a visit from your Mr. Robert 
Campbell this summer in connextion with the Indian Commis- 
sion he is one of the representatives. I shall be very much 
pleased to see him and also entertain him and the other Com- 
missioners at my house if they will honour us with a visit. In 
fact this is the only place to see any of the Sioux who are in a 
state of nature or who it is desirous that should be made to 
understand they are to go on the reservation which has been 
so improperly selected by Genl. Harney to starve to death on. 
There are no Indians to see on the Whetstone reservation but 
a few drunken loafers and much can be learned by a visit to 
this post. 

Very truly yours 

* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie June 18, 1869 


Please find enclosed a certif Deposit from 1st Nat. Bank. 
No. 844 Oct II, 1868 in fav of Chas Weachman which the said 
Weachman wishes a new certft Dep as his Lieut W.M. Long- 
shaw who was keeping the cert for him and who seems not 
overburdened with brains has unnecessary put a long endorse- 
ment on it. If is agreeable to the 1st Nat. Bank to issue a new 
"Certif Dep" and take up this bearing interest please get the 
bank to do so and return to me Have the Cert payable to order 
of Chas Weachman. 

Yours truly 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie July 30th 1869 


Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit the following 


No. 9 I.E. Burbank Paymaster infav W.G. Bullock $800.00 

23 P.M. Eder & Co., Elko, Nevada " 365.00 


No. 4 Z. Rudd, Cashier " do 20.00 
468 R.D. Clark, Paymaster " Hugh O'Rourke 40.00 
John A. Burbank Gov & Ex Off Sup Ind Benjamin 

Barnheisel $218.17 

George W. Dost. In fav. '' W.G. Bullock 26.44 

129 Leander Genord " Geo. O. Webster 39.13 

Fifteen hundred and thirty eight 74 /lOO 

Yours truly, 


Posey S. Wilson, Esg Fort Laramie July 30, 1869 

Dear Sir 

Your favour with state came duly to hand.. Col. 

Bailey when I presented the note of Mosseaui & Wilson 

to the former and he said he would pay it as soon as he received 
the pay for his wood which would be in the course of ten days. 
He is delivering wood for John Coade. He will pay the note so 
I retain it. Is John Coade responsible or is his check good for 
the amount. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit John 
Phillips ck on you for $200. 

Yours truly 

* * * 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie Aug 6th 1869 

St. Louis 
Gentlemen r 

I have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of your 
esteemed favour of 22d ult. Will you please remit to Mr. James 
Clark. . Clark Co., Virginia a check on New York for $350 from 
G.&H.C. Clark of this place. Also remit to the Widow Catharine 
Corcoran care.... Westport County, Mayo, Ireland. . the pro- 
ceeds of $20 Currency from Patrick Corcoran Co. F 4 Infy and 
charge to Mr. Wards account. 

I have now with me as my guest Professor Bartlett and wife 
of Westpoint the father in law of Genl Schofield, a most distin- 
guished agreeable old Gentleman and originally from St. Louis. 

Yours Truly 

L John Hunton writing for ANNALS OF WYOMING, Vol 4, No. 2 said- 
"In March, 1868, there was located on La Bonte Creek a road ranch owned and 
run by Mr. M. A. Moseau. There was a ranch at the old abandoned stage 
station on Horseshoe Creek which was conducted by William Worrel and John 
R. Smith; a ranch at Twin Springs, four and one-half miles east of the last named 
ranch, also owned by M. A. Moseau, who employed a man to run it. Big war 
party attacked these ranches and destroyed and burned them. Moseau and his 
family escaped to Fort Fetterman." 


J.Q. Shirley Esq Fort Laramie. Aug. 12, 1869 

Elko, Nev. 
Dear Sir 

I had this pleasure a few days since, of writing you in- 
forming you that I had instructed Messrs Wilson & Morton to 
forward your note to you at Elko City. But I had previously 
ordered the note to be sent here to me. I herewith enclose the 
note with my thanks for your prompt attention which I hope 
will reach you safely. 

Yours respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

Messrs J. A. Shaw & Co. Fort Laramie, Aug. 13, 1869 


Your favor of 3d inst came duly to hand. Please find en- 
closed for Mr. Wards Credit the following checks. 
19 George W. Dost. Capt. AQM infav Capt. Henry H. 

Patterson $2222.74 

'^ John Miller 4 Infy 98.35 
" W.G Bullock 20.00 

Coad & Bro infav W.G. Bullock Aug. 9th on J.A. 

Ware & C 150.00 

Four Hundred and Ninety one 09 /lOO Dollars $491.09 

* * * 

I enclose S.E. Wards check on you for five hundred and twenty 
Dollars for which please send me certificate Deposite in favour 
of Charles Stewart bearing 6 per cent interest payable six 
months after date. If you do not wish to do such business please 
get a certificate from Omaha Nat. Bank. Will you please pur- 
chase for me from a p . . . . of a Champion Mower No. 3 a pattern 
of which I herewith enclose and send by express to me Care 
P.S. Wilson, Cheyenne. Send bill by mail. I bought the mower 
when I was in Omaha last from Smith Hopkins & Housal. I 
think they live on the street west of Farnum Street. If they have 
not the piece please get them to order it. 

Very Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

(Memo in Pencil— AWS) 
Oct 29, 1869 

The above letter was lost in transmission and we have re- 
ceived from Capt. Dost a ck for $341.09 in lieu of the above 
cks given by him — and the entry of Aug. 16 re J.A. Ware & Co., 


has been changed from $491.09 to $341.07 and for the ck of 
Coad & Bro. we have received his ck on Wilson for $150 in- 
cluded in one for $650 — which has been sent to Wilson. 

Messrs. Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie. Aug. 3d 1869 

St. Louis 


Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit D. Strauss Bill 
ex infav William A Kapp on Wolfer & Kalischer New York for 
$400 (in Gold) which I purchased $1.25. Please inform me of 
the credit when disposed of. Please remit to Mrs. Mary A. 
Griffin, Carlisle Pennsylvania from John N. Lawson Ft. Laramie 
.... $200. We were visited day before yesterday by seven 
Indians who took four head mules from us. They were fine 
valuable animals. We would be better without the military 
than with them anyhow when we have such a Depaitment 

Yours Truly, 

Fort Laramie, Wyoming Terr. 
Dear Sir Aug, 20. 1869 

Wishing to collect up all my outstanding debts 1 hope it 
is convenient for you to remit me the amount I let you have in 
St. Louis some two years since. It was one hundred Dollars 
Business is very dull here and I am much pressed for money at 
this time. 

I am Very Respectfully 

Your Obt Svt 



Bvt Col. Elmer Otis 
Fort Boise 
Idaho, Terr. 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Sept. 3d 1869 


Please find enclosed for S E Wards credit. Edward Yards 
check, Philadelphia Aug. 16 ,69 on National Bk Republic 
N.Y. in fav Clara W. Price five hundred dollars .... $500.00 

Yours Truly 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie. Sept. 3d, 1869 


I had the pleasure this morning enclosing check. Enclosed 
please find our check on you for $259.26 to take up Col. E.L. 
Baileys note about due a^" Omaha National Bank which retire 
and send by mail 

Very Respectdully 

Your Obt. Svt. 

Messrs Iler & Co. Fort Laramie. Sept. 17, 1869 


Please find enclosed S.E. Wards check on Messrs J.A. 
Ware & Co. Omaha for the bill made with you 27th August 
amounting to Nine Hundred and Eighty- Eight 40/100 dollars 
($988.40 /lOO) by Mr. Ward. Please acknowledge receipt. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 

Messrs J.A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie. Sept. 17, 1869 


Your two favours of 8th and 10th came duly to hand by the 
last mail with stated enclosure. Please find our check for the 
balance due Col. E.L. Baileys note. $6.16 /lOO find enclosed 
for Mr. Ward's credit the following checks viz 

No. 187 J. E. Burbank Pay M. July 24 /69 R.P. Barnard on 

A.T. N.Y. $300.00 
Whittingham Cox. Sept. 9 Sept. 9 /69 W.G. Bullock 

Nat Citizens Bk 100.00 

No. 6266. Marshall & Ilsley July 22 /69 A.G. Miller. Drexel 

& Co. Phila 91.67 

6275 " Aug 9,69 do do 92.00 

Five Hundred and Eighty Three 67 /lOO $583.67 

1 have reguested P.S. Wilson Cheyenne to remit you by 
this mail five hundred dollars. 

Very Respectfully 

Your Obt. Svt. 



Posey S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie Oct, 1st 1869 


Dear Sir 

I received your letter with enclosed paper for which please 

accept my thanks. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit 

the following checks 

No. 217 J.E. Burbank Pay M. USA in my fav for $2500 

on Asst. Ty. N.Y. 

Coad & Bro. on Rogers & C. Joseph Armijo 61 

W.S. Bramel in fav David Ditto Sep. 20 40 

on you for 

Twenty-six hundred Dollars 


Yours Truly 

* * * 

B.M. Heeman Esq Fort Laramie Oct. 1st, 1869 

Dear Sir 

I received by yesterdays mail an envelope with two bills 
enclosed which I presume was from you as one of the bills 
was your own and the other E.A. Allen & Co. for paint. 

I however enclose you our check for the two bills amounting 
to $14 (Aliens bill $12.50 your bill 1.50) on P.S. Wilson Esq. 
Please pay Messrs Allen & Co. bill. 

Yours Truly 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co Fort Laramie Oct. 1st, 1869 

St. Louis 

I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your es- 
teemed favour of the 23d ult, and must ask the favour of you to 
accept my kind thanks for the flour. Please find enclosed for 
Mr. Wards Credit. J.E. Burbank Pay M. U.S.A. Ft. Laramie. 
Sep. 30, 1869 in fav W.G. Bullock on Ass+. Try. New York. No. 
218 for $2500 Please remit to Mrs. Mary Hagan care Mr. 
Stewart Post Master Binghampton Broom Co New York forty 
Dollars from Dennis Hagan. I regret to inform you of the un- 
fortunate conduct of young John Richard. He as a sub i 

(Note: Rest of letter was not printed. — AWS) 

L According to Hi Kelly: "During the summer of 1869 I was working with 
John Richards on a wood and hay contract at Fetterman. He got drunk, and 
was tiding along in front of the sutler's store at Fort Fetterman, he shot and 
killed a soldier who was sitting alongside of the store and then went with the 
Indians who were on the warpath." 


Messrs J.A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Oct. 7th 1869 


1 telegraphed you this morning asking the favour of you to 
place One Hundred Dollars to the credit of Mrs. W.H. Brown 
and charge Mr. Ward. I herewith enclose you G.L. Luhn Capt. 
A AQM on 1st Nat Bk. Omaha No. 8 in my favour for five 
hundred Dollars which place to the credit of Mr. Ward. I 
presume you have heard nothing of the missing letter with 
checks which I supposed had been captured by some honest 
Postmaster as recently several letters have been missing 
between here and Omaha with money in them. 

Yours Truly, 

* * * 

Messrs. Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie. Oct. 15, 1869 

St. Louis 

Your esteemed favour of the 2d inst came duly to hand with 
stated enclosure. Please find for Mr. Wards credit No. 45.566 
United States Trust Co. New York. Oct. 1st. 1869 in fav. Wm. 
Seaton on Manhattan Co., N.Y. for . . . $600 

Please make the following remittances and charge to Mr. 
Wards account To Capt. W.O. Fry Madison C.H. Virginia 
Seventy five Dollars ($75) from John Hunton. 

To Miss Maggie McNulty care Theodore Preslon Wings 
Station, Harlem Rail Road New York. Seventy Dollars, from: 
George Rowsell. 

Yours Truly, 


Messrs J.A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Oct. 15, 1869 


I have applied to the A AQMaster at Fort Fetterman for the 
three lost checks he drew on the First Nat. Bank the payment 
of which I believe you ordered stopped. Should you not have 
stopped the payment of them please do so. I enclose list of the 
remittance. Coad & Bro for their check will give a check on 
Cheyenne. In this missing letter I enclosed you our check for 
five hundred and twenty dollars for which I wish you would 
send me a certificate deposite payable to Charles Stewart at 
six months date bearing six per cent interest. I now enclose 
a duplicate for the above check, which please send me the 
'"Cash Deposite". If you do not wish to issue the Cert please 
get it from the Omaha Nat Bank. I have an order on your 


house from John Richard in favour of Louis Richard for two 
thousand dollars when collected, please inform me it is all 
right — please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit the following 
check No 10 G.L. Luhn Capt A AQm Oct 12 /19 infav W.G. 
Bullock on First Natl Bank for $1000.00 

Very Respectfully 

Your Obi. Svt. 


List of Los1 Checks 

No. 17 Geo. W.Doasfi Capt. AAqm. infav. Capl. Henry W. 

Patterson on First Nat Bank $222.74 

19 Geo W. Dost Capt AAqm. to W.G. Bullock do 20.00 

15 do do John Miller 4 Inf do 98.35 

Coad & Bro. August 9 /69 in fav W.G. Bullock on 

J.W. Ware $150.00 

I will get duplicates from Capt. Doast for the checks drawn 
by him and Coad & Bro will settle his check with me. here. 


P.S. Wilson Esq Fort Laramie Oct 22 /1869 

Dear Sir 

Your two favours of the 18th inst with stated enclosure 
came duly to hand by George. I return you W.C. Smith on 
John Phillips $64.60 /lOO as Phillips informs me he saw you on 
the subject and declines paying it. I sent for Mousseau and 

Wilson in regard to their two notes and they inform 

as they get their money from Coad Bro wood which 

will be in a few days; in regard to D. Appletons bill pay it when 
a package of books are delivered by express which I ordered 
to CO. D. which please send by George or any package by 
express for Dr. F. Mecham. Please find for Mr. Wards credit. 

Coad & Bro. Oct. 14 /1869 in my favour on P.S. Wilson $650 
No. 17 Wilson & Cobb Oct. 19 "^ ^^ do 27.00 

Six Hundred and Seventy-Seven Dollars. $677.00 

Can you furnish me with Eight Thousand Dollars Currency 
by the 15th next month as I want it to pay off the troops at the 
post. Please let me know by return mail as I have not that much 
and I will have to get it from Omaha. 

Yours Truly 

1. Bullock spells the name two different ways. Evidently it should be Dost. 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Oct. 29 /69 


I had the pleasure of receiving your esteemed favour 
of with enclosed cert Dep. in favour of Charles Stewart for 
$520. Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards Credit No. 48 
George W. Doast Capt AA Q M in my favour on First Nat Bk. 
Omaha for $341.09 

being for the amount of the lost cks. 

In reference to John Richard Jr. the order is not for money 
in hand but for some collection you were to make in Washinglon 
City. I know nothing about the matter myself. 

Yours Truly 

P.S. Wilson Esq. Fort Laramie. Oct. 29, 1869 

Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of receiving your esteemed favour and 
am much obliged to you for offer of the Currency I wrote for. 
But I received a letter from the Paymaster in which he has in- 
formed me that he will be obliged to go to Fetterman and he 
will pay himself therefore I will not want it. I have collected 
the two notes from Mousseau and Wilson for which I took the 
enclosed check from Coad & Bro for $520. and the balance 
in cash. I herewith enclose statement which charge to Mr. 
Wards account. I enclose for Mr. Wards Credit. Coad & Bro 
in my favour on you for $520 

You have omitted to credit our account with a protested draft 
of Coad & Bro on Rogers which was afterwards paid for $50 

Yours Truly 

Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie. Nov. 5, 1869 

St. Louis 

I had the pleasure by the last mail of receiving your este- 
emed favour with bill of Muller and Wood Enclosed. Will you 
please do me the favour to remit to John Kerr. Aughnacloy. 
County Tyrone Ireland ( £ 8) Eight pounds sterling, please in- 
form me the amount you pay in currency for the bill. The 
Indians paid us one of their Quaker visits a few days since. 
Killing two soldiers and stealing twenty head of stock. 

Yours truly, 


P.S. Wilson Esq. Fort Laramie. Nov. 5, 1869 

Dear Sir 

Your several favours came duly to hand by Ihe last mail. 
I also received an envelope with an order from you to Mr. 
Clark to let Lt. Price have twenty dollars. I presume it was to 
collect. I presented it to Lt. Price who said it was all right but 
he did not pay it. I will hold it until next mail and if not paid 
will return it. Please find enclosed John Phillipsi check in fav 
of C.E. Clay2 on you for $4,730. Phillips says he has not that 
amount with you but as soon as he can get his voucher for his 
hay he has delivered all the hay on his contract and would 
have been over with his voucher but Capt. Luhn the Qr Master 
left hunting the morning that Phillips delivered the last of the 
hay. He will return in three or four days and he will get the 
voucher and come over. My obiec+ is get the amount of this 
draft or check in your hands. 

Yours truly, 


P.S. Will you please credit Messrs Wilson & Cobb ($280) 
Two hundred and Eighty Dollars and Charge S.E. Wards 


Do not protest Phillips Ck hold it until you collect the voucher. 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co Fort Laramie Nov. 5, 1869 


Please find enclosed for Mr. Wards credit the following 

checks No. 9 Geo. O. Webster Lt. and Agt. 4th Inf. Oct. 30 69 

in fav. W G Bullock in Omaha Nat. Bk. $128 

Nov. 7 Omaha Nat. Bk. 30 /69 Chas Winkleman $100 

Nov. 9 W.G. Bullock 138.00 

Will you please purchase for me and send by express two 
Bottles (quarts) French Violet Ink. I see it is advertised by some 
bookstore I believe the one on the cross street that passes by 
your office. Send to Ihe care of Posey Wilson 


L John Phillips was called "Portugee" and is known for his historic ride 
from Ft. Fhil Kearny to Ft. Laramie in 1866, in order to obtain aid to the be- 
leaguered post, following the Fetterman Massacre. He handled a number of 
hay contracts for the government. In the 1870' s he had a ranch on Chugwater. 

2. Charley Clay was a clerk in the Sutler's store, Fort Laramie. 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie. Dec. 3d 1869 

St. Louis 

I had the pleasure of receiving your esteemed favour of 
the 25th ult. with stated enclosures. You inform me that you 
remitted to Mr. Henry Oltmans $75 in ck on New York. I fear 
I have made a mistake in regard to the amount to be remitted 
to Mr. Oltmans — the amount to have been remitted to him 
was two hundred and fifty dollars. Will you please remit the 
balance — One hundred and seventy-five dollars and explain 
to him it was the error of your correspondent. I regret very much 
to be so troublesome and careless but it is almost impossible to 
write correctly in a room full of officers, gassing over their 
heroism in the late Civil War. Will you please remit to Mrs. 
Mary Hogan Care of O.C. Crocker Esq Binghampton Broom 
County, New York fifty dollars ($50) from Denis Hogan Fort 
Laramie. The Indians are growing more bold and it is becoming 
dangerous to put our heads beyond the Sentinels of the Post. 
The Mail Party to Fort Fetterman was driven back yesterday 
after a running fight with the loss of one man and another 
wounded. And few days since a white citizen was killed a short 
distance from the Post. 

I am expect daily to hear that all of our stock is run off 
by the Indians. Will you please send us at your early conveni- 
ence 100 hundred gallons coal oil. I order in our requisition a 
small guantity as there was a General Order issued from the 
War Dept that Coal Oil should not be used at any of the Posts. 
Bu+ the order has proved a failure as the person who had a new 
patent lamp failed to get his lamp to burn with lard oil or did 
not pay enough to get his patent Lamp accepted. They have 
allowed coal oil to be burnt. 


Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Dec. 3d 1869 


I have requested Posey S. Wilson of Cheyenne to remit 
you twenty Ihree hundred Dollars for which I want a certificate 
Deposite in the name of William H. Dunlap at twelve months 
date bearing 6 pr ct. Interest. If you do not wish to do such 
business will you please do me the favour to get it from the 1st 
Nat Bank of your place. Our friend Mr. Lo^ are getting very 
troublesome. We confine' ourselves to the limits of the Post. 
The Fort Fetterman mail was driven back yesterday with the 

L Mr. Lo — the term used to designate the Indian. 


loss of one man (mortally wounded) and another shot through 
the thigh with Arrow but will recover. 

Yours truly, 


* * * 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Dec. 3d, 1869 


Please find enclosed S.E. Wards Check No. on you for 
two hundred and Seventy 60 /lOO Dollars, to take up Ed L. 
Bailey note now about due at the Omaha Nat. Bank which please 
send to me. 

Very Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

Messrs Stephens & Wilcox Fort Laramie. Jany 29,1870 


I received the enclosed bill from the office of the U.P.R.R. 
by the last mail. I am at a loss to know why this freight was stop- 
ped at Omaha as it was consigned as usual I presume as it was 
shipped by Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. St. Louis who in- 
formed me it was shipped to the care of B.M. Heerman Cheyenne. 
Will you please pay the enclosed bill if necessary and forward 
the coal oil to S.F. Nuckolls Cheyenne as Mr. B.M. Heerman 
has left Cheyenne. I would prefer this bill collected at Chey- 
enne if the Company will allow. May I ask your early attention 
to this matter. 

I am Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 


Messrs Robert Campbell & Co Fort Laramie Jany 21, 1870 

St. Louis 

I had the pleasure of receiving your esteemed favour 
enclosing bill of coal oil. The coal oil was stopped in Omaha 
and not forwarded as usual. I received a notice to that effect 
from the freight Agt. of the Union Pacific R.R. by yesterday mail 
informing me the freight was at his Depot (Omaha) and asking 
what disposition he should make of it. I wrote to Messrs Stepehns 
& Wilcox Omaha to attend to forwarding it to Cheyenne. Please 
make the following remittance and charge 1o Mr. Wards 
account. To W.O. Fry Madison C.H. Virginia. Seventy-five dol- 


lars from John Hunton. Please find enclosed for collection and 
Mr. Wards credit the following checks. 

No. 113 Edward Yard Jr &c Dec. 30 /69 on Central Bk. N.Y. 

infv of Clara A. Price $700 

58644 1st Nat. Bk. Detroit Jany 5 /70 Mrs. Anna B. McKibben 

on Central National Bk. N.Y. $1140.08 

Messrs J. A. Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Jany 21st, 1870 


Enclosed find for Mr. S.E. Wards credit the following 

No. 0726. Husser Dohler & Co. Salt Lake. Jany 6 /70 

E C OChenser 
ON First Nt. Bk. Omaha $200 

53. Thos. F. Quinn AQM Mar 13 /69 Capt. Geo. Atcheson 20.19 

Also find enclosed two certificates Deposit in fav. 
Daniel Horgan which please calculate interest on both (as they 
were intended to draw interest but you omitted inserting on the 
smaller one) and send me a certificate for the total amt. in fav 
of Daniel Horgan at Six Months bearing 6% int. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 

No. 557. Dan Horgan $60.40 

558 do 739.54 



Messrs. J.^, Ware & Co. Fort Laramie Jany 28, 1870 


I had this pleasure this morning enclosing Ck on Deposit- 
ory U.S. Chicago for $3000. I herewith enclose S.E. Wards 
check on you for three hundred dollars for which please send 
me certificate deposite in favor William A. Kapp at 6 months 
bearing 6% interest. If you do not wish to do this please get 
Cet Dep. from Omaha Nat. Bank. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 



Messrs. Robert Campbell & Co. Fort Laramie Augt. 301h, 1870 

St. Louis 

I had this pleasure on the 16th inst since which time I 
have not had the pleasure of hearing from you. I have several 
times had the pleasure of hearing from your Mr. Robert Camp- 
bell en route +o this place to meet the Indians. But he has not 
yet arrived and from a telegram to me this morning he will 
not reach here before the 8th proximo. Although I have advised 
his early arrival here; as the Indians when they here of his 
arrival will come in immediately, we anticipate much pleasure 
from his visit. Will you please remit to Mr. Hugh Broderick 
Drum Griffin Post Office, County Galway, Ireland ($20) Twenty 
dollars in currency from his daughters Margaret and Nancy of 
Fort Laramie. 

Yours Truly, 

* * * 

Messrs Stephens & Wilcox 

Gentlemen Fort Laramie Sept. 16, 1870 

Will you please do me the favour to purchase the following 
articles and ship by railroad to care of S.F. Nuckolls Send bill 
by mail and I will remit. 
1 Tea Tray for tea set on table about 19 inches by 15 

1 '' Waiter or tray small size for handing around 

2 Glass Preserve Dishes with covers 

4 W.G.i vegetable dishes without covers small size 
3/2 Doz. Breakfast plates 
1 Fruit or cake bowl 
1 small molasses pitcher 
I spring balance scale. 

The above articles are for a small family. Will you please 
get Mr. O.P. Ingalls to make me one pr. double sole boots for 
winter not too heavy. He has my measure. 

Very Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

P.S. Wilson Esg. Fort Laramie. Sept. 21, 1870 

Dear Sir 

Enclosed please find for S E Wards Credit the following 


398 J.e". Burbank Sept. 9 ,/70 W.G. Bullock Asst. Ty. N.Y. $15.00 
1. Blurred. 


266 C.A. Reynolds A Q M. Sept. 12 L.S. Tesson 1st Nat Bk. 

Omaha $49.00 

7 John J. O'Brien ^^ 6 S E Ward '' 25.00 

71 W. R. Gibson Pay M. 19 W.G. Bullock Asst Ty. N.Y. $3500 

I also enclose an order from Wm J. Siders on Judge Mc- 
Laughlin of your place for Forty three 55 /lOO Dollars. The 
letter explains itself but Siders informs me that McLaughlin 
refuses to pay but a part of this money. I presume he wishes to 
keep it all as Siders is good and hard working man do what you 
can for him and Oblige 

Your friend 


* * * 

B.B.Wood Esg. Fort Laramie, Sept. 21, 1870 

Dear Sir 

Enclosed please find Maj M.R. Gibson Paymaster Check 
No. 173 in my favour on Omaha Nat Bank for Sixteen Dollars 
for O.P. Ingalls on Maj. W.S. Collier received in your letter of 
10th inst. 

Very Respectfully 

Your Obt Svt 


* * * 

P.S. Wilson, Esg 

Dear Sir 

''I telegraphed you yesterday to advance F.M. Phillips to 
Mr. Iliff seventeen hundred dollars." 

I now enclose you for Mr. Wards credit the following 

167 I.W. Hugus Sept. 19 in fav S E Ward on 1st Nat Bk. 

Omaha for $60.00 

John Richard Jr. Sept. 28 W.G. Bullock on 

P.S. Wilson 200.00 

72 W.R. Gibson Pay M. 19 W G Bullock Asst 

Ty. N.Y. $2000.00 


Will you please call at the Express Office and send by 

George any packages for Capt. D.I. Ezekiel and also for Wm. 

Brown Sgt Co A U.S. Cavalry. Care Messrs Bullock & co and 

also any package for myself and bills if convenient. 

Yours truly In Haste 



Messrs Sanborn & King Fort Laramie Oct 21, 1870 

Washington City 

Please find enclosed the claims of David Smith and D. 
Eben Smith for loses by Indians which please receive and col- 
lect. Please send Mr. Smith a receipt for them through me. 
Should the claims be informal or require anything please in- 
form me. If you would send me a few of your blanks I could 
get other claims. I also enclose you a claim of my own. 1 Paid 
a discharge soldier on his final statement papers two hundred 
and twenty five dollars more than was due him as you will 
perceive and the Pay Master Genl refuses to allow that amount 
paid to me from the circumstances I think I am justly entitled 
to the amount. The enclosed letters will inform you of the case. 

Yours Respectfully, 

* * * 

Genl B. Alvord Fort Laramie Oct. 21, 1870 

Chief Pay Master 
Dept Platte 
Dear Sir 

1 had the pleasure of receiving your letter in regard to 
Final Statement papers of the Hospital Steward Cornelius and 
you please retain until you learn the cause of his discharge 
and send me check for the amount at your convenience. 

Very Respectfully 
Your Obt. Svt. 

* * * 

B.B. Wood Esq Cash Fort Laramie Oct. 21, 1870 

Dear Sir 

Enclosed please find W.R. Gibson paymaster Check in 
my favor on Omaha Nat Bank for $666.00 

to pay my interest in the land purchased which I think is due 
sometime about the 1st November. Also find for Collection and 
Mr. Wards credit Frederick Krug note due (without interest) 
in favor Frederick Llader for $677.00 the enclosed card will 
inform you of the address of Frederick Krug I also enclose you 
in money fifteen 24 ,100 Dollars which closes the balance due 
you and for the protection of our checks please accept my kind 
thanks Our business is so limitted and Mr. Ward has been so 
unsettled in regard to his position that I have endeavoured to 
contract our business as much as possible Please inform me 
when the Cash instalment is due on the land 

Yours truly 


Messrs Curry, Kirby & Cooper Fort Laramie. Nov. 11, 1870 

Jefferson City, Mo 

Your fav of 24th ult with draft of Lt. H.C. Sloan drawn on 
me in your favour for fifty dollars. Enclosed came to hand by 
yesterdays mail. Please find S E Wards check on Messrs Robert 
Campbell & Co. for the amount (fifty dollars) Enclosed. You 
omitted to endorse Lt. Sloans draft. Please acknowledge receipt 
of the check herein enclosed. 


Joseph Millard Esq. Cashier Fort Laramie Nov. 11, 1870 

Dr Sir 

Enclosed please find S E Wards check No. 654 In your 
favour for ($441 75 /lOO) six hundred and sixty-four 75 /lOO 
Dollars on Messrs Robert Campbell & Co. St. Louis to retire 
Lt. H.C. Sloans note or account which note or account you re- 
mit to me. As I am ignorant of the transaction myself this amount 
has been given me by Genl Flint. 

Very Respectfully, 
Your Obt. Svt. 


* * * 

P.S. Wilson Esq. Fort Laramie Nov. 11, 1870 

Dear Sir: 

Please find enclosed for S.E. Wards Credit the following 

B.B. Mills Nov. 10 in fav W.G. Bullock on P.S. Wilson $259.45 
B.B. Mills Nov. 10 in fav W.G. Bullock ^" 641.12 

45 W.H. Powell Nov. 11 '^ 1st Nat. Bk. Omaha 8.80 

19 John J. O'Brien AAQM. 7th Leopold Schnyder 

Post Mas Omaha 10.00 

22 Geo. O. Webster 2n Lt. 4 Inf Oct. 13 Charles Straiten 

Omaha Nat B 8.00 

17 Geo. O. Webster 2nd Lt. 4 Inf. Oct. 13 Bernard 

O'Neil Omaha Nat Bk. $36.00 

18 ~' ^" "Joseph Baker" 12.00 
85 W.R. Gibson. P.M. Sept. 26 Maj W.S. Collier U.S.A. 

Asst. Ty. N.Y. 58.00 

One Thousand and thirty-three 38 /lOO Dollars $1033.38 

Yours Truly 


Fort Laramie Wyoming Territory 
Nov. 9, 1870 
(Very dim) (Not decipherable) 

* * * 

Fort Laramie Dec. 30, 1870 
Honl Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

I have the honour of enclosing you an account which was 
made during the time the Indian Commission composed of 
Messrs Felix R. Brunot and Col. Robert Campbell was at this 
place. I forward the account by instructions of these gentlemen. 

I have the honor to be 
Very Respectfully 


* * * 

Note: The next page of the journal is illegible. Has a 

heading Post Office. Wyo Terr, and is 

signed by 'Tohn Hunton P.M." 

Four or five letters look like they were dated 1888. 

Evidently John Hunton tried to use the French Ink copying 
process but had no luck. 

And so end the letters of S.E. Ward and W.G. Bullock 


* * * 

The Following Papers emd Letters Which Concern 
W. G. Bullock and Seth E. Ward are in the Files of the 
Wyoming Historical Department. 

Proceedings of a Council of Administration which con- 
vened at Fort Laramie D. T. pursuant to the following order, viz: 

Head Quarters Fort Laramie D.T. 
Oct. 30th, 1866 
General Order 

No. 31 

I A Council of administration to consist of Capt. 

D. S. Gordon 2nd U. S. Cavalry, Bvt. Major U. S. A. Capt. W. 
P. McClery, I8th U. S. Inftry & 1st Lieut. H. B. Freeman 18 U. 
S. Infty & Bvt. Capt. U. S. A. Will convene at 2 P.M. on the 
31st inst. or as soon thereafter as practicable for the purpose 
of taxing the Sutler and transacting such other business as 
may properly be brought before it. By order of Major Van 


1st Lieut. 18th Infy. & Post Adjt. 
Fort Laramie D. T. 


The Council met pursuant to the above order. Present. 
All the Members, and resolved to tax the Post Sutler 10c per 
average number of Officers and Enlisted men at the Post for 
Sept. & Oct. 1866. Average number of Officers and Enlisted 
men during the month of Sept. 366 at 10c per man gives $36.60 
Average number of Officers & Enlisted men for the month of 

Oct. 313 at 10c per man gives $31.30 total tax $67.90. 


(Signed) D. S. GORDON, 
Capt. 2nd U.S. Cavalry 
Bvt. Major U.S.A. 

For Reverse of Documeni See next page. 

(Signed) W. P. McCLEERY 
Capt. 18th U.S. Infty. 
(Signed) H. B. Freeman 

Bvt. Capt. U.S.A. 
1st Lieut. 18th U. S. Infty 


(Signed) James Van Voast 
Major 18th U.S. Infty. 

True copy from Proceedings of Council of Administration. 

1st Lieut. 18th Infy. 
Post Adjt. 

Received of Q. Bullock, Esq. ($67.90) Sixty Seven Dollars 
and Ninety Cents. Amt. of tax imposed upon Post Sutler for the 
months of Sept. & October 1866, by Council of Administration 
at Fort Laramie D.T. October 30, 1866. 


1st Lieut. 18th Infy. 

Post Treasurer. 

Fort Laramie D.T. . 

Dec. 8th, 1866 

This agreement made at Fort Laramie July 21st 1859, 
between S. E. Ward and Charles Harvey, Witnesseth, The said 
Charles Harvey agrees to cut, cure and stack Fifty Tons Hay 
for the said S.E. Ward on the following terms: The said S.E. 
Ward agrees to pay the said Harvey Five Dollars per Ton, as 
follows Two Thirds to be paid during the progress or after the 
cutting of the hay. The balance (one Third) to be reserved 
until the Hay is delivered and weighed on the Government 
Scales at Fort Laramie; . The said Harvey binds himself to cure 


in good order, and stack the Hay on the ground, and have it 
in good order to deliver by the 1st October 1859, the said Ward 
agrees to furnish the said Harvey v\rith several Yoke Oxen 2 
Scythes & snath's 2 Rakes 2 Forks 2 Whet Stones and 1 Grind 
Stone to cut and save the Hay, which are to be returned in good 
order by the 1st October 

S. E. WARD (Seal) 



To Whom it may concern: 

KNOW YE, That reposing special trust and confidence 
in the patriotism, fidelity, and abilities of Seth E. Ward I do 
hereby constitute and appoint him SUTLER to Fort Laramie, 
Nebraska Territory in the service of the United States, with all 
the privileges and immunities appertaining to said situation. 
He is therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duties 
of Sutler, in conformity with the Rules established for the 
Government of the Armies of the United States; and he is to 
be subject to such laws and regulations having reference to 
Sutlers, as now are or, hereafter may be, established. THIS 
WARRANT to continue inforce; and to be valid until the fourth 
day of March in the year one thousand eight hundred and 

Sixty unless sooner revoked by competent 


Given under my hand at the City of Washington, this 
thirtieth day of April, 1857. 


Secretary of War. 
Registered in the Adjutant General's Office. S. Cooper. Adt. G 

Benjamin B. Mills having made application to me for 
License to trade for One year with the Camanche, Kiowa & 
Appacha Indians at the Big Timbers & Paunee Forts on the 
Arkansas River, and with the Cheyennes & Arapahoes on the 
South Piatt & Republican Fork and haveing executed and 
filed his Bond for a faithful observance of the "Intercourse 
Laws" I hereby grant him permission to trade at the points 
specified untill the said Bond may be approved or disapproved 
of by the department at Washington. 

Ind Agent 


West Port Mo. 

December 7th, 1856. 

Endorsed on back: Agent Millers permit to trade in the Arkansas 



Omaha, Neb. August 2d, 1867 
Special Orders ) 
No. 140 ) 

1. Under the Resolution of Congress, approved March 
30, 1867, and by authority of the General Commanding the 
Army of the United States, the following-named persons are 
appointed traders at the posts specified opposite their re- 
spective names: 

Mr, S.E. Ward, Fort Laramie, D.T. 

* * * 

By Command of Brevet Major General Augur, 

B'vt. Lieut. Colonel, 

Act'g. Assistant Adjutant 

William H. Bixbee 

Captain 27th Inf'ty Aide-de-Camp. 
Written across bottom of page in red ink: .-i 


Fort Laramie, D. T. 
Endorsed .on back: Received Aug. 18th /67 

* * * 

Whetstone Agency D T 
May 10th, 1871 
Col. Wm. Bullock 
Fort Laramie U.T. 

Your dispatch of the 6th just at hand. Maj. Twiss'i v/oman 
is and has been here for about a mionth, her children are, 
however, all below at Rule, Nebraska. The Agent, Major 
Washburne, has already sent for them to come here, this about 
two weeks ago and they are expected daily. She, the Mother, 
desires to move with this outfit to the White Earth River, which 
is about 150 miles from your post. From that point 1 will advise 
you if she desires to go over to her relations. The Indians here 
have selected the White Earth River for their new Agency, which 
is within the bounds of their own Reservation. 

Your previous communication was duly received some 
time since. I was very glad indeed to hear from you as also to 


know that Pete & Joe had arrived safely. We are all prepared 
and ready to start, the Agent is only waiting for authority to 
provide for the necessary transportation other than that of his 
own. I wrote to Mr. Ward some time age — in fact the letter 
was for you both — have had no answer — possibly it may have 
miscarried. No news of importance. 

With much respect. 
Your friend 

Endorsed on back: 
Joseph Bissonette 

May 10, 1871. 

* * * 

1. THOMAS S. TWJSS, was born in So. Carolina and ad- 
mitted: o the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, 
as a Cadet from South Carolina and was graduated from that 
institution; was commissioned a second Lieutenant in the U.S. 
Army, served, and was advanced to the rank of Major. He 
resigned from the U.S. Army and was appointed United States 
Indian Agent at the Upper Platte Agency (Deer Creek, Wyo- 
ming.) His commission as Agent expired with Buchanan's 
Administration. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, 
Major Twiss offered his services to President Lincoln but they 
were declined because of his age. It is said that Major Twiss 
had several Indian wives and that he passed his life in the hills 
north of Fort Laramie — no one knew just where. Captain 
Eugene E. Ware who was Post Adjutant at Fort Laramie in 
1864 describes Major Twiss ''as an old gentleman whose hair, 
long, white and curly, hung down over his shoulders, and 
down his back. He had a very venerable white beard and 
moustache. His beard had been trimmed with scissors so that 
it was rather long, but pointed, Van Dyke fashion, below the 
chin. He was dressed thoroughly as an Indian. He wore 
nothing on his head and had a pair of beaded moccasins. He 
sat on one of the benches in front of the Sutler store, having in 
his hand a cane, staff fashion, about six feet long. On this 
occasion he was accompanied by several sguaws very finely 
dressed in macinaw blankets." .... Annals of Wyo. Vol. 7 
No. 3, p. 424-5 

* * * 

Fort Laramie 

August 21, 1865 
(A letter to Col. W.O. Collins) 

Telegraph line was cut as fast as it was replaced 

and some days elapsed before communication was fully re- 
stored. . . -Caspar's remains had been buried at Platte Bridge. 
Affairs in this country have sadly changed since you left here, 


and all the Indians have been forced to resort to hostilities for 
self-preservation. All of our friendly Indians have been driven 
off and those who rarely visited the Post have not been allowed 
to come in to make offerings of peace. 

Caspar left here about the 21st of July (having come here 
for a fresh supply of horses) for Sweetwater Bridge where all 
of his company had been recently stationed. He left here with 
reluctance, he said on leaving that we would not see him any- 
more as he felt as if he would be killed by the Indians if he 
went back. He arrived at Platte Bridge about the time the 
Indians made the attack at the Bridge. Major Anderson, Ilth 
Kansas, with the officers of two or three companies of the same 
regt. was stationed at the Bridge together with Lieut. Bretney 
with a small sguadron of his company. The hain that had 
taken up Lt. Bretney and His Company supplies was returning 
from Sweetwater Bridge. When about two or three miles from 
the Platte Bridge the train was attacked by Indians, the firing 
being distinctly heard at the Bridge, and the Indians showing 
themselves all around on both sides of the Bridge. Your lam- 
ented son was selected to lead twenty Kansas soldiers to go to 
the protection of the train (several Kansas officers being at the 
station) large bodies of Indians showing themselves between 
the bridge and the train. Caspar bravely led them forward, 
when about 3 '2 miles from the Bridge he was surrounded by 
several hundred Indians where he fell bravely attempting to 
cut his way through to the train and the Kansas soldiers ignom- 
iniously fled back to the station, the Indians pursuing them to 
the station. He fell a victim to the infamous cowardice of the 
officers of the Ilth. Kansas. The paragraph cut from the news- 
paper does not exaggerate the treatment his body received 
from the hands of these savages. All of the soldiers and team- 
sters at the train were killed but three, in all twenty-six killed 
in sight of the garrison of 250 men and one piece of artillery. 
The lamented death of your son although so young is one which 
all brave and honourable men can but admire no matter how 
distressing it is to his relatives and friends. The only two 
Indians positively known to be killed in this fight fell by his 
hand by shots fired from his pistol. Lt. Bretney who has charge 
of everything leit by your son has been here and left again for 
Sweetwater to bring the company to this post and has promised 
to turn over all his effects on his return. 

In regard to Caspar acct. with me I would not have re- 
ferred to it had you not spoke of it in your letter. He owed me 
quite a large account, amounting to $1,4807 but he has drawn 
no pay for about nine months. 

I will assist you in any way in removing his remains to 
their final resting place in Ohio. But think they had better 
remain where they are until autumn or cooler weather and just 


at this time the country cannot be 1 ravelled over without a 
strong escort. You will please present my kind regards to Mrs. 
Collins and believe me, 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient svt. 

(Collins had labeled this letter: ''A Gentleman long resident in 
the mountains but not in the service.") 


ARY 16, 1869; PROCLAIMED FEBRUARY 24, 1869. 

Andrew lohnson. President of the United States of America; 
to all and singular to whom these presents shall come. Greeting: 
WHEREAS, A treaty was made and concluded at Fort Laramie, 
in the Territory of Dakota, (now in the Territory of Wyoming,) 
on the twenty-ninth day of April, and afterwards, in ihe year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, by 
and between Nathaniel G. Taylor, William T. Sherman, William 
S. Harney, John B. Sanborn, S. F. Tappan, C. C. Augur, and 
Alfred H. Terry, commissioners, on the part of the United States, 
and Ma-Za-pon-kas-ka, Tah-shun-ka-co-gui-pah, Heh-won-ge- 
chat, Mah-to-non-pah, Little Chief, Makh-pi-ah-lu-tah, Co-cam- 
i-ya-ya, Con-te-pe-ta, Ma-wa-tau-ni-hav-ska, He-na-pin-wa-ni-ca, 
Wah-pah-shaw, and other chiefs and headmen of different 
tribes of Sioux Indians, on the part of said Indians, and duly 
authorized thereto, by them, which treaty is in the words and 
figures following, to-wit: 

Articles of a treaty made and concluded by and between 
Lieutenant General William T. Sherman, General William S. 
Harney, General Alfred H. Terry, General C. C. Augur, J. B. 
Henderson, Nathaniel G. Taylor, John B. Sanborn, and Samuel 
F. Tappan, duly appointed commissioners on the part of the 
United States, and the different bands of the Sioux Nation of 
Indians, by their chiefs and headmen, whose names are hereto 
subscribed, they being duly authorized to act in the premises. 


Article 1. From this day forward all war between the 
parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The government 
of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby 


pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now 
pledge their honor to maintain it. 

If bad men among the whites, or among other people 
subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any 
wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United 
States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the 
commissioner of Indian affairs at Washinglon City, proceed at 
once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according 
to the laws of the United States, and also reimburse the injured 
person for the loss sustained. 

If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or 
depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, 
black or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, 
and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named, solemnly 
agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent and notice 
by him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be 
tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they wil- 
fully refuse to do so, the person injured shall be reimbursed 
for his loss from the annuities or other moneys due or to become 
due to them under this or other treaties made with the United 
States. And the President, on advising with the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, shall precsribe such rules and regulations for 
ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article, as, 
in his judgement, may be proper. But no one sustaining lossess 
while violating the provisions of this treaty or the laws of the 
United States shall be reimbursed therefor. 

Article II. The United States agrees that the following 
district of country, to-wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of 
the Missouri river where the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude 
crosses the same, thence along low water mark down said east 
bank to a point opposite where the northern line of the State 
of Nebraska strikes the river, thence west across said river, 
and along the northern line of Nebraska, to the one hundred 
and fourth degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence 
north on said meridian to a point where the forty-sixth parallel 
of north latitude intercepts the same, thence due east along 
said parallel to the place of beginning; and in addition thereto 
all existing reservations on the east bank of said river shall be, 
and the same is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use 
and occupation of the Indians herein named, and for such 
other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time 
they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to 
admit amongst them; and the United States now solemnly agrees 
that no persons except those herein designated and authorized 
so to do, and except such officers, agents and employes of the 
government as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reserva- 
tions in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be 
permitted to pass over, settle upon or reside in the territory 


described in this article, or in such territory as may be added to 
this reservation for the use of said Indians, and henceforth 
they will and do hereby relinquish all claim or right in and to 
any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as 
is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as herein- 
after provided. 

Article III. If it should appear from actual survey or other 
satisfactory examination of said tract of land that it contains less 
than one hundred and sixty acres of tillable land for each person, 
who, at the time, may be authorized to reside on it under the 
provisions of this treaty, and a very considerable number of 
such persons shall be disposed to commence cultivating the 
soil as farmers, the United States agrees to set apart, for the use 
of said Indians, as herein provided, such additional quantity of 
arable land, adjoining to said reservation, or as near to the 
same as it can be obtained, as may be required to provide the 
necessary amount. 

Article IV. The United States agrees, at its own proper 
expense, to construct at some place on the Missouri River, near 
the center of said reservation, where timber and water may be 
convenient, the following buildings, to-wit: a warehouse, a 
storeroom for the use of the agent in storing goods for the use 
of the Indians, to cost not less than twenty-five hundred dollars; 
an agency building for the residence of the agent, to cost not 
exceeding three thousand dollars; a residence for the physician, 
to cost not miore than three thousand dollars; and five other 
buildings for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and en- 
gineer, each to cost not exceeding two thousand dollars; also 
a school house or mission building, so soon as a sufficient 
number of children can be induced by the agent to attend 
school, which shall not cost exceeding five thousand dollars. 

The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on 
said reservation, near the other buildings herein authorized, 
a good steam circular saw-mill, with a grist-mill and shingle 
machine attached to the same, to cost not exceeding eight 
thousand dollars. 

ARTICLE V. The United States agrees that the agent for said 
Indians shall in future make his home at the agency building; 
that he shall reside among them, and keep an office open at all 
times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such 
matters of complaint by and against the Indians as may be 
presented for investigation under the provisions of their treaty 
stipulations, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties 
enjoined on him by law. In all cases ot depredation on person 
or property, he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing 
and forwarded, together with his findings, to the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, whose decision, subject to the revision of the 


Secretary of the Interior, shall be binding on the parties to this 

ARTICLE VI. If any individual belonging to said tribes of 
Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a 
family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the 
privilege to select, in the presence, and with the assistance of 
the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, 
not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in extent, which 
tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the "'land 
book", as herein directed, shall cease to be held in common, 
but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive pos- 
session of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as 
he or they may continue to cultivate it. 

Any person over eighteen years of age, noi being the head 
of a family, may, in like manner, select and cause to be certified 
to him or her, for purposes of cultivation, a guantity of land not 
exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled 
to the exclusive possession of the same, as above directed. 

For each tract of land so selected, a certificate, containing 
a description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, 
with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been 
recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it, by the 
agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a 
book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection, which said 
book shall be known as the "Sioux Land Book." 

The President may, at any time, order a survey of the res- 
ervation, and, when so surveyed. Congress shall provide for 
protecting the rights of said settlers in their improvements, and 
may fix the character of the title held by each. The United 
States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and de- 
scent of property between the Indians and their descendants 
as may be thought proper. And it is further stipulated that any 
male Indians over eighteen years of age, of any band or 1ribe 
that is, or shall hereafter become, a resident or occupant of 
any reservation or territory not included in the tract of country 
designated and described in this treaty for the permanent home 
of the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the 
United States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, 
and who shall have made improvements thereon of the value 
of two hundred dollars or more, and con+inuously occupied 
the same as a homestead for the term of three years, shall be 
entitled to receive from the United States a patent for one 
hundred and sixty acres of land including his said improvements, 
the same to be in the form of the legal subdivisions of the surveys 
of the public lands. Upon application in writing, sustained by 
the proof of two disinterested witnesses, made to the register 
of the local land office when the said land sought to be entered 
is within a land district, and when the tract sought to be entered 


is not in any land district, then, upon said application and 
proof being made to the commissioner of the general land office, 
and the righ1 of such Indian or Indians to enter such tract or 
tracts of land shall accrue and be perfect from the date of his 
first improvements thereon, and shall continue as long as he 
continues his residence and improvements, and no longer. 
And any Indian receiving a patent for land under the foregoing 
provisions, shall thereby and from thenceforth become and 
be a citizen of the United States, and be entiUed to all the privi- 
leges and immunities of such citizens, and shall, at the same 
lime, retain all his rights to benefits accruing to Indians under 
this treaty. 

ARTICLE VII. In order to insure the civilization of the 
Indian entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is 
admitted, especially of such of them as are, or may be, settled 
on such agricultural reservations, and they therefore pledge 
themselves to compel their children, male and female, between 
the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school; and it is 
hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that 
this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States 
agrees that for every thirty children between said ages who can 
be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be 
provided and a teacher competent to teach the elementary 
branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will 
reside among said Indians, and faithfully discharge his or her 
duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article are to continue 
for not less than twenty years. 

ARTICLE VIII. When the head of a family or lodge shall 
have selected lands and received his certificate as above 
directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good 
faith to commence cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be 
entitled to receive seeds and agricultural implements for the 
first year, not exceeding in value one hundred dollars, and for 
each succeeding year he shall continue to farm, for a period 
of three years more, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and 
implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value twenty-five 

And it is further stipulated that such persons as commence 
farming shall receive instructions from the farmer herein pro- 
vided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall 
enter upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall 
be provided, with such iron, steel and other material as may 
be needed. 

ARTICLE IX. At any time after ten years from the making of 
this treaty, the United States shall have the privilege of with- 
drawing the physician, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, 
and miller herein provided for, but in case of such withdrawal, 
an additional sum thereafter of ten thousand dollars per annum 


shall be devoted to the education of said Indians, and the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon careful inquiry into their 
condition, make such rule? and regulations for the expenditure 
of said sum as will best promote the educational and moral 
improvement of said tribes. 

ARTICLE X. In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities 
provided to be paid to the Indians herein named, under any 
treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to 
deliver at the agency house on the reservation herein named, 
the first day of August of each year, for thirty years, the following 
articles, to-wit: 

For each male person over fourteen years of age, a suit of 
good substantial woolen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, 
flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks. 

For each female over twelve years of age, a flannel skirt, 
or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve 
yards of calico, and twelve yards of cotton domestics. 

For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel 
and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as 
aforesaid, together with a pair of woolen hose for each. 

And in order that the Commission of Indian Affairs may 
be able to estimate properly the articles herein named, it shall 
be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and 
exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year 
to year can be based. 

And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum 
of ten dollars for each person entitled to the beneficial effects 
of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a period of thirty 
years, while such persons roam and hunt, and twenty dollars 
for each person who engages in farming, to be used by the 
Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as from 
time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may 
indicate to be proper. And if within the thirty years, at any 
time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for cloth- 
ing under this article can be appropriated to better uses for the 
Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the 
appropriation to other purposes; but in no event shall the amount 
of this appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the 
period named. And the President shall annually detail an 
officer of the army to be present and attest the delivery of all 
the goods herein named to the Indians, and he shall inspect 
and report on the quality and quantity of the goods and the 
manner of their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated 
that each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have 
removed to, and settled permanetly upon, said reservation; 
and complied with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be entitled 
to receive from the United States, for the period of four years 
after he shall have settled upon said reservation, one pound 


of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians 
cannot furnish their own subsistence at an earUer date. And 
it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and 
deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of persons legally 
incorporated with them, who shall remove to the reservation 
herein described and commence farming, one good American 
cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within 
sixty days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon 
said reservation. 

ARTICLE XI. In consideration of the advantages and bene- 
fits conferred by this treaty and the many pledges of friendship 
by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement 
hereby stipulate that they will relinguish all right to occupy 
permanently the territory outside their reservation as herein 
defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of 
North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of Smoky Hill River, 
so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such manner as 
to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly 

First — That they will withdraw all opposition to the con- 
struction of the railroads now being built on the plains; 

Second — That they will permit the peaceful construction 
of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein 

Third — That they will not attack any persons at home, or 
traveling, nor molest or disturb any wagon trains, coaches, 
mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or 
to persons friendly therewith; 

Fourth — They will never capture, or carry off from the 
settlement, white women or children; 

Fifth — They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt 
to do them harm; 

Sixth — They withdraw all pretense of opposition to the 
construction of the railroad now being built along the Platte 
River and westward to the Pacific Ocean, and they will not in 
future object to the construction of railroads, wagon roads, 
mail stations, or other works of utility or necessity, which may 
be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States. But 
should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands 
of their reservation, the government will pay the tribe whatever 
amount of damage may be assessed by three disinterested 
commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, 
one of said commissioners to be a chief or headman of the tribe; 

Seventh — They agree to withdraw all opposition to the 
military posts on roads now established south of the North Platte 
River, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties 
heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of the Indian 


ARTICLE XII. No treaty for the cession of any portion or part 
of the reservation herein described which may be held in 
common shall be of any validity or force as against the said 
Indians, unless executed and signed by at least three-fourths of 
all the adult male Indians occupying or interested in the same; 
and no cession by the tribe shall be understood or construed 
in such manner as to deprive, without his consent, any indivi- 
dual member of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land selected 
by him, as provided in Article VI of this treaty. 

ARTICLE XIII. The United States hereby agrees to furnish 
annually to the Indians, the physician, teachers, carpenter, 
miller, engineer, farmer and blacksmiths, as herein contem- 
plated, and that such appropriations shall be made from time 
to time, on the estimates of the Secretary of the Interior, as well 
as sufficient to employ such persons. 

ARTICLE XIV. It is agreed that the sum of five hundred 
dollars annually, for three years from date, shall be expended 
in presents to the ten persons of said tribe, who, in the judgment 
of the agent, may grow the most valuable crops for the respective 

ARTICLE XV. The Indians herein named agree that, when 
the agency house and other buildings shall be constructed on 
the reservation named, they will regard said reservation their 
permanent home, and they will make no permanent settlement 
elsewhere; but they shall have the right, subject to the con- 
ditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt, as stipulated in 
Article XI hereof. 

ARTICLE XVI. The United States hereby agrees and stipu- 
lates that the country north of the North Platte River and east 
of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains shall be held and 
conceded to be unceded Indian terrilory, and also stipulates 
and agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted 
to settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the 
consent of the Indians; first had and obtained, to pass through 
the same; and it is further agreed by the United States, that 
within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all the 
bands of the Sioux nation, the military posts now established in 
the territory, in this article named, shall be abandoned, and 
that the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in 
the Territory of Montana shall be closed. 

ARTICLE XVII. It is hereby expressly understood and 
agreed, by and between the respective parties to this treaty, that 
the execution of this treaty and its ratification by the United 
States Senate shall have the effect, and shall be construed as 
abrogating and annulling all treaties and agreements heretofore 
entered into between the respective parties hereto, so far as 
such treaties and agreements obligate the United States to 
furnish and provide money, clothing, or other articles of .pro- 


perty to such Indians and bands of Indians as become parties 
to this treaty, but no further. 

In testimony of all which, we the said commissioners, and 
we, the chiefs and headmen of the Brule band of the Sioux 
nation, have hereunto set out hands and seals at Fort Laramie, 
Dakota Territory, this twenty-ninth day of April, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight. 

N. G. Taylor, (Seal) 
W. T. Sherman (Seal) 

Lt. Genl. 
Wm. S. Harney (Seal) 

Bvt. Maj. Gen. U.S.A. 
lohn B. Sanborn (Seal) 
S. F. Tappan, (Seal) 
C. C. Augur (Seal) 

Bvt. Maj. Gen. 
Alfred H. Terry (Seal) 

Bvt. M. Gen. U.S.A. 


A.S.H. White, Secretary. 

Executed on the part of the Brule band of Sioux by the 
chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto annexed, they 
being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, D.T., the 
twenty-ninth day of April, in the year A.D. 1868. 

Ma-za-pon-kaska, his x mark. Iron Shell (Seal) 
Wah-Pat-Shah, his x mark. Red Leaf. (Seal) 

And twenty-three others. 


Ashton S. H. White, Sec'y Geo. B. Withs, Phonographer 

of Com'n. to Com'n. 

George H. Holtzman, John D. Rowland 

James C. O'Connor, Chas. E. Guern, Interpreter 

Leon F. Pallardy, Interpreter Nicholas Janis, Interpreter 

Executed on the part of the Ogallala band of Sioux by the 
chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they 
being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, the twenty- 
hfth day of May, in the year A.D., 1868. 

Tah-Shun-Ka-Co-Qui-Pah, his x mark, Man-Afraid-of-his- 
horses. (Seal) 

Sha-Ton-Skah, his x mark. White Hawk. (Seal) 

And thirty-seven others. 



S. E. Ward Jas. C. O'Connor 

J. M. Sherwood W. C. Slicer 

Sam Deon H. M. Matthews 

Joseph Bissonette, Interpreter Nicholas Janis, Interpreter 

Lefroy Jott, Interpreter Antoine Janis, Interpreter 

Executed on the part of the Minneconjou band of Sioux by the 
chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they 
being thereunto duly authorized. 

At Fort Laramie, D. T. ) Heh-Won-Ge-Chat, his x mark (Seal) 
May 26, '68, 13 names ) One Horn. 

Oh-Pon-Ah-Tah-Fe-Manne, his x 
mark. The Elk that bellows, 
Walking. (Seal) 

And fifteen others. 


Jas. C. O'Connor Wm. H. Brown 

Nicholas Janis, Interpreter Antoine Janis, Interpreter. 



Interview brings description of life at the military outposts, from a 
woman's experiences 

By Alice Mathews Shields* 

Edward A. Matthews and Rachel (Lobach) Brown Matthews, his wife, 
had each passed the third quarter century milestone when they were engaged 
in this interview and allowed their minds to drift back to years when the earlier 
history of the United States was in the making. Sometimes these retrospections 
recalled events of carefree and beautiful days, and again there were vivid 
memories of excitement and of danger. They had lived through the epoch- 
making years when the white man took for his own, by conquest, the last 
frontier country, once known as the Great American Desert. 

Mrs. Matthews, daughter of Rebecca Ann (Dewey) Lobach 
and Joseph A. Lobach, was born October 13, 1858, in the town 
of Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, thirty miles 
from Harrisburg. The first five years of her life were the battle 
blemished years of the Civil War, and were a fitting prelude 
to her future. Her father's death occurred in 1863 and the 
subsequent efforts of her mother to make a living for her family, 
served to impress the stress of those years on the child's mind. 
Shortly after Rachel's father died, her grandmother and two 
aunts came to make their home with the widowed mother and 
her two small daughters. 

Mrs. Matthews, small, quick in mind and in movement, 
and with a contagious laugh, said her earliest recollection of 
the Civil War was the invasion by the Confederate soldiers of 
the town of Carlisle where Union barracks were located. 

The gray coats are coming!' was heard all through the 
streets. There were not many men left in town as most of them 
were away at war. My mother called Rebecca Ann, my sister, 
and me and hid us between two feather beds. But the soldiers 
did not come to the house, so we breathed easier, and after a 
while we all went down to the tannery and watched the rebels 
burning the railroad bridge and the fort bridge. They also cap- 
tured the garrison. We were badly frightened but were not 

She told of watching her grandmother when she made 
candles for the family's use. ''She twisted a linen cloth and 
dipped it into melted tallow until it was saturated and would 
stand in a saucer ready to be lighted. It was a very good sub- 
stitute for a real candle. Grandmother also washed, dyed, 
and spun wool, and then wove it into blankets and wearing 

*This is the third article on Wyoming pioneers by Mrs. Shields which has 
been published in the ANNALS OF WYOMING this year. A biographical sketch 
of the author appears in the January number, 1941, at page 58. 


Rachel Accompanies Family to the West 

After a few years Rachel's mother was married to Addison 
J. House, noncommissioned officer of the Union Army, a first 
sergeant in I Company of the Second Cavalry. In the year 1865 
the Second Cavalry received army orders to move to Fort 
McPherson, Nebraska. 

The Company left Pennsylvania in January and traveled 
by train to Hastings, Nebraska. Mrs. Matthews said that she, 
then seven years old, and her sister, a few years older, did not 
mind the stiff backed seats and the poorly ventilated coaches 
of the early type railroad train. There were no dining cars so 
they carried their lunch baskets. The Company reached Hast- 
ings, a little railroad station of about eight buildings, early one 
winter morning. Without hesitation she guickly recalled the 
style of the ladies' dress as they stepped from the train into the 
prairie sunlight. 'The ladies wore long skirts that touched 
the ground, and they had bustles and puffed sleeves, and short 
basgues which made them look plump and full figured. Their 
bright shawls made them look very pretty. The wind blew hard, 
and caused them to reach for their bonnets, and it twirled their 
full skirts so we could see their high buttoned shoes. We girls 
wore Scotch plaid dresses made with gored shirts and short 
jackets buttoned in the back. We had red topped boots made 
of cowhide and trimmed with brass tips. Mother had knitted 
our black wool stockings, and grandmother had spun and dyed 
the wool. Our little flat hats were covered with small flowers. 
We all wore red flannel underwear, of course. 

"An army ambulance was waiting for us, and some of the 
officers' wives. Mother, and we girls were put into the con- 
veyance and driven to Fort McPherson. The soldiers mounted 
their horses, which had been shipped that far, and rode out 
to the fort. 

"The barracks and the guarters at the fort were built of 
logs, and a rail fence enclosed the little military post which sat 
out on the open plains as a protection for the caravans of immi- 
grants as they traveled west. 

"'We saw many Indians. They lived in their tepee lodges 
right next to the fort. We were guite a curiosity to them. Often 
they would peer through our windows, their faces framed by 
their hands, and watched us until they got tired. 'Nice sguaw, 
nice hair,' they would say as they watched me. I, my mother 
often said when she brushed and platted my two thick braids, 
was blessed with a heavy head of hair. Our step-father. Ser- 
geant House, warned us children not to go out of the barracks. 
He was afraid the Indians might carry us off. 

'Tn the spring, 1866, six months after we arrived at Fort 
McPherson, we received orders to go to Fort Omaha but on 


account of the June rise of the Platte River, we were forced to 
delay the journey until the water receded. 

''Eventually, the women and children were put in the 
ambulance and driven to Hastings where we took the train to 
Omaha. The soldiers rode their horses the full distance. Ser- 
geant House was with the cavalry ahead of our ambulance and 
we had a guide to lead the procession. The Platte River was still 
swollen when we reached there, but the officers thought the 
bridge was safe, so the guide on horse back went ahead and 
our mule teams followed him; mules will always follow a horse. 
They kept so close to the guide's mount that they almost put 
us in the river. When the horse stepped to the right side of the 
bridge, which was without a railing, our mules tried to follow 
him. My sister and I were sitting in the seat with the driver and 
of course we had to scream and hide our faces. The driver 
scolded us, Tou will scare the mules,' he said. Safely over the 
bridge we had to plough through a long stretch of deep mud and 
water before we reached dry land. Our step-father was waiting 
and watching our ambulance. He said that he feared every 
minute we would be thrown into the river. 

''When we reached Omaha we had to cross the Missouri 
River on a ferry, and I remember the rain poured on us until 
we reached Fort Omaha." 

After one year's time at Fort Omaha, the Second Cavalry 
was transferred to Fort Sanders, Wyoming. Fort Sanders was 
established by the war department in 1866 and was located a 
few miles out of the town of Laramie in Albany County. 

Family Arrives on First Train into Fort Sanders 

"We traveled on the Union Pacific railroad, and ours was 
the first train to go into Fort Sanders," Mrs. Matthews revealed. 

"Sergeant House received transportation for Mother, 
Rebecca, and for himself, but I was overlooked. When the time 
came for the conductor to take up the tickets the sergeant threw 
a buffalo robe over me so that I would not be noticed. I was 
not very large so I don't suppose that I would have been noticed 
anyway, but we had a good laugh on account of the incident. 

"We could not get guarters when we first went to Fort 
Sanders so we, with two other families, lived in a Government 
office building until our guarters were built. The Fourth In- 
fantry F Company under command of General Potter, the 
Fourteenth Infantry F Company under command of General 
Powell, the Third Cavalry E Company under the command of 
General Bracket, as well as our division, the Second Cavalry 
I Company under Major Noyes, were there. General Palmer 
was the Commander of the Post. 


"The noncommissioned officers' quarters were one story 
log houses built around a circle. The officers' quarters were set 
off to the left, and the parade ground was in the center. The 
stables were back of the laundresses' quarters and a rail fence 
enclosed the whole military post. The post received its water 
supply from a lake back of the officers' houses. There was also 
a mountains stream flowing through the garrison which furnished 
water for the animals. 

' 'No, I never witnessed an Indian attack, but practically was 
reared on stories of such attacks which took place quite often." 

She then recalled the case of the Metz family who were 
traveling on the road from Laramie City to the Black Hills 
Country where gold had recently been discovered in such great 
quanities, that at this writing, it is still being dug from the earth. 
The Metz family had planned to open a bakery shop in the Hills. 
"They were just about half way across the prairie country when 
the Indians attacked them. Ihe family were scalped and murder- 
ed and their wagon and possessions were burned. After a public 
funeral service held in the street in front of the Eberhart's 
Bakery in Laramie City the bodies were buried in one grave 
in the Laramie City cemetery." 

In the year 1867 when the Union Pacific railroad Company 
was building iis road west beyond the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains, General Palmer ordered the Second Cavalry to 
Medicine Bow, Wyoming, railroad station located about fifty 
miles north and west of Laramie City and near Como Bluff 
(location of the famed dinosaur graveyard, one of the most 
renowned fossil beds, discovered in 1867) to protect the workers 
from the relentless war which was being waged all along the 
line by the tribes of the plains. 

''We went by train," Mrs. Matthews stated, "and the 
Cavalry marched their horses the fifty miles. The little settle- 
ment sat high on the prairie and consisted of five houses, one 
saloon and a gambling house, the railroad section house, and 
one grocery store. The store was owned by Gust Trabing, who 
also freighted between Medicine Bow and Fort Fetterman. 
Fetterman had been established that same year, and was named 
in honor of Colonel Fetterman who, with ninety others was 
massacred when Old Fort Phil Kearney, fifteen miles north of 
Buffalo, Wyoming, was destroyed by the Indians in 1866." 
Fetterman, built on a high picturesque point, high above the 
North Platte River was located about half way between Douglas 
and Glenrock, Wyoming, on the Black Hills Wagon Road. 

"Shortly after our arrival at Medicine Bow General Crook, 
with his expedition, came through. My stepfather, with a 
detachment of cavalrymen, left to escort the General and his 
command across the country to Fort Fetterman. Captain Noyes 
and Lieutenants Hall and Kingsly stayed at Medicine Bow to 



protect the settlement. We saw many Indians around the Post 
but we were not attacked. 

'The section 'boss', Mr. Lang, and his wife, had two sons 
and two daughters. Liza Lang, one of the girls, and I played 
together, and it was our custom to go down to the Medicine 
Bow River, about a mile from the Post, to wade. One day we 
were enjoying the water to our heart's content when we looked 
up and saw three big Indians standing on the bank watching us. 
They were in full feathers and blankets and had their long hair 
in braids. We were so scared that we were not able to move 
out of our tracks. The Indians did not attempt to come near us 
but waved their hands and yelled Wa ho, wa ho!' When they 
finally moved away from the river bank we clambered up the 
other side and ran the full mile to the Post. We didn't go to 
the river to wade, again, very soon. 

''Gust Trabing and his wife had no children of their own 
but I was in their grocery store the day a little girl walked into 
their lives. She came in with her father, a miner who also 
owned a potato field down near old Carbon. They had driven 
up to the store on a load of potatoes. He had her by the hand; 
she was about eight or nine years old, 'Howdy!' he said to Mr. 
Trabing. 'Have you any children?' he asked. When Mr. Trabing 
told him that he had none, he said, 'I'll trade you this girl for a 
sack of flour. My wife died and left me with seven.' Gust 
Trabing thought that the man was joking at first, but when he 
found that he was in earnest, he called Mrs. Trabing and they 
agreed to the trade. The man took his sack of flour, threw it 
on top of his load of potatoes, and drove on down the road. The 
little girl, blond, and not unlike the Trabings, stood with her hand 
shading her eyes, and watched him out of sight. She did not 
cry and she never uttered a word. I couldn't understand the 
actions of any of them. The Trabings were very good to the 
little girl, and when she was old enough to go to school they 
moved to Laramie City and gave her a good education. They 
named her Mable. She became a grand singer, and sang fifty 
years ago at +he Tabor Opera House (of Silver Dollar fame) in 
Denver. Mable married one of the Swan boys of the Swan Live 
Stock Company. They parted years later, and she kept on with 
her singing for several years. Her death occurred not many 
months ago. The Swan home stood on the present site of the 
Penney Dry Goods store in Cheyenne." 

The Second Cavalry was returned to Fort Sanders in the 
year of 1868, and again, in 1874 was transferred back to Medi- 
cine Bow. It was in the last mentioned year that Sergeant 
House received his final discharge from the Army. He had 
spent ten years on the Wyoming frontier, and had engaged in 
many battles of the Civil War. Twenty- seven different engage- 
ments are listed on his discharge papers. After he left th8 


Army he, with his family, moved to Laramie City, where the 
United States Marshal made him turnkey for the State Peniten- 
tiary — then in Laramie City. He remained in that position until 
his retirement at the age of sixty-nine. He was Captain of the 
Grand Army of the Republic in Laramie City until his death. 

Rachel Lobach and Henry F. Brown Wed at Fort Sanders 

Rachel Lobach' s first marriage was to Henry F. Brown of 
F Company Fourth Infantry in 1874. The marriage ceremony 
took place in the Company's library at Fort Sanders. After 
the birth of their first child, Henry, they were transferred to 
the Red Cloud Indian Agency just over the Wyoming-Nebraska 
line. The Sioux, Arapahoe, Cheyenne, and Snake Indians 
lived at the Agency in their tepee villages, and the soldiers 
were stationed there to keep peace and order. 

"'When we arrived at Red Cloud," said the young mother 
of sixty-one years ago, "Chief Sitting Bull was being tried at 
the Agency for causing trouble between the Indians and the 
white settlers. The Pawnees stood around on the outside 
listening and watching." 

No doubt the attitude of the Indians, soon to be on the most 
terrible of all their war paths, was none too friendly, and the 
white women — there were only four of them at the Agency — 
were apprehensive of the unrest amongst the warriors. 

"We did not have guarters, so had to live at the barracks 
in log cabins. There was a creek a short distance from the cabins 
where we had to go for our water supply. We aften saw the 
Indians riding along the bank on their ponies. One day I was 
at the creek filling my bucket with fresh water when one of 
the bucks got off his pony and came over to where I stood 
dipping up water. Afraid to run, I dropped my bucket and stood 
there. He talked a little, very poor English, but I understood 
what he was saying. He made many different offers to get me to 
go away with him. I kept answering "Tes, yes, and no, no." 
Finally, he left me. 

'"Bright and early the next morning he appeared at our 
cabin carrying gifts for my husband to be given him in exchange 
for me. He had a pony, a saddle, beads, buffalo robe, blankets, 
moccasins, and what not, which he offered to my husband who, 
in good old fashioned Army language let him know that he had 
better make tracks. He said, "We have to fight you to keep you 
from killing the settlers and now you want my wife! — you! Get out 
out of here, or I'll shoot your — head off! The brave, dropping 
his valuables, ran as if he thought the whole Army was after 

""Yes, there were a number of sguaws and children living 
in the tepee villages. There was a squaw known as Cheyenne 


Fannie who used to come to my cabin to help me with the 
washing. One day I was hanging the clothes on the line when I 
noticed Fannie running out of the yard with something under 
her shawl. I watched her and soon discovered that she had my 
six-months-old baby. I ran after her screaming, 'Give me my 
papoose!' She stopped and grunted something and handed the 
baby to me. The Indians were natural thieves. Cheyenne 
Fannie spen1 a great deal of time around my house. I tried to 
persuade her to talk, but seldom was successful. I would say, 
Tannie, I'm not going to let you work for me any more, if you 
don't talk. Why don't you talk?' All that I got in return was a 
grunt and a shake of her head. I never saw her laugh. 

'Treguently we went over to the Indian villages to watch 
them put on their dances. They set their little ones on the ground 
and then danced around them in a circle while shouting their 

'The Indian women made their own clothing as well as 
their men's clothes. Their dressed were made after the style 
of a pillow slip left open on both ends. Shoulder straps held 
the dress snugly against the arm pits. The men's pants were 
made of hide which were sewed with rawhide, and were 
fitted to reach the chest and held up with shoulder straps. 
Both men and women wore great shawls, wrapped around 
their shoulders. 

"In June, 1876, word came through by courier that General 
Custer and his command were being annihilated by the North- 
ern Indians in the Little Big Horn country. The Fourth Infantry 
F Company was ordered to go to Custer's aid at once. We 
stayed on at Red Cloud for a while, or until it was learned that 
the reinforcements had been too late to be of any assistance 
to Custer. We were then called to Fort Bridger in the extreme 
western and southern part of Wyoming, where the Fourth 
Infantry F Company had been sent from the scene of Custer's 
battle. We women went by train as far as Carter Station in 
south west Wyoming. There were three officers' wives and 
myself, and my baby. When we got off the train a1 Carter we 
finished the trip by stage coach. 

''My baby, Henry, was just seven months old, and I was 
very young, just seventeen, and I was so afraid! Custer's 
massacre had given the Indians a lot of courage and they were 
wild with hate after their victory over the American soldiers. 
I was mortally afraid of an Indian attack when we crossed the 
prairie and the mountain trails. When we neared a stage 
station, I fully expected to be murdered or carried away. The 
officers' wives were very kind in helping me with the baby. They 
saw that I was sick wi+h fear and freguently offered to take care 
of him. I was relieved when they took him for I thought that 
they could protect him better than I. We were twenty-four 


hours on the road between Carter station and Fort Bridger. We 
stopped at a stage station for the night and then continued on 
our way in the morning. 

'Tort Bridger was a pretty httle place set in the mountains 
on the Black Fork of the Green River. It was named for Jim 
Bridger, noted trapper and guide, who had opened a trading 
post there in 1843. The buildings were of rough native logs, 
as were all of the military posts in Wyoming. There was a little 
park where we went for recreation back of the houses, and a 
mountain stream ran through the post. 

~'My husband had reached Bridger before I arrived but 
there were no guariers for us, so I stayed at the home of Kels 
Nickell and his wife. It was their son, Willie Nickell, born 
years later, who was shot by Tom Horn at their Iron Mountain 
ranch in 1901. 

"Later we moved to our guarters just across the street from 
the little park. It was at Fort Bridger that I came to know Cal- 
amity Jane (Western character). She often came to my house 
and asked to take the baby over to the park. She loved him and 
was very kind to him. Although she was known all through 
the West and there are many stories about her, I knew her only 
as a kind-natured woman. She was about twenty-five at that 
time, tall, dark, and just fairly good looking. She was rough, I 
suppose, but she had a good heart. 

"Wild game, especially deer and antelope, was plentiful 
when we lived there. Buffalo roamed the plains, also; great 
herds of hundreds of head often grazed near the fort." 

Henry Brown received his discharge from the Army while 
at Fort Bridger and the family moved to Laramie City to live. 
As time went on, three more children were born to them, 
Joseph, Florence Ann, (Mrs. John Willis) and Walter Gurney. 

Family Moves to Laramie, Tent City 

Mrs. Matthews explained that Laramie was a tent city 
the first time she visited there, and that Front Street was the 
town. She said, "Mr. Ivinson came to Laramie from England 
just a short time before I went there to live. He built the first 
bank building and lived upstairs over the bank. He also owned 
a grocery store and a hardware store. William Myers, who 
later became Cheyenne's first dry goods merchant, had a dry 
goods store in Laramie on Second and Garfield. Molly Inger- 
soll, one of the widest known dressmakers in the region, had 
a shop over A. T. Williams' bakery and I used to sew for her. 
The dressmaker was a very important person in those years 
because there were no ready-made clothes for women. We 
made many Dolly Vardin dresses — full skirts over hoops — and 
leg o' mutton sleeves. Also, we made made wrappers of delaine, 
a warm part- wool material. 


''Henry Brown became connected with the business of 
transporting water to the townspeople. The Laramie River 
furnished the supply and he delivered it through the town at 
twenty cents a barrel. Each heme had a barrel sunk in the 
ground in the back yard for use as a water tank. Some of the 
families and most of the business places had water piped in 
from the river. The town built up rapidly, and soon there were 
three hotels, the Thornberg, the Custer, and the Frontier. Bill 
Nye (famed humorist) owned the first newspaper, the Boomerang, 
and his office was upstairs over the livery barn." 

Some other firsts which Mrs. Matthews mentioned were: 
Luther Filmore, first Union Pacific shop superintendent, and 
his assistant, William Campbell. Billy Mills, Billy Phelps, and 
Charlie Phelps were among the first Union Pacific conductors. 
The engineers were Johnny Hill, Billy Jodgeman, Tom McHugh, 
and Dan Breece, father of Brigadier General Breece. The first 
sheriff of Albany County was Mr. Boswell, and the first city 
marshal, Larry Fee. Mrs. John Coble, then Miss Tauson, taught 
school at the Bosler ranch about twenty miles north of Laramie 
Ci1y. She mentioned that her family knew John Coble in Car- 
lisle, Pennsylvania. Miss Hattie Reals was the first telephone 
operator. She later became Mrs. John N. Marks of Cheyenne. 

Mrs. Matthews said the first doctors in Laramie were: 
Doctors William Harris, Bristol, Stevens, Dieset, Haley, Foster 
and Horn; that the first church buildings to appear in 
Laramie were: Baptist, Catholic, Danish Luthern, Swedish 
Luthern and Presbyterian. The Presbyterian Minister, Mr. 
Arnold, was the father of Conway Arnold, Laramie attorney. 

She called to mind the immigrant trains of prairie schooners. 
'The schooners were drawn by oxen, mules, or horses, and 
carried all of the imigr ant's possessions. They passed through 
Laramie in a long and endless chain, slowly and almost daily, 
as they toiled along over the Overland Trail on their way to 
Salt Lake City and other points farther west. Many of the 
travelers were the Mormons going through to Utah. We were 
always hopeful of seeing our mother's only brother, whom she 
wanted to come West, so with the expectation of seeing him in 
one of the wagons we scanned the faces of the travelers so 
closely that the practice became a habit, but we never found 
him. He came West later but stopped at Mitchell, Nebraska, 
and settled there. General Grant was one of the distinguished 
travelers to pass through Laramie and it was my good fortune 
to shake hands with him." 

Dances And Quilting Bees Furnish Early-Day Recreation 

Asked about the amusements and recreation participated 
in by the early residents of Laramie, she called to mind dances 
of the old style; the polka, schottische, Virginia Reel, quadrille 


and of course, the waltz. She said a crowd would plan a picnic 
and someone would furnish a hayrack and all would pile in 
with picnic baskets. 'There was a beer garden one mile north 
of Laramie where beer and pretzels were served. Crowds 
went there to dance, and we had many good times there in the 
seventies. Winter fun was sleigh-riding and bob-sledding." 
And, then remembering the older people she said, "Quilting 
bees where friends gathered at one home and quilted for the 
hostess took a lot of our time. Some beautiful quilts were made 
in various patterns such as the log cabin, the wedding ring, 
the sun burst, and the crazy quilt." 

Mrs. Matthews owns a quilt which belonged to her mother 
seventy years ago. It is beautiful and the white muslin back 
ground has not yellowed, nor has the colored calico, used to 
fashion the sun burst pattern, faded, even though the quilt 
has been boiled in laundering. 

''O, yes, we went buggy riding. Buggies became the fashion 
while we were living in Laramie. The surry and the one-seated 
hack, with a driver's seat high behind the top which shaded 
the passenger's seat, were most in use then, and one was con- 
sidered quite well off to own one of the luxury buggies." 

To thoroughly realize that the preceding events took place 
many years ago, and to understand thoroughly that Mr. and 
Mrs. Matthews are really pioneers in Wyoming, one has but to 
recall the fact that the afore-mentioned incidents took place 
before the year 1886, the year that the couple were married; 
and they have long since observed their fifieth wedding anni- 

Rachel Brown, Widowed, Marries 
Edward A. Matthews 

After several years of widowhood, Rachel Brown met 
another Army man, Edward A. Matthews, who, following his 
discharge in October, 1881, had entered the employ of the 
Union Pacific railroad as a brakeman, with headquarters in 
Laramie City. Their marriage took place in Denver, Colorado, 
on July 25, 1883. 

Mrs. Matthews was visibly pleased to describe her wedding 
dress. ~'Dark blue serge", she said, ''basgue style — pointed back 
and froni" — and trimmed with light blue bone buttons and piping 
of the same color. The dress had a full gathered shirt with a small 
train looped up with a light blue cord. My shoes, Mr. Matthews 
had made for me by a shoemaker in Boston, were light blue 
dressed kid, eighteen-button. To finish the costume, I wore a 
blue pancake hat covered with flowers in pastel shades. Yes, 
I wore my hair in bangs, cut straight and smooth, and wore a 
French roll at the back of my head. No, no powder or rouge! 
I weighed just ninety-nine and one half pounds,- and was less 


than five feet tall, so the wedding dress did look well." Her 
large dark eyes disclosed due pride as she visioned her wed- 
ding dress of long ago. 

Edward A. Matthews was from Boston. His father, Edward 
Matthews, was a native of Ashford, County Kent, England. His 
mother was Jannette (Stewart) Matthews, native of Scotland. 
When the senior Matthews was a young man, he with his 
brother Walter, came to America with the intention of joining 
the Mormon colony in Utah, but when they reached Boston, 
Edward decided to remain there and to work at his trade, that 
of shoemaker. His brother Walter, however, went on with the 
Mormons. Edward and Miss Stewart were married soon after 
arriving in America, and to this union their son Edward A. 
Matthews was born. Later they moved to Hamilton, Canada, 
where their daughter, Jessie, was born. After about six years 
they returned to the United States and eventually settled in 
Chicago, Illinois. When Edward was twenty-one he decided 
that he wanted to go West to become a cow puncher. He 
thought the best way to make the trip would be to join the Army, 
so with the idea in mind of first fighting the Indians, he enlisted 
in the United States Army. He, now eighty-one years old, is 
erect and tall; has keen blue eyes and a kindly smile. He 
chuckled when he said, '1 wasn't really twenty-one when I 
enlisted in '76, but I stretched my age a little." 

Immediately after his enlistment he was sent to St. Louis, 
then to Kansas City, and finally to Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming, 
where he was assigned to I Company of the Third Cavalry. 
His company was outfitted at Camp Carlin, Army supply depot 
for all western divisions, located half way between Cheyenne 
and Fort D. A. Russell (now Fort Francis E. Warren). 

Mr. Matthews Assists in Burial of 
Custer and Thornberg Dead 

~'So soon as we were outfitted we headed for General 
Custer in northern Wyoming," he said, and went on to describe 
the march. ''We traveled in military file. Our column was a 
mile long, and included the pack train and the supply train. 
We had a kitchen and when we stopped for meals the boys 
lined up and each of us grabbed his food and ran back to his 
saddle and ate — probably the origin of the cafeteria. At 
night we stopped for a while to rest and used our saddle for a 
pillow and our saddle blankets for a cover. Well, we were 
just beyond Fetterman, or approximately one hundred and 
fifty miles from Camp Carlin, when we met the army ambu- 
lances returning from the Custer battle field with the wounded 
soldiers who had gone in to fight the Indians after Cus+er and 
his command were killed. We turned around then and went 


back to Fetterman under the command of First Lieutenant 
A. D. King. We stayed there for a short time and spent the most 
of our time chasing maurading Indians, Crows and Sioux, who 
were after all of the cattle they could get their hands on. 

"Soon we were ordered to go to the Meeker reservation 
where the Ute Indians had killed Meeker, the Indian agent. 
We started out and rode hard all night; got to Medicine Bow 
in the morning, and shipped our horses from there to Rawlins 
where we again mounted and rode across the Continental 
Divide to Meeker. lim Baker, Indian scout, was our guide from 
where he joined us at his cabin on Fortification Creek, three 
miles south of Baggs, Wyoming, in the extreme south-central 
part of the state. 

"'Captain Thornberg, with his command, the E Company 
of the Third Cavalry went on ahead of us and when Jim Baker 
saw them he stopped Thornberg and asked him where he was 
going. When Thornberg explained that he was going to Meeker 
Reservation, Jim Baker, one of the best informed Indian guides 
in the West, said, Tou have too many men for a peace con- 
ference, and not enough to fight the Indians.' Thornberg's 
answer to Jim was, 'Forward march!' and they rushed on to 
their death. Thornberg was the first one to be killed. All of 
his men and thier horses were dead when we got there a little 
later. We used the dead animals for our breastworks. Finally 
we corralled the Utes and herded them into Colorado where 
their reservation was located. We then took the dead back to 
Fort Steele,^ fifteen miles east of Rawlins, where we buried 
them. Yes, it was pretty hard; many of the boys were our friends. 

Stationed at Fort Steele for Five Years 

'The Third Cavalry I Company stayed at Fort Steele for 
five years, where we fought the Crows and the Sioux. My term 
of enlistment expired in October, 1881, and after my discharge 
I went to Rawlins for awhile and then went to Laramie City 
and began braking for the Union Pacific. After one trip, I was 
made conductor with a run from Laramie City to Rawlins, and 
kept that run for twenty years. In 1 901 my run was changed 
and Mrs. Matthews and I moved to Cheyenne, my new terminal. 
My run was from Cheyenne to Green River for twenty-seven 
years when I was retired in 1928. I never became a cowpuncher, 
my real reason for coming West. 

After Mr. and Mrs. Matthews had been living in Cheyenne 
for about eleven years, they were made very happy by the 
coming of their foster daughter, Jessie Matthews, now Mrs. 
Winton Henry Alleman of Cheyenne. 

1 See pages 344-346 for picture and history of Fort Fred Steele. 


Edward Matthews reviewed with warm interest the changes 
and improvements which took place in his forty-seven years of 
railroad service. ''When I started railroading in 1882 it took 
two engines to pull six cars." He pointed to a photograph of 
the new streamlined train, "If I had not retired so soon I would 
be riding that now," he declared. 

Asked to recall some of his experiences on the road, Mr. 
Matthews said, "'Not much happened except cold weather and 
snow in the winter time. I recall being snow bound for two days 
one winter. We were going up Sherman Hill grade and it was 
pretty cold, but we had provisions and cooked our meals, and 
were none the worse for our experience. We were caught in 
a blizzard near Corlett one night and I walked back to Buford 
for help. The cold was severe but I got there after a few hours." 

Edward A. Matthews and his wife, Rachel, have enjoyed 
life, perhaps more than some, because they have experienced 
hardships and can appreciate the better things of life. They 
are members of the Presbyterian Church. 

Their home in Cheyenne is modernistic in every way but 
they have kept some of the furniture of an earlier period. A 
bedroom is furnished with a beautiful old walnut set, high 
massive bed, huge mirrored dresser and marble topped table. 
The set dates back to 1876. 

NOTE — This sketch is written from interviews with Mr. and Mrs. Matthews in 
January, 1936. Mr. Matthews' death came after a short illness in June, 1937. 
His funeral was conducted by the Masonic Order and his grave is in the 
Laramie cemetery in the Addison J. House plot. 

The five separate certificates showing the Honorable Discharge from the 
Army of the United States of Addison J. House, are on file in the State His- 
torical Department of Wyoming. 

Also, on display there, is a silver watch, originally owned by Addison J. 
House who carried it thorugh the twenty-seven different engagements of the 
Civil War, as well as during the ten years he was engaged in Indian warfare 
in the Wyoming Tenitory. Later the watch was carried through the Spanish 
American War in Manila by Henry A. Brown, Mrs. Matthews' son, (the baby 
to whom she refers in this story.)- — Alice M. Shields. 

NOTE — There is no family relationship between the Matthews of this story 
and Alice Mathews Shields who interviewed the couple. — Ed. 





From the Republican-Bulletin, Rawlins, 
Wyoming, August 13, 1941 

'In that far-distant day in 1868 when Fort Steele was 
established, the government put it there on the Platte River 
beside the railroad for several reasons. Perhaps the chief 
reason was that an army camp was needed to protect the builders 
of the Union Pacific from the Indians. But another reason for its 
being situated as it was lies in the fact that it was in a strategic 
position. It seems as though the army like then, as now, to 
build forts on rivers, for rivers are not only natural bulwarks 
but are sources of water supply. Moreover, Fort Steele when 
placed on the Platte commanded a large area east and west 
of the river. 

"Now, however, the Indian menace has vanished. Now, 
there are only a few remains of the fort that was abandoned 
in 1886 and still further deserted when the route of the Lincoln 
Highway was changed a few years back so that it no longer 
passes through the fort site. But despite the changes wrought 
by the hand of man, the basic strategic position of the fort has 

A Site For Engineers 

'Today, beside the river, with the best railroad in the 
United States running through it, with the power of the Seminoe 
Dam close by, with adeguate airport facilities available, with 
vast spacious plain and mountain areas for drills and maneuvers, 
the site of old Fort Steele remains just as it was when the army 
selected it for a fort site in the 19th century.* ***** 

History of Fort Steele 

"When the Union Pacific Railroad was being constructed 
Indian depredations in Wyoming compelled the government 

NOTE: — The picture of Fort Fred Steele on the opposite page was obtained 
by the Wyoming Historical Department for use in this issue of the ANNALS, 
through the courtesy of Mrs. A. D. Sager, of Fort Steele, Wyoming, who re- 
ceived it from Colonel George L. Converse, of Columbus, Ohio. The Colonel 
served at the old Fort for several years before it was abandoned in 1886, and 
when sending the picture to Mrs. Sager, October 1, 1941, he wrote, "Our 
troops left Fort Steele for Arizona on the 8' day of May, 1882, in as heavy a 
blizzard and snow storm as any that winter, and on the night of the 7th, two 
men attempted a robbery of the Rawlins bank (Hugus) and planned after the 
job at Rawlins to come to Steele and rob the Commissary Department, but 
they were detected in Rawlins, captured, and on the morning of the 8' May 
were found hanging to a telegraph pole just outside the town. There were 
some rather rough people about even in that day, but I always got on with 
them without trouble . . . ." — Ed. 


in 1868 to locate a new post and the place selected was at the 
railroad crossing of the North Platte. Colonel Richard I. Dodge 
was ordered to commence the construction. The troops were 
sent from Fort Sanders, with Lieutenant Robinson in command. 
They camped for about a month on the east side of the river 
and then moved to the west side where the ground had been 
laid out for the post. 

'The new post was named Fort Fred Steele after General 
Fred Steele, a hero of the Civil War. Two saw mills were 
erected and logs hauled from Elk Mountain to furnish lumber 
for the buildings. 

~ Indians were everywhere and had to be constantly 
watched by the troops. There were also white men who were 
quite as bad as the Indians and who stole from the government 
at every opportunity. Horses and mules were often stolen and 
sold for big prices. At one time a bunch of 50 head of beef 
cattle was stolen from the government and none of them ever 

'The military reservation itself was established on June 
28, 1869. Frame buildings provided quarters for four companies 
of soldiers. The garrison was kept at Fort Steele for over 10 
years. During these 10 years, amid the harrowing attacks of 
the[ ndians, the encounters and experiences of the soldiers 
proved most sanguinary. 

'The beginning of the end for Fort Steele began on Jan. 
24, 1878, when General George Cook in an annual report 
stated: "While no military necessity exists for troops at Fort 
Steele and Fort Sanders, yet they are cheap places for stationing 

"From the fort in mid-September, 1879, Major Thos. F. 
Thornburg led soldier tropps to the aid of Nathan Meeker, 
agent of the White River Utes in Northwestern Colorado. The 
Utes disliked the government's farm policy, which Meeker was 
administrating, and because Meeker insisted upon it the Utes 
uprose and killed the agent. En route there Thornburg was 
ambushed and he and 12 others were killed and 47 soldiers 
were wounded. Soon after this, the troops were removed from 
Fort Steele. 

"At the present time all that remains of Fort Steele are 
four old buildings and the old powder house. Remnants of 
the old stone corral are still in evidence and on the summit 
of the hill south of the settlement is the cemetary with a broken- 
down picket fence and broken headstones. Most of these old 
buildings are owned by livestock companies, since the business 
index lists Fort Steele's main occupation as that of stock-raising. 

"Yet, despite the faltered ruins of what was once a proud 
army station, the site remains intact and that is what is most 
important. ******" 


By Douglas C. McMurtrie* 

The earliest known printing within the Hmits of the present 
state of Wyoming was done by Hiram Brubdage at Fort Bridger 
in June, 1863. Brundage, who seems to have been a telegraph 
operator at the fort, published, in a primitive manner, a little 
news sheet, which he called the Daily Telegraph, containing 
Civil War news for the information of the members of the garri- 
son and of the civilian residents of the vicinity. Only two issues 
of this most unpretentious little paper are known to have survived 
— a copy of the third^ issue, dated June 26, 1863, and a copy of 
No. 24, July 26, 1863. 

After this modest beginning at Fort Bridger, it was more 
than four years before printing was again undertaken in Wyo- 
ming. Then, in the summer of 1867, three newspapers (the 
Cheyenne Leader, the Star, and the Argus) made their appear- 
ance in the boom town of Cheyenne. And at the end of 1867 
the traveling press of the Frontier Index, the extraordinary 
newspaper which followed the construction of the Union 
Pacific Railroad from point to point, made a short stop at Fort 

The press made its second appearance at Fort Bridger in 
February, 1868, when J. Edward Warren and Charles J. Hazard 
began the publication there of the semi-weekly Siveetwater 
Mines. Three months later, however, this newspaper had been 
removed to South Pass City. 2 

*BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH— Douglas C. McMurtrie, son of William and 
Helen McMurtrie, was born at Belmar, New Jeisey, on Jul-y 20, 1888, and 
"is known as an authority on typography, and the history of printing; also an 
an authority on provision for crippled children and disabled soldiers." He 
received his preparatory education at Hill School, Pottstown, Pennsylvania, 
and studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1906-1909. Mr. 
McMurtrie has held numerous editorial positions and is the author of many 
publications, especially on the subject of early printing in America. 

Among other activities at the present time (1941) Mr. McMurtrie is a 
member of the Committee on Historical Source Materials of the American 
Historical Association, and as such, he is chairman of the Special Committee 
on Library Holdings, with office at 950 Michigan Avenue, Evanston, Illinois. 

For a complete biography, see Who's Who in America. 

1. A little spot or blur on this copy makes the figure 3 look like an 8, and 
the issue was previously described as being "No. 8." Careful examination 
discloses that the figure is actually a 3. 

See Douglas C. McMurtrie, "Pioneer Printing in Wyoming," ANNALS OF 
WYOMING, V. 9, no. 3, January, 1933, p. 729-742 (with a reproduction of the 
issue of June 26, 1863), and "An Early Newspaper of Wyoming," Chicago: 
Black Cat Press, 1933 (with photostatic facsimiles of both issues). 

2. See Douglas C. McMurtrie, "The Sweetwater Mines, a Pioneer Wyo- 
ming Newspaper," Journalism Quarterly, v. 12, no. 2, June, 1935, p. 164-165. 












|Md^ ||. I- J»(u»h| 

Ifirittfl land. 


December 31 1875. 


^<>uI1ll liiiuiiir) I'lfi 


Page 1 of Musical Program printed at Fort Bridger in 1875. 



1. Rit'.e March by Fausi 

2. Webor's last Waltz witli Var. 

Flute Solo A. Biiflcr. 

3. a. \ Song. Good ni<;lit tny chiM by Abt. 

b. • Fong. T!ic' Swiss Cottsjg?,. ., l^ , . Abt. 

C. Ehrlcr. 

-i ThciTsic!! Waltz liy Laflinor. 

5 . Ak'xis "grand Fantasia" by I rartniaii 

Cornvt Solo J.Ts'cvotti. 

0. Overture Pool and Pensau I.,,. Suppe. 

Page 2 of Musical Program printed at Fort Bridger in 1875. 

Printing took root slowly in Wyoming. During the year 
1868, in addition to the appearance of the Sweetwoter Mines 
at South Pass Ciiy, the transitory Frontier Index made stops at 
Laramie, Green River, and Bear River (now Knight). A more 
stationary press appeared at Laramie in 1869, with the Laramie 




7. Dwrt fVcin S()liii'.;:mbiil;i 

:» / Song. Kvi'iiiiijx jHiivcr 

I,. ) Song. Scvilla 

M. Scl.ini<lt 

0. r. nt;i«<i.n ircn» S* mMtimbiii.i 

Vioi:n J^olo J. Ilirsc-li. 

l.y Bvllihi , 

. I»y KiMitz.i 
. I.y IJeicliar.lf . 



10 Chi.tic's of Strassburg by Wagnor 

ZitluT Solo J. Nc'votll. 

11, Duct tor two Violins by Kalliwoiia. 

J. IJiisch ani Il.ScInn'ult. ' 

12. New Vienna Waltz bv Stran- - 

Page 3 of Musical Program printed at Fort Bridger in 1875. 

Daily Sentinel. And there was probably a press in Evanston in 

It is all the more interesting, therefore, to note here the 
reappearance in 1875 of Fort Bridger in the annals of Wyoming 
printing. The evidence of this has only recently come to my 


notice, in the form of a program of a ''Musical Evening Enter- 
tainment given by the Fourth U. S. Infantry String Band, at 
the Post Hall, Fort Bridger, Wy. Ter., December 31, 1875." 
The program bears the imprint of the ' 'Fourth Infantry Press." 
This little memento of a long-forgotten event is in the 
collection of Mr. Everett D. Graff, of Winnetka, Illinois, and 
it is with Mr. Graff's courteous permission that a reproduction 
of its three pages is presented here. True, it is not a striking 
specimen of typography, but it has its appeal. More than that, 
however, it deserves recording as one of the very rarest im- 
prints that has yet come out of Wyoming. The Fourth Infantry 
Press at Fort Bridger unquestionably did other printing needed 
for the routine of an army post. But perhaps it is worth noting 
that in the sole survival of their work those army printers dis- 
played their skill in the program for a cultural event — a New 
Year's Eve "Musical Evening Entertainment." 

To Grave of Sacajawea* 

While the afternoon shadows slowly slid down the eastern 
slopes of the Wind River Mountains near Fort Washakie, on 
September 26, 1941, more than 1,000 people attended the 
unveiling ceremonies of a bronze tablet, placed on a huge 
monolith of granite by the Wyoming Historical Landmark 
Commission, as an additional tribute to the memory of Sacaj- 
awea, Shoshone Indian woman, who with her husband, Tous- 
saint Charbonneau, accompanied the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition to the Pacific Coast in 1805. The monument, erected 
on US 287, points the way to Sacajawea's grave, two miles 
westward in the Shoshone burial ground. 

With all of the color and precision of a theatrical pageant 
the program progressed under the able direction of L. L. Newton, 
of Lander, master of ceremonies. But this was not a rehearsed 
production — this was reality — for there were present Indians 
and white men who personally had known Sacajawea, "Bazil's 
Mother". Included among these were: Pandora Pogue, 98- 
year old Shoshone woman, arrayed in a bright shawl, beaded 
moccasins and leggings; Quantan Quay, stalwart 100-year old 
Indian scout; Mayor W. T. Jones of Lander, who at one time 
operated a meat business on the Shoshone Indian Reservation 
and who knew "Bazil's Mother" well; and the Reverend John 
Roberts, beloved missionary among the Shoshone Indians, who 

*A symposium on SACAJAWEA was presented in the July, 1941, issue of 


performed the rites of the Episcopal Church at the grave of the 
aged Indian woman on April 9, 1884. 

To the right of the monument were gathered direct des- 
cendants of Sacajawea's son, Baptiste, and of her nephew and 
adopted son, Bazil. To the left were members of the Washakie 
family and the Indian and white friends who had known "'Por- 
ivo," as Sacajawea was often called. To the rear on a raised 
platform Arapahoe and Shoshone warriors in full regalia added 
much color to the scene. A loud speaker, operated by an 
automobile nearby, provided a most modern touch. Hundreds 
of Indians and white children were allowed front positions so 
that ''they would be able to tell their children's children that 
they had taken part in this memorable occasion which would 
for once and all set forth the proof of the genuineness of the 
real Sacajawea and her residence on the Wind River Reserva- 
tion." ^ 

In recounting the historical significance of the celebration, 
Mr. Newton told of the Shoshone Indian girl who had carried 
her papoose from the Dakotas to the ''all salt water" of the 

"We honor Sacajawea today," he said, "on the ground 
her feet made sacred where she lived and passed on to the 
spirit world. Her youthful courage, knowledge of the dangers 
of wild animals, storms and floods of raging streams, of hostile 
Indians, of famine and hardships of the journey, all contribute 
to the fidelity and courage of this brave Shoshone girl." 

Chairman Warren Richardson, John Charles Thompson 
and Joseph S. Weppner of the Historical Landmark Commission, 
were introduced as the ones directly responsible for the erection 
of the beautiful memorial. Next, the Indian Committee, compos- 
ed of Charles Driskell, Mrs. Maud Clairmont, Mrs. Nellie Scott 
Thomas, Jo Durand and Gilbert Day, with Superintendent 
Forrest Stone and Engineer Space, was introduced and credited 
with the success of the celebration. Recognition also was given 
to the valuable assistance of the Sub-Committee comprising: 
Reverend John Roberts, Mrs. B. B. Brooks, Mrs. Lenora Stone, 
Mr. John Charles Thompson and Mrs. Inez Babb Taylor. 

"Then came that part of the ceremony which gave proof 
to the reality of Sacajawea. Pandora Pogue. .stood straight and 
proudly as Interpreter Compton repeated the interview that 
he had with her in which she told of knowing Sacajawea at 
Fort Bridger in 1868 and later at the Shoshone Agency. Pandora 
Pogue was present when Sacajawea died and she saw her 
buried in the cemetery near the Roberts Mission." 

1. All quotations not otherwise credited are taken from the Wyoming State 
Journal, Lander, Wyoming. 


Quantan Quay, through the Interpreter, stated that he had 
known Sacajawea or Porivo very well, also her sons, Baptiste 
and Bazil. '1 was at the council at Fort Bridger when this 
reservation was given to us," he said. "Sacajawea was at that 
meeting. I know she was there because I saw her. ." He also 
told of attending her burial. 

The next speaker was the Reverend John Roberts, who said: 
'"I want to say a few words to you especially concerning the 
burial of the heroine of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. I shall 
not trouble you with an account of that burial because it would 
take too long and the sun is going down ... I wish to say to you 
that I did have the privilege and honor of leading the burial 
services of that great woman .... She was buried in what is 
now called the Shoshone burial grounds as the monolith indi- 
cates which is dedicated and unveiled today. For us and 
future generations to come it indicates that she was buried in 
the Shoshone cemetery .... may the memory of that noted 
Shoshone woman live forever in the hearts of a grateful people." 

Former Governor Bryant B. Brooks of Casper, as speaker 
of the day, lauded the young Shoshone woman for the im- 
portant part she played in opening the great west to a new 
civilization. He paid a tribute to her loyalty and her willingness 
to do her task and do it well .... He spoke of the Indians and 
the whites working together to build a home in the beautiful 
valley and of the historical significance of the day's celebration. 

'If anyone will read," said Governor Brooks, "the life of 
Sacajawea as written by Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, noted 
historian of the Wyoming University, how she traced the life of 
the two sons .... from the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition 
step by step down to the present time when their descendants 
are here among us, he cannot fail to see that the young Indian 
woman, 16 years old, who led the white men io the west is 
identically the same woman that Rev. Roberts buried." 

In the formal ceremonies Warren Richardson, on behalf 
of the Landmark Commission, presented the marker to Governor 
Nels H. Smith for the State of Wyoming. The Governor, in 
turn entrusted it to the care of the Shoshone and Arapahoe 

"We are indeed proud," said Governor Smith, "to memori- 
alize such a woman, and we feel that through the painstaking 
study of our notable citizens and historians we have established, 
beyond any doubt, the right to claim that this woman, Sacajawea, 
is buried here in the soil of Wyoming, and that claims which 
have been made to the contrary have been without foundation. 

"The evidence submitted by the Reverend John Roberts, 
the late Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, other prominent and 
responsible Wyoming citizens, and the testimony of these four 
competent witnesses today conclusively proves that Sacajawea 


.... rests in the little cemetery only two miles from this point. 
The evidence is now worthy of acceptance by Federal authorities 
and the American public. 

""It is my hope that we can now win such acceptance and 
succeed in securing through Congressional action, the funds 
for establishing an appropriate shrine at the grave of the 
courageous American citizen, Sacajawea, whose exploits in 
guiding the Lewis and Clark Expedition through our Northwest 
country was an achievement of which our Indian and White 
citizens alike can be proud." 

As +WO great grand daughters of Sacajawea: Irene Large 
and Gloria Isis, lifted the American flag and unveiled the 
marker, the slanting sun rays made the plague glow like molten 

Chief Dick Washakie, in accepting the memorial, upon 
behalf of the Indian tribes, pledged his fidelity to the white 
people and confirmed the faith of his father Chief Washakie 
in his white friends. 

'1 am going to accept this gift from our white father," he 
said, "'on behalf of my people and I'm going to say from my 
heart out "Thank you' for my people." 

The ceremonies closed when the Rev. John Roberts lifted 
his hand in benediction and stood facing the foothills where 
the remains of Sacajawea and her two sons, Baptiste and 
Bazil, rest. 

It is hoped that this granite monolith which has been placed 
on US 287 will not only direct the way to ^he grave of Sacajawea, 
but will arouse interest in the spot so that someday there will be 
erected a magnificient monument immortalizing Sacajawea, 
the Boat Woman, i whose story is one of deep historical signifi- 
cance to the entire Nation. 

1. Although the Lewis and Clark Journals referred to Sacajawea as the 
"Bird Woman," Dr. Hebard and other historians, after many years of research 
were agreed that "Boat Woman" or "Boat Pusher" was the true interpretation 
of the word, Sacajawea. I 





Laramie County 

Chapter XVIII 

Cheyenne Continued — Mining is Activity — Levi Powell 
Brutally Killed by Indians — Third Congressional Elec- 
tion Held, 1872 — Court House and School House 
Completed in 1872. 

Another glance must now be taken at Laramie County as a 
whole, for it must be borne in mind that events worthy of men- 
tion which were occurring from time to time outside of Chey- 
enne are being referred to under the head of Cheyenne — such 
events in the mam being incidental to its history. The stock 
and other interests were prospering at the beginning of 1872, 
and a great deal of prospecting was done during that year in 
the vicinity of Laramie Peak, and in the country at and around 
Iron Mountain. Such was the case, also much nearer to Chey- 
enne in what is now known as the "Silver Crown" district, but 
which was destined ere long to be an organized mining district 
known as the ""Metcalf." Many of the ranchmen in the county 
had by this time begun to engage to a limited extent in sheep 
raising and wool growing, which were found to be profitable. 
Roads were laid out by the county commissioners of Laramie 
County in various directions and new settlements (here and 
there new ranches) were springing up to a very considerable ex- 
tent. The Indians, however, still continued to raid in the north- 
ern portion of the county, but their depredations were, with 
one exception, confined to running off stock. 

On the 5th day of May, 1872, Levi Powell, an active, 
energentic and prosperous ranchman set out from his ranch 
several miles southwest of Ft. Laramie to hunt up some lost 
stock. He rode over to a point about half way between Ft. 
Laramie and the Laramie River, and as he came over the brow 
of a little hill discovered an Indian tepee some distance away 

NOTE.— Beginning with the January, 1940 issue, the staff of the ANNALS 
OF WYOMING has transcribed verbatim and pubhshed the original manuscript 
of C. G. Coutant, which is part of the collection known as "The Coutant Notes." 
It was written in 1886 with pencil on seven ordinary school tablets, frayed and 
yellowed with age. They are among the valuable items to be found in the 
Original Manuscript File of the State Historical Department. 

The entire collection was purchased originally by the late Dr. Grace 
Raymond Hebard from Mrs. Coutant in 1914, and in turn was obtained by the 
Wyoming Historical Society (now the State Historical Department) in 1921. 

It is planned to complete the publication of these tablets in the 1942 issues 


with a small Indian boy sitting beside the fire in tront of it. He 
rode down to where the boy was sitting, and dismounted from 
his horse. The boy jabbered away to parties inside when Powell 
discovered that the tent was full of Indians who were taking a 
sweat bath — a kind of bath obtained by burning logs and 
brush on a big pile of stones until they are well heated, when 
the burning logs are removed and water poured upon the 
stones, which produces the steam. While Powell was standing 
there trying to talk, the Indians came out of the tent. There 
were seven of them including the notorious Crazy Horse and 
Little Big Man. Powell had with him his loaded rifle which he 
held in one hand, and with the other on his horse's neck. 
Finally one of the Indians reached out and took hold of his 
gun and as he apparently desired to look at it Powell let go of 
the weapon. The Indian looked at it for awhile, and then passed 
it over to the next one. The last one to take the gun was Little 
Big Man, and this Indian, after sighting and pointing the gun, 
suddenly fired shooting Powell through the head. He fell 
to the ground dead, but the red devils caught up clubs and sticks 
which lay upon the ground and mashed his head nearly to a 
jelly. They then mounted their horses and taking along with 
them Powell's horse and gun rode rapidly away in the direction 
of the river. Powell's body was found the next day, and was 
eventually brought to Cheyenne and buried in the city cemetary. 
A costly marble monument with an inscription upon it showing 
the date and name of his death was placed over his grave by 
a surviving brother. 

Another congressional election occurred in Wyoming in 
September, 1872, results of which in Laramie County, together 
with the vote for county officers, was as follows: For Delegate 
in Congress, W. R. Steele, 518; W. T. Jones, 572;., County 
Officers (result in Cheyenne, no record existing of the balance 
of the county) Sheriff, N. J. O'Brien, 446; T. Jeff Carr, 378 
County Clerk, Warren Richardson, 452; J. K. Jeffery, 370 
County Attorney, W. W. Corlett, 387; W. H. Miller, 452 
Coroner, I. C. Webb, 425; Geo. H. Powell, 387. 

The following whose names were on both tickets were 
elected, of course: 

Superintendeni of Schools, Mrs. M. H. Arnold — 766; 
Surveyor, R. Blackstone — 812; Judge of Probate, etc., W. L. 
Kuykendall — 778; County Commissioner, M. E. Post — 768; 
T. Dyer— 769; J. H. Nichols— 769. John Slaughter and A. G. 
Mead were elected Justices of the Peace in the Cheyenne pre- 
cinct, and Fred Smith and Wm. Taylor, constables. 

Although 1he foregoing figures do not indicate it (being 
only the Cheyenne vote), the official result plected T. Jeff Carr, 
sheriff, and W. W. Corlett, county attorney. 


The new court house and also the school house, the erection 
of which were commenced in the year 1871, were both com- 
pleted during the summer of 1872. The old court house which 
had been used prior to the completion of the new one formerly 
stood on the southwest corner of Eddy and Seventeenth Streets, 
but was burned down July 3d, 1874. 

The municipal election at the end of 1872 resulted as 

(Several lines of blank space left in manuscript. — Ed.) 

During the summer of 1873 affairs were very guiet in 
Cheyenne, and many who complained of hard times predicted 
that '"the bottom had fallen out of the town," but they were 
greatly mistaken. At this time county warrants, which had in 
former years been negotiated and sold for less than 70 cts. on 
the dollar, were now guoted nearly at par, and city warrants, 
which in the early days had been as low as 30 and 33 cts. on the 
dollar, were now promptly taken at 5 and 6 per cent discount 
which facts spoke well for the financial management of the two 
jurisdictions. The erection of brick buildings in the city had 
now begun, and beginning with the Joslin & Park Block on the 
southeast corner of Ferguson and Sixteenth Streets (in 1871) 
several were completed before the middle of the summer of 

Early in 1873, Tousant Kensler, a half breed Sioux, who 
had been arrested, tried and convicted for the murder of 
Adolph Penio at a ranch on the Sybille, and who was under 
sentence of death, escaped from the jail in Cheyenne with a 
companion, and succeeded in making his way back to the 
Indian reservation near Red Cloud agency, where by careful 
and shrewd management he succeeded in eluding recapture 
for nearly a year. 

In the fall of 1873 the appearance and prospects of gold, 
copper, etc., in what eventually became the Metcalf Mining 
District about twenty-two miles west of Cheyenne in the foot- 
hills, were such that several of the Cheyenne capitalists were 
disposed to form a syndicate for the development of the mines, 
and did so shortly afterwards, but the experiment did not prove 
to be a paying one at that time. 

The following was the result of the election for membership 
of the legislature, etc., in September, 1873: 

Council: F. E. Warren, 511; P. McKay, 465; I. C. Whipple, 
474; L. Murrin, 337; J. R. Whitehead, 328; Posey S. Wilson, 

House of Representatives: Jervis Joslin, 458; Harry Conley, 
477; F. S. Whitney, 436; T. N. DeKay, 444; W. L. Kuykendall, 
365; Herman Haas, 403; L. D. Barey, 369; D. C. Tracy, 358. 

At the same election W. W. Cor left was re-elected county 
attorney. He had been appointed postmaster at Cheyenne 


since his election as county attorney in 1872, and not being 
entitled to hold both offices he resigned the position of co nty 
attorney. Shortly thereafter Major Herman Glafcke, ex-secre- 
tary, was appointed postmaster. The vacancy in the county at- 
torneyship still existing in the fall of 1873, his opponent being 
T. J. Street, the vote standing Corlett, 503, Street, 335. At the 
same time there was a vacancy in the office of coroner, and Dr. 
George H. Russell was elected to the position by a vote of 
492 to 383 for Dr. J. J. Hunt, his opponent. 

Messrs. Warren, McKay and Whipple were those elected 
to the Council, and Messrs. Joslin, Conley, Whitney, and Haas 
to the House — all Republicans except the latter. 

The legislature convened in November at the Court House, 
F. E. Warren being elected president of the Council, and .... 
Wilkinson speaker of the House. This session of the legislature 

passed the compulsory education bill, speaker Wilkinson 

being the only member of the House who voted against it, 
explaining at the time that the law would not be enforced. It 
never has been. The legislature also reduced the limits of 
the First Judicial District of Wyoming making Laramie County 
the only one in the district, and providing for only two terms of 
court each year in the district. 

The ''capital removal" guestion was revived again during 
the latter part of the session, but failed to pass for various 
reasons one of which was, that during the absence of two 
members of the Council belonging in the western portion of 
the territory, the Council adjourned sine die. When the two 

members appeared they and their friends to reorganize 

the Council, elected E. L. Pease president, and proceeded to 
pass the capital removal bill by an unanimous vote, the House 
of Representatives also passing the bill. No attention was ever 
paid by anybody to the proceedings of this 'Vomp" body, and 
in a short time they were apparently forgotten. At the municipal 
election at the end of 1873, which was guite hotly contested, 
were elected trustees and the board organized by the election 
of George Carrels, president, and ex-officio mayor. 

The city officers appointed were * * * (Several lines of 
blank space allowed for filling in names. — Ed.) 

During the summer of 1873, Col. A. S. Emery laid out and 
enclosed the "Emery Park"? just west of Lake Mahpealutah^ 
about one mile north of Cheyenne at a cost of over $4,000. At 
this park, from time to time thereafter, running and trotting 
races occurred which drew large crowds, and among them 
many prominent men from Denver, Omaha, and elsewhere. 
This was the first trotting and race course ever started in 

7. This is now part oi Frontier Park. 

8. Now known as Sloan's Lake. 


Wyoming. Some years later Maj. John Talbot enclosed and 
opened a trotting and race park at his beautiful place near Camp 
Carlin northwest of Cheyenne about one mile, and here occur- 
red, under the auspices of the Cheyenne Trotting Park Associa- 
tion, many trotting and running races which rivaled in interest 
those freguenHy held at Denver, Colorado. 

Chapter XIX 

Laramie County 

Cheyenne Continued — Sioux Uprising — "Cheyenne 
Rangers" Organized — Touissant Kensler, Murderer, 
Captured — Cheyenne Suffers Fire, July 2, 1874 — An- 
other Fire July 3, And Indian Excitement — County 
Election September 2, 1874 — Cheyenne Daily News 
Established, September 6, 1874 — Official Hanging of 
Kensler by Sheriff T. Jeff Carr— Black Hills Gold 
Excitement — Expeditions by General Custer and Pro- 
fessor Jenney — Inter Ocean Hotel Built in Cheyenne. 

In the winter of 73-74 the Sioux Indians broke out again, 
this time commencing operations at Red Cloud Agency where 
two or three persons were killed, and shortly after, but in the 
same region of country, a lieutenant and several soldiers were 
killed also. For several days a victim of the savages would be 
brought in to Cheyenne every day. There was great excite- 
ment in Cheyenne and throughout the country, and this time the 
government acted promptly, and a large force was promptly 
collected at Ft. Laramie which eventually made a night march 
toward Red Cloud Agency, and before the Indians could pre- 
pare to resist them they arrived at the agency, and at length 
order was restored, although many of the Indians scattered 
away and roamed abroad at will. At this time there were nearly 
24,000 Indians near Red Cloud (the old agency) less than 100 
miles from Cheyenne. More than 6000 of these Indians were 
warriors, and being within forty-eight hours ride of Cheyenne 
it is not to be wondered at that the people felt somewhat alarmed. 
All sorts of rumors were set afloat at the time and whatever 
they might be there were always many who would believe 
them. One of these rumors was that Red Cloud (a Sioux Chief) 
camped one night within 18 miles of Cheyenne with 700 war- 

During the prevalence of the excitement an Indian was 
captured by the military three miles above Fort Russell, and 
brought to the Post. The guestion then was what should be 
done with him. At length he was released and started north. 
Acting upon a suggestion made by some one that it was a good 
time to go out on a ''jack rabbit hunt" several cavalry men 


immediately asked and obtained permission to go out on a trip 
of that kind. They went, and came back, but brought no jack 
rabbits with them. It has always been greatly feared that the 
cavalrymen mistook that Indian for a jack rabbit, and did not 
discover their error until it was too late. 

During this '"scare" which did not entirely subside for 
several months it was proposed that a military company be 
formed in Cheyenne for home protection, and also to sally out 
when necessary to the rescue of people living outside of the 
city. A meeting was called, and it was decided to organize a 
company to be called the ""Cheyenne Rangers" each man to 
furnish his own horse and equipment. Quite a number of 
men at once ""enlisted" as it was called. Then the election of 
officers occurred. Hon. A. H. Swan was elected captain. 
Major Glajcke and Major Talbot, lieutenants, Morris Appel 
quartermaster sergeant, and a full set of non-commissioned 
officers throughout. Then some fellow moved that a second 
set of officers for the ""Rangers" be elected also. The motion 
was carried, and a second set elected. When they got through 
electing officers W. P. Carroll, a newcomer in the city at that 
time, was the only private left in the company. The ""Rangers" 
never got together more than two or three times, and were the 
subject of considerable merriment at the time. W. G. Provines 
took occasion to explain to a number of very late arrivals in the 
city (sometimes irreverently called tenderfeet) that the new 
military organization was composed of ""pretty b-a-d men" and 
that each member of the company would carry a bucket to 
catch the blood in when they went out on a raid. Some of 
those who listened to the story appeared to believe it. 

Mention has elsewhere been made of the escape of Touis- 
sant Kensler, the half-breed, under sentence of death for the 
murder of Adolph Perrio. On the first day of June, 1874, Ken- 
sler was discovered by the military authorities near Red Cloud 
Agency. Two companies of troops under the command of the 
late Captain Crawford (then a lieutenant) and Lieutenant Ray 
surrounded Little Wound's band near the agency, and after 
being quite badly wounded in the leg Kensler was captured 
and taken back to Cheyenne and lodged in jail, reaching the 
city June 10. W. W. Jeffrey, now the assessor of Laramie County, 
was at Red Cloud Agency on the day when Kensler accompany- 
ing a freight train belonging to D. J. McCann. . . .The Indians 
were on the point of rising and murdering the whole party, and 
as soon as the teams were unloaded they ""pulled out" and never 
stopped until the North Platte River was reached — nearly sixty 
miles distant. 


On the night of the 2d day of July, 1874, a fire broke out 
in the rear of McDaniels' theatre on Eddy Street in Cheyenne. 
The rear end of the theatre was burned out after which the 
flames swept through from the rear of the establishment, and 
eventually burned to the ground the meat market kept at that 
time on Seventeenth Street, and the store of I. C. Whipple 
standing close beside it, and also seriously damaged the whole- 
sale liguor store of Col. Murrin. The Fire Department fought 
nobly on this occasion, but a large amount of damage was done 
ere the flames could be checked. The fire was undoubtedly the 
work of incendiaries, and it was generally believed to have 
been set by the half-breeds, guite a number of whom were 
then in Cheyenne in pursuance of a plan to rescue Touissant 

The next day, July 3d, there was a picnic excursion to 
Dale Creek, and that night was one of the wildest ever known 
in the history of Cheyenne. At about 10 pm another fire broke 
out, this time on the corner where still stood the old court 
house just south of the "'Revolution Store." The wind was very 
high at the time, and the sparks were carried nearly all over 
the town. At one time during the night the city was on fire in 
fourteen different places — set by the flying sparks. Seven 
buildings in all, including the old court house, were burned 
to the ground. The efforts made by the members of the Durant 
Fire Company, and the '"Pioneer Hooks" and also by many 
others were gallant in the extreme. N. J. O'Brien and Tom 
McGovern handled the nozzle of the hose that was sending a 
stream of water upon the roof of the old Revolution Store, and 
had blankets over their heads which were constantly kept wet 
by water being carried in buckets and thrown upon them, 
otherwise they would have been suffocated. A Presbyterian 
preacher named Reed in endeavoring to assist got upon the 
roof of the Revolution Store, and would have died from the 
effects of the heat had he not been rescued. There was great 
excitement and nearly everybody in the city was out on the 
streets. While the fire was raging a telegram was received 
from the Chug stating that a band of 500 Indians had come 
into the valley that afternoon headed toward Cheyenne for the 
purpose of rescuing Touissant Kensler. The news was at once 
sent to Fort Russell, and in less than twenty minutes four com- 
panies of infantry and companies of cavalry came down to the 
city and were posted for the balance of the night on the various 
streets leading out of town to the east, and northeast. No 
demonstration on the part of +he Indians was attempted, how- 

1. This is the same James McDaniels who established Wyoming's first museum. 
See page 365. 


On the second Tuesday in September the election for 
county officers took place, the result being as follows: 

Sheriff N. J. O'Brien 88 1 

Charles F. Miller 73 I 

Judge of Probate, etc. . .D. C. Tracy 909 

R. Blackstone 633 

County Clerk G. B. Stimson 70 1 

. T. Jeff Carr 650 

Warren Richardson 151 

County Attorney . . . . W. W. Cor left 811 

W. H. Miller 734 

Assessor E.J. Morris 845 

Isaac Bergman 709 

Supt. of Schools F. W. Hilliard 906 

H. E. Stark 624 

Coroner James Talbot 928 

R. H. Kipp 614 

Surveyor A. J. Parshall 1537 

County Commissioners . L. D. Bearey 939 

Fred Landau 871 

G. A. Draper 838 

J. S. Taylor 678 

H. N. Orr 593 

H. B. Trufant 683 

T. M. Fisher and A. G. Mead were elected Justices of the 
Peace, and Wm. Taylor and C. S. Devoe, constables, for Chey- 
enne precinct. 

All of the officers elected were democrats except O'Brien, 
Corlett, Stimson, and Parshall. The name of the latter was on 
both tickets. 

Immediately after the September election (Sept. 6), the 
Cheyenne Daily News made its appearance in Cheyenne with 
W. P. Carroll as its first editor. The paper was published by 
W. M. Benton and T. J. Fisher, and prior to the election had 
been run as a campaign sheet merely with Governor Campbell, 
Dr. G. W. Corey, Posey S. Wilson, and others, as daily con- 
tributors but had no editor. 

November 19. Touissant Kensler was hung in an old stone 
building then standing near what has for some years been known 
as "Tracy's Corral" and thus this troublesome character 
finally reached the end of his course. Sheriff T. Jeff Carr did the 
hanging in the presence of about fifty people. This was the 
second legal execution in Wyoming Territory. 

(Here in the manuscript was space and paragraph in 
skeleton form for results of city election, never completed by 
the author. — Ed.) 

During the summer and fall of 1874 there was much excite- 
ment in Cheyenne over the report that rich and extensive gold 


mines had been found in the Dakota Black Hills. This, however, 
was not a new matter with the Cheyenne people, for as early 
as 1870 there was much speculation on the subject, and pre- 
parations were made to send out an expedition, but nothing 
came of it. At that time there lived in Cheyenne a very eccentric 
colored man named Sam Fields who was dubbed with the title 
of '"General" and thought he understood the Black Hills guestion 
pretty well. Another colored man named Henry Watson also 
resided in the city then, and he thought ihat he also understood 
the situation pretty thoroughly, and such being the case, "'the 
boys" arranged for them to have a public discussion on the 
subject as their views regarding the matter did not wholly 
coincide. The discussion was held in the old court house, and 
was one of the richest affairs that ever happened in the ""Magic 
City." ""General" Fields commenced his speech by exclaiming 
""Fellah citizens ob Cheyenne, Wyomington." That was about 
as far as he got with the subject for the next five minutes. When 
it came Watson's turn to speak, he explained that the only way 
to get into the Black Hills was to get together an army of 10,- 
000 men with 600 pieces of artillery in front ""and den mabe de 
feces to de front." 

In 1879 Gen. Custer led out an expedition into the Black 
Hills and in May, 1875, Prof. W. P. Jenney with a party of 
assistants started from Ft. Laramie for the hills, and were gone 
nearly five months, returning with the report that gold existed 
there ""in paying guantities." Subseguently, a party from Dakota 
went into the hills, endured many hardships, etc, and was 
brought out by an expedition sent in there by the government 
under the command of Captain Pollock, who was killed at the 
Inter Ocean Hotel in Cheyenne in the winter of 1884, by falling 
down the stairway. Among those who came out of the hills, 
and who was a member of the Dakota party, was a man named 
Warren, who arrived first at Fort Laramie and then came to 
Cheyenne. A meeting was held at the court house where Mr. 
Warren related his experiences. Much pains were taken by 
Cheyenne men to advertise the fact that the most feasible 
route to the hills was via Cheyenne, and considerable expense 
was incurred. Among those who did good service for Chey- 
enne in this respect was Dr. G. W. Corey who assisted a gentle- 
man named J. H. Triggs to get and publish a book mainly de- 
voted to Black Hills matters pointing out the proper route, etc. A 
Colonel Carpenter (who lately figured as one of the leaders of 
the ""Oklahoma boomers") came to Cheyenne during the 
prevalence of the excitement for the purpose of organizing an 
expedition to go into the hills. Though Carpenter was ex- 
ceedingly talkative, he did good service for Cheyenne, and 
largely assisted in turning the tide of immigration into the hills 
to Cheyenne first as an outfitting point. He authorized the editor 


of the Cheyenne Daily News to attach his name to any and all 
communications he saw fit to send to any of the papers in 
Kansas and Missouri concerning the best route to the hills, 
and that individual made good use of it in that way. Between 
the 1st day of December, 1875, and the 1st day of June of the 
following year more than 6000 men 'outfitted" in Cheyenne, 
and departed for the Black Hills. 

During the year 1875 the Inter Ocean Hotel, one of the 
finest in the far West, was built in Cheyenne by an enter- 
prising colored man from Colorado named B. L. Ford, but he 
did not remain its proprietor very long. Mr. Ford also had a 
hotel on Sixteenth Street some years before that but was burned 
out by the great fire of January 11, 1870. 

During the spring and summer of 1875, there was a re- 
markable amount of thunder and lightening in and around 
Cheyenne, and several people were killed by lightening 
during the season — among others, a man named Hogan, who 
lived at that time south of the railroad track. 

The election for member of the legislature at the September 
election in 1875 was as follows: those elected all being Demo- 
Council (at large) Laramie and Albany Counties, Herman Haas, 

1360; R. Galbraith, 26; W. L. Kuykendall, 951; L. R. Bresna- 

han, 924; G. A. Searight, 983; H. B. Kelly, 836; F. E. 

Addoms, 439; 1. C. Whipple, 431; Thomas Sturgis, 438; 

F. S. Whitney, 432. 
House of Representatives: 

J. E. Davis, 838; A. H. Reel, 1020; Peter Hanna, 899; W. 

M. Ward, 881; John Nealon, 1003; H. Kimme, 842; N. 

Weeks, 893; J. W. Allen, 846; G. W. Corey, 436; J. W. 

Hammond, 614; H. E. Hurlbut, 451; W. P. Carroll, 435; 

J. H. Durbin, 451; L. R. Graves, 529; H. Conley, 518; J. W. 
Ford, 338. 

J. W. Allen having left the county there was a vacancy 
which was filled by the election of P. McKay, a republican. 

The following were elected trustees at the city election in 
December (Here space was left in the manuscript evidently for 
insertion of names of trustees, by the author. — Ed.) 

■ ■ ■ (To be continued) 




It is a far cry from Wyoming's first so-called Museum, 
established by James McDaniels, in Cheyenne on October 31, 
1867, to the present day modern Museum of the State Historical 

McDaniels, a "'born showman", who came to Cheyenne 
from Julesburg just preceding the arrival of the Union Pacific 
Railroad, was for more than twelve years, Wyoming's leading 
theatrical manager. 

His first venture in Cheyenne was a Free Museum on Eddy 
Street between Sixteenth and Seventeenth Streets, where he 
exhibited stereoscopic views from ''all over the world." Ad- 
mission to the Museum was free to those who patronized his bar . 

McDaniels advertised extensively and after an eclipse of 
the sun had occurred, placed the following in the Clieycuue 

"Astronomical eclipses are of infreguent occur- 
rence, but there is an eclipse taking place on 
Eddy St., daily and nightly It is Professor Mc- 
Daniels' Museum, which eclipses every other 
place of amusement in town ..." 




Your Wyoming State Museum, housed in the new Supreme 
Court and Library Building in Cheyenne, with vault space and 
fireproof protection, provides for the preservation and display 
of the prized possessions of Wyoming pioneers. 

During the last few weeks four new moth and dust proof, 
streamlined, glass cases have been added to the museum 
equipment to furnish additional space for museum pieces. Some 
new lighting also has been installed. 

Perpetuate your family name by placing your historical 
collections and relics in your State Museum, where they may 
be permanently preserved, and enjoyed by the thousands of 

Everything that is presented to the Museum is numbered, 
labeled, recorded and card indexed, thus insuring permanent 



As the result of a survey made in the summer of 1941, for 
a Handbook being compiled by the American Association for 
State and Local History, our staff became acquainted with a 
number of societies in the state, whose members are exceedingly 
active in historical matters. It is highly gratifying to find that 
many of them are working with the State Historical Department 
in the great task of preserving Wyoming history. 

In recognition of the splendid work which these various 
socities have been and are doing, the editorial staff of the 
ANNALS plans to present in this and future issues, a short 
history of each society. In this number is presented a brief 
history and roster of members of the Pioneer Association of 
Johnson and Sheridan Counties, prepared by Anna B. Smith, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the organization. 

If the secretary of each local or county organization will 
prepare a history of the group, we shall be pleased to devote 
part of the ANNALS to its publication. 

A partial list of the local historical societies in Wyoming 

Albany County — Women's Club of Laramie Museum 

Converse County (Statewide) — Wyoming Pioneer Associa- 
Crook County — Crook County Pioneer Association; North- 
ern Black Hills Pioneers' Association 
Fremont County — Fremont County Pioneer Association 
Hot Springs County — The Pioneer Association of Ther- 

Johnson County ) Pioneers' Association of Johnson 
and ) and Sheridan Counties 

Sheridan County ) 

Laramie County — The Cheyenne Pioneer Club 
Natrona — Natrona County Historical Society 
Niobrara — Niobrara County Pioneer Association; 

Robbers' Roost Historical Association 
Platte — Guernsey Old Timers' Association 
Sweetwater — Sweetwater Historical Society 
Southern Wyoming — Union Pacific Oldtimers' Club 

Pioneer Association of Johnson and Sheridan 
Counties, Wyoming 

By Anna B. Smith, Secretary-Treasurer 

In compiling a history of this association, it seems proper 
and fitting that we turn back the pages to its earliest inception 
in order to give just credit and praise to the stalwart, courageous 


and honorable citizens who were the first to perfect an organi- 
zation. In doing so, we feel justified in making copies of the 
minutes of the first several meetings. 

The Old Settlers Club met August 30, 1902, in the City 
Hall, Sheridan, Wyoming, as a result of a call for a meeting for 
the purpose of forming an organization of the old settlers. 
Honorable J. D. Loucks was made temporary chairman and 
Carl L. Sackett, temporary secretary. A resolution was passed 
that an organization should be formed. It was decided that the 
name should be "'Pioneer Club of Sheridan County". The 
gualification of membership was fixed as follows: 

Any member or person may join who has been a resident 
of Sheridan and Johnson Counties for twenty-one years and who 
is now a resident of Sheridan County, upon paying a membership 
fee of one dollar. A committee of three was appointed by the 
President (upon motion) to draft a constitution and by-laws for 
the club, and were reguested to report at the next meeting. 
The committee was as follows: J. G. Hunter, T. J. Foster and 
Carl L. Sackett. 

On motion it was decided that the chairman and secretary 
protem should continue as such until further provision should 
be made, and that the secretary should act as historian. Meeting 
adjoined to meet two weeks from date, at the same office. 

On September 13, 1902, The Pioneer Club of Sheridan 
County met, pursuant to adjournment of August 30th, at the 
City Hall at 2:15 p.m. 

The committee on constitution and by-laws reported. The 
report was accepted, and after being carefully considered and 
amended, was adopted. 

On motion, the meeting proceeded to elect officers under 
the constitution. Honorable J. D. Loucks was chosen President; 
Honorable T. J. Foster, Vice-President; Mr. Carl L. Sackett, 
Secretary; Mr. J. G. Hunter, Treasurer. 

The President appointed to complete the Executive Com- 
mittee, Mr. S. H. Hardin, C. W. Skinner and C. H. Grinnell. 
The meeting adjourned to meet at call of the President at any 
time before the annual dinner. 

On September 20, 1902, the Executive Committee met, 
with the following present: S. H. Hardin, J. D. Loucks, J. G. 
Hunter and Carl L. Sackett, Mr. Hanna and Mr. Burkitt. 

Motion to appoint committee of three to obtain proposition 
for dinner and room for meeting carried; T. J. Foster, J. D. 
Loucks and Carl L. Sackett, committee. Adjourned. 


On October 29, 1903, the second annual banquet of the 
Old Settlers Club was held in Masonic Temple, at Sheridan, 

The meeting was called to order by the President, J. D. 
Loucks and the following officers were elected: 

President, S. H. Hardin; Vice President, Mrs. Robert Foote; 
Secretary, Mrs. Harrison Fulmer; Treasurer, T. J. Foster. 

The President than appointed C. W. Skinner, Mrs. J. 
Dana Adams, Mrs. Robert Foote, members of the Executive 

The motion properly made and seconded was then carried 
that George W. Holdridge, Captain Cross, Algernon S. Patrick, 
George T. Beck, Captain H. E. Palmer, be elected honorary 
members of the Old Settlers Club. 

A motion was made and then carried that the second 
Thursday in every October be the date for holding the annual 
meeting and banquet of the Old Settlers of Sheridan and 
Johnson Counties. 

A motion was properly made and cariied that a committee 
be appointed by the chair to draw up and present to the members 
of the family of Mrs. Nellie Willets Wood, appropriate resolu- 
tions of condolence and sympathy, and that the said resolutions 
be spread upon the records of the club as an expression of sorrow 
of the demise of this member. The committee appointed was 
Mrs. Fulmer, Mrs. Foster, Mrs. Wagner. 

A motion was made and seconded that the Secretary 
purchase a book^ in which to preserve the minutes of the 
meetings of the Club. The meeting adjourned. 

This Club continued to hold its annual meetings each year 
for twelve consecutive years, the last meeting being held 
November 10, 1915. 

The third annual meeting was held at the YWCA rooms on 
October 20, 1904. At that meeting , owing to inability to find 
an original copy of the constitution and by-laws of the Club, on 
motion duly carried, J. H. Burgess, J. D. Loucks and Carl L. 
Sackett were appointed by the chair to draw up a new constitu- 
tion and by-laws, with instructions to report to the Executive 
Committee as soon as possible. 

President Hardin proposed that the sons and daughters of 
the Old Settlers form themselves into a club, and meet with the 
Old Settlers each year. 

Election of officers this year resulted as follows: President, 
Harrison Fulmer; Vice President, Mrs. C. J. Hogerson; 2nd Vice 

1. The above described book has contained the minutes of every 
meeting during this long period of years, and will be completely filled 
when the minutes of the 1941 annual meeting are entered therein. 


President, J. D. Loucks; Secretary, T. J. Foster; Treasurer, O. 
J. Smyth. 

President Harrison Fulmer then appointed the Executive 
Committee for the next year, as follows: J. E. Holland, Mrs. 
Willis M. Spear, Mrs. T. J. Foster and Abe Abrahams. 

Also at this meeting, on motion of W. E. Jackson, duly 

carried, O. J. Smyth, Mrs. W. T. Davis, T. J. Foster, W. E. Jackson 

and Harry Fulmer were appointed a committee to place upon 

our rolls the names of all who have lived in and helped to 

develop the counties of Sheridan and Johnson, and in addition, 

to determine as to who are eligible as honorary members of the 

Old Settlers Club. 

* * * 

On October 14, 1905, the fourth annual reunion of the Old 
Settlers Club met in the YMCA Rooms, Loucks Building, Sheri- 
dan, at 10:00 a.m., and was called to order by President Harrison 
Fulmer .... 

On motion duly carried, the Committee on Genealogy, 
consisting of O. J. Smyth, Mrs. W. F. Davis, T. J. Foster, W. E. 
Jackson and Harry Fulmer, was continued for one year. 

The Constitution and by-laws submitted by the committee 
appointed for the purpose at the last meeting was read and 

C. G. Coutant, was by vote of the Club duly elected to 
honorary membership. 

Officers elected at this meeting were the following: Presi- 
dent, L. H. Brooks; Vice President, Mrs. Robert Foote; 2nd Vice 
President, J. D. Loucks; Secretary, T. J. Foster; Treasurer, J. D. 

On motion, S. H. Hardin, J. D. Loucks and T. J. Foster were 
appointed a committee to work with and assist the Historian 
(Coutant) in organizing a Historical Society of Northern Wyo- 

Dinner was served by the Methodist Ladies Aid Society. 

Carl L. Sackett, S. W. Hall and Mrs. G. M. Stevenson were 
appointed in addition to the officers, as members of the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

Robert Foote, Sr., at the close of the dinner, made some 
very appropriate remarks on the subject of Old Settlers, with 
reminiscences in connection therewith, and was followed by 
several others, including O. P. Hanna. 

On October 19, 1906, the fifth annual meeting of the Club 
met in the City Hall, at Sheridan, at 10:00 a.m., and was called 

to order by the President, L. H. Brooks The address of 

welcome was delivered by the President, and responded to 
by Robert Foote. 


Officers elected were as follows: President, O. P. Hanna; 
Vice President, Mrs. John McRea; 2nd Vice President, W. C. 
Dinwiddie; Treasurer, ]. D. Adams; Secretary, Mrs. W. M. 

Dinner was served by the Ladies Aid Society of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, in the City Hall. 

On October 10, 1907, the sixth annual meeting was held 
a1 the Carnegie Library, with O. P. Hanna, President, presiding. 
At this meeting a suggestion was made that the year for eligi- 
bility for membership be extended for one year, but the matter 
was laid on the table. 

A motion was made by Mr. Loucks, seconded by Mr. 
Hardin, that we have a Historical Committee to be appointed 
by the President. Motion carried. A suggestion was made by 
Mrs. Hanna and Willis Spear that we should have a lot and build 
a log cabin to hold our meetings in and make a typical 'Old 
Settlers Home" in which to keep our historical mementoes and 
pictures of our club members, which was received with en- 
thusiasm by the Club. 

O. J. Smyth and J. D. Loucks offered to give the land for 
such a purpose, and a vote of thanks was tendered them by the 
Club .... A motion was made and carried to appoint committee 
on a permanent home for the Club. Committee appointed: O. 
J. Smyth, S. H. Hardin and John E. Holland. Committee on 
Biography: J. D. Loucks, Mrs. Willis Spear and W. E. Jackson. 

A vote of thanks was given to O. J. Smyth and Judge 
Hunter for deed to a burial lot for old settlers who have no 
relatives or friends here. 

The banguet that year was served by the ladies of the 
Congregational Circle in the Odd Fellows Hall, and a very 
interesting program was carried out. 

Officers elected: President, W. E. Jackson; Vice President, 
W. C. Dinwiddie; 2nd Vice President, Robert Foote, Sr.; Secre- 
tary, Mrs. V. Belle Spear; Treasurer, J. D. Adams. 

On October 31, 1908, the seventh annual meeting was 
held in the Carnegie Club Room, with W. E. Jackson, President, 

Reports of committees were called for and Building Com- 
mittee reported by Mr. Hardin that on account of the financial 
flurry, nothing had been done in regard to a building. It was 
suggested by Mr. Loucks that we should try to get a site for the 
building near the old crossing of Big Goose where the first 
stage station stood, which was generally approved and a 
motion was made by Mr. Hanna that the present building com- 


mittee'be continued and in the absence of Mr. Holland another 
member of thej') committee be appointed by the President. 
George P. Webster was appointed to fill the vacancy. 
1^ The following •? officers were elected: President, W. C. 
Dinwiddie; Vice President, George Brundage; 2 nd Vice 
President, T. J. Foster; Treasurer, J. D. Adams; Secretary, Mrs. 
V. Belle Spear. 

A banquet was held at Odd Fellows Hall, served by the 
ladies of the Congregational Circle. 

Mr. Jackson's sudden illness prevented his giving his 
address, and Mrs. Willits gave a glowing account of the Women 
Pioneers and Honorable J. D. Loucks told of the first election 
in Sheridan. Miss Merle Hanna entertained us with a piano 
solo, and Miss Bessie May sang, 'The Spirit of Spring," ac- 
companied by Mrs. William V. Johnson. 

On October 30, 1909, the eight annual meeting was held 
at the Carnegie Library Club room, and was presided over by 
W. C. Dinwiddie, President. 

Reports of committees were called for and responded to 
as follows: 

Building Committee: Mr. Hardin, chairman, reported 
that Mr. Smyth's offer still held good, if the Club would place 
building there. Motion made by Mr. Hanna that we accept 
Mr. Smyi-h's offer of a lot and build a club house on it. Motion 
carried. Discussion of what kind of a club house we should 
have and a rising vote taken. Log house was decided upon. 
A Building Committee was then appointed, consisting of S. H. 
Hardin, J. A. Moore, O. P. Hanna, L. H. Brooks, Harrison 

A committee to arrange for an annual ball was appointed, 
consisting of the following members: S. H. Hardin, L. H. Brooks, 
and W. C. Dinwiddie, to act in conjunction with the City Mayor 
and Mr. Denio, Mr. Canfield and Mr. Diefenderfer. Proceeds 
of ball to be used in building club house. Mrs. J. D. Adams, Mrs. 
May Howard and Mrs. W. M. Spear were appointed a com- 
mittee to arrange for a play, the proceeds to be used for the 
building of the club house. 

Officers elected: President, George W. Brundage; Vice 
President, Mrs. William Garrard; 2nd Vice President, J. W. 
Kirkpatrick; Treasurer, T. J. Foster; Secretary, Mrs. Willis M. 

A motion was made and carried that all present residents 
of Johnson and Sheridan Counties who were residents of this 
state previous to January 1, 1883, should be eligible to member- 
ship in this Club. 


A banquet was served in the Methodist Church basement 
by the Ladies Aid. An address was given by President Din- 
widdie, and responded to by Mr. Hardin. Mr. Reynolds was 
absent and Mrs. Jackson entertained us with an account of the 
first school house and school in this County in 1881, and rang 
the bell that was used at that time. Returning to the Carnegie 
Club Room, the club members were entertained by tableaux 
illustrative of incidents in Pioneer life, given by the Old Settlers 
Children and conducted by Mrs. Dana Adams. Mrs. Adams 
gave a very humorous reading in the Scotch dialect; Mrs. G. 
M. Stevenson read a story told in verse by G. W. Benton (the 
first minister in this county), entitled, 'The Maid of Shian". 
Miss Elsie Spear rendered a musical selection on the piano, 
and Mrs. Dielenderfer sang delightfully for us. 

On October 29, 1910, the nin^"h annual meeting was held 
at the Carnegie Library Club Rooms, and was presided over 
by George Brundage, President. 

Hon. Mr. Hardin of the building committee reported that 
"the City talks of presenting the old school house to the club, 
but no one is in favor of accepting it." 

J. A. Moore mentioned that H. A. Coffeen had a lot which 
might be available for a building. Mr. Hunter and Mr. Brooks 
were appointed as a committee to see Mr. Coffeen about the 
lot. Mr. Hardin, who reported on the Annual Ball, stated that 
no hall was available. Mr. Coffeen was then escorted in and 
said the lot in guestion was the first lot across the bridge on 
Park Street and that he would donate the lot to the club provid- 
ing it would be used for the purpose of building a club house 
for the Old Settlers Club. After visiting the lot in company with 
Mr. Coffeen the committee reported back that they '"thought 
the lot most available of any." Mr. Brooks moved that the Club 
accept the lot on Park Street. A committee of five, comprising: 
L. H. Brooks, H. A. Coffeen, J. A. Moore, O. P. Hanna and S. 
H. Hardin, was appointed to "work out and decide on the 
building of the club house." 

Officers elected: President, J. G. Hunter; Vice President, 
Geoige Lord; 2nd Vice President, Mrs. Rulmer; Secrelary, Mrs. 
Willis M. Spear; Treasurer, T. J. Foster. 

A banquet, prepared by the ladies of the Episcopal Guild, 
ws served io sixty-nine members and guests. The Invocation 
was given by Rev. Gillespie. Hon. George Brundage gave a 
short address of welcome which was responded to by Hon. 
L. H. Brooks, after which the club returned to the club room to 
continue the meeting. Musical numbers were given as follows: 
violin solo, by Miss Pauline Jackson, accompanied by Miss 
Norma Wilson; vocal solo. Miss Georgia Gideon; violin solo, 
Fred Decker, accompanied by Mrs. Decker; vocal solo, Mrs. 


On October 28, 1911, the tenth annual meeting of the Old 
Settlers Club was held in the Carnegie Club Room with President 
J, G. Hunter presiding. 

In giving the report of the Building Committee, Hon. L. H. 
Brooks said that 'It was thought too much expense would be 
incurred in grading and filling the lot on Park Street, so nothing 
had been done towards building." 

O. J. Smyth then proposed that the club buy the Country 
Club, saying that he would donate part of the purchase price, 
$1,600.00 for the lot and building, the lot being 50 x 140 ft., 
and the building, 15 x 45 ft. It was suggested that a committee 
be sent to look over the building and to determine whether it 
would be practicable. A motion to that effect was carried and 
the following were appointed to visit the Country Club, after 
the banguet: S. H. Hardin, George Brundage, Henry Schuler, 
L. H. Brooks, Stephen Hall. The flower committee reported 
that nine bouguets of flowers had been sent during the year 
to members of the club. 

Mrs. May Howard reported the addition of $100.00 to the 
club's funds, as proceeds from a play given in Decembei, 1910. 

A beautiful silver toilet set was presented by the Club to 
the Secretary. 

Officers Elected: President, T. J. Foster; Vice President, 
Mrs. Wm. Garrard; 2nd Vice President, O. J. Smyth; Secretary, 
Mrs. W. M. Spear; Treasurer, Mrs. L. E. Martin. 

At the banguet, held at Odd Fellows Hall, prepared by the 
ladies of the Baptist Mission Circle, President Hunter delivered 
'"an eloquent address of welcome," which was responded to 
by Senator Hardin. Adjourning to the Lodge Hall the club 
was entertained by vocal selections from Mrs. Diefenderfer and 
readings by Miss Dorothy Burns. ''On the Overland Trail" was 
read by Mrs. Spear. An invitation was given by Mrs. A. B. 
Clark, President of the Sheridan Women's Club, in behalf of 
the Landmark Section of that club, to appoint a committee to 
confer with the Landmark Committee relative to placing suitable 
markers on the Bozeman Trail, "where historical events have 
taken place." The following committee for this purpose was 
appointed: Colonel Hardin, Hon. H. A. Coffeen -and Mrs. John 
Winterling. Colonel Hardin, Chairman of the Building Com- 
mittee, reported that they had found the house at the Country 
Club inadequate for the needs of the Old Settlers Club and that 
they were compelled to report adversely on Mr. Smyth's pro- 
position. "Thanks were extended to Mr. Smyth and to the ladies 
who entertained us." Sixty-five members and guests were 
present at the banguet. 

On Oc+ober 31, 1912, the eleventh annual meeting of the 
Old Settlers Club was held at the Carnegie Library, with 
President T. J. Foster presiding. 


The Flower Committee reported thirteen bouquets and 
floral pieces sent to the sick and bereaved members of the club. 

Officers elected: President, D. T. Hilman; Vice President, 
Mrs. Harrison Fulmer; 2nd Vice President, C. W. Garbult; 
Secretary, Mrs. W. M. Spear; Treasurer, L. E. Martin. 

A discussion of a picnic for next meeting was brought to 
a favorable conclusion with a vote to have the Executive Com- 
mittee set the time for a picnic in the summer of 1913. 

A banquet was held in the Odd Fellows Hall. 

On November 10, 1915, the twelfth annual meeting was 
held at Odd Fellows Hall, with Mrs. C. W. Garbutt presiding. 
Mrs. W. M. Spear served as Secretary, and Mrs. L. E. Martin, 

Following the banquet, plans for the next year were dis- 
cussed and Col. S. H. Hardin, L. H. Brooks and George Lord 
were named as a committee to arrange for a ball at the next 
reunion. H. E. Zullig was appointed official Historian to secure 
data concerning the members of the club. 

At the close of the business session the following program 
was given: J. D. Loucks, Invocation; Elsa Spear, piano solo; 
Olga Moore, reci^-ation; W. L. Prentiss, solo; Mrs. Dora Adams, 
recitation; Mrs. David Williams, solo; and the singing of ''Wyo- 
ming" by the audience. 

* * * 

The Old Settlers Club ceased to hold regular annual meet- 
ings for the next eight years. 

* * * 

On September 15, 1923, at the called meeting held at the 
Sim Smith Pavillion, at Story, Wyoming, for the purpose of re- 
organizing the club, a resolution was adopted, making eligible 
to membership all those settling here prior to January 1, 1886. 

This meeting was presided over by Mr. George Lord, 
President, with H. E. Zullig acting as Secretary, pro tern, due 
to the absence of Mrs. Willis M. Spear, the Secretary. 

A committee composed of L. H. Brooks, Mrs. May Howard 
and H. E. Zullig was appointed to act in conjunction with the 
Executive Committee, consisting of George Lord, President, 
Mrs. W. G. Griffen, Vice President, Mrs. W. M. Spear, Secre- 
tary, and Mrs. L. E. Martin, Treasurer, as a committee on ar- 
rangements for the next annual meeting to be held in October, 
1923. This committee met at the home of L. H. Brooks on Septem- 
ber 18, 1923, and made arrangements to hold the annual meeting 
at the Odd Fellow Hall, with each member bringing a picnic 
dinner, and a program given in the Lodge Room afterwards, 
consisting of: Song, 'Wyoming," Address of Welcome, by L. 
H. Brooks; Chorus, Mrs. Wulfjen; Early Stories, Illustrated, by 


Anna B. Smith; Solo, Dorothy Burns; Old Settlers Song, words 
by Mrs. C. Wulfjen; Talks by any oi the members who can be 
induced to speak. 

No record appears of this annual meeting. 

On August 17, 1924, the annual meeting and picnic was 
held at Lodore Pavillion. The meeting was called to order at 
2:30 P.M. by Ellery D. Foster, President, who made a pleasing 
address of welcome and thanked the various committees for 
their hearty efforts in making this reunion a success. 

Discussion on advisability of building a Club House in 
Pioneer Park at Sheridan, or elsewhere, was held, but no action 

Mrs. O. P. Hanna, one of our old settlers, now residing at 
Long Beach, California, was present, and in appreciation of 
their worth and esteem, it was voted to elect Mr. and Mrs. 
Oliver P. Hanna honorary members of this club. 

Election of officers for the ensuing year resulted as follows: 
President, Ellery D. Foster; Vice President, J. F. Kirkpatrick; 
Secretary, H. E. Zullig; Treasurer, Mrs. Minnie Martin. 

The President appointed the following committees: Ex- 
ecutive Committee: W. G. Griffen; May D. Howard; Andrew 
Kennedy. Floral and Sick Committee: May D. Howard. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. and Mrs. Sim Smith 
for their courtesy in permitting the use of their pavillion, and 
responded to by Mrs. Smith, assuring the club of her pleasure 
in having us with her. 

The following program was then given: Song, "Wyoming," 
by the Club; Resume by Historian, Mrs. Jennie G. Metz; Remin- 
iscences of Early-day Events, Mr. L. H. Brooks, Fred B. Ramsey, 
Mrs. Jennie Winterling; Group of Songs, Miss Dorothy Burns, 
accompanied by Mrs. H. C. Edwards; Experiences of Pioneer 
Women: the First Wedding, Mrs. Virginia B. Spear, First School 
Bell, Mrs. Amanda Jackson, Experiences of First Settler's Wife, 
Mrs. O. P. Hanna, Honeymoon Trip, Mrs. L. H. Brooks; Group 
of Songs, Pioneer Quartette; Stunts and Songs in Early-day 
Costumes, Banjo and Guitar Accompaniements, Junior Auxili- 
ary; Auld Lang Syne, by the Club. 

On July 30, and August 4, 1925, preliminary meetings for 
making arrangements for the annual meeting of 1925 were 
held, and the following committees on arrangements appointed: 
Committee on Arrangements: May D. Howard, George Griffen, 
Mrs. Clara Reynolds; Progran Committee: Mrs. Anna B. Smith, 
who was to select her assistants. 

Arrangements were made to hold the annual meeting and 
picnic at Lodore Pavillion on August 25, 1925. No record of 
this annual meeting appears. However, minutes of subseguent 


meetings indicate that Mr. C. P. Story (for whom the town of 
Story was named) was elected president. 

On August 8, 1926, the annual meeting and reunion of 
the Old Settlers Club was held at Lodore, with the President, 
Mr. Charles P. Story, presiding. 

The following officers were elected: President, Charles P. 
Story; Vice President, W. S. Metz; Secretary, Mrs. Jennie Winter- 
ling; Treasurer, Mrs. Lulu Griff en. 

The President appointed the following committees: 

Building and Grounds: J. B. Kendrick, L. H. Brooks, 
Homer Loucks, W. S. Metz, Mrs. May Howard, Mrs. Willis 
Spear, Mrs. George Lord, Mrs. John Telander. 

Executive Committee: Mrs. Ethel Morris, Mrs. Ida Laub 
Hough, Herbert Zullig. 

Auditing Committee: W. G. Griffen, Carl Sackett, Ellery 

Membership Committee: Mrs. L. E. Martin, Greggory 
Stroud, Alf Diefenderfer, Henry Nietman. 

Floral Committee: Mrs. May D. Howard. 

Historian: Mrs. Jennie G. Metz. 

The meeting was +hen turned over to Anna B. Smith, 
Chairman, Program Committee. She presented a most en- 
joyable entertainment. We were glad to have Oliver P. Hanna 
of California, one of our first members, with us. Since Mr. O. 
P. Hanna was considered the First White Settler in this part of 
Wyoming, his presence was the inspiration for the program. 
A sketch was prepared by the Program Chairman, in which 
Mr. Hanna, dressed in his buckskins of early days, was depicted 
as the ' 'First Settler" sitting in front of his cabin, where, after 
singing his old favorite song, '7oe Bowers" fell asleep and 
dreamed of the happy days of his youth before coming to the 
great west. As he dreamed, one by one his old sweethearts 
came through the cabin door. These characters were taken by 
the following young ladies, dressed in old fashioned costumes: 
Olga Moore, Iris and Beth Wood, Ruth Burns, Ruth Newcomer, 
and others. As each 'old sweetheart" emerged, Ethel Virgin 
O'Neill sang an old song, such as ''My Nellie's Blue Eyes," 
"Sweet Alice, Ben Bolt," Etc. The effect was most pleasing, 
and no one enjoyed the acting more than did Mr. Hanna. 

A special guest on that occasion was Dr. Grace Raymond 
Hebard, who made some appropriate comments in her usual 

charming manner. 

* * * 

On August 7, 1927, the annual meeting of the Old Settlers 
Club was held at Lodore Pavillion, Story, Wyoming, with the 
President, Charles P. Story, presiding. 


At that meeting, eligibility for membership was extended 
one year. The matter of a club house was again discussed. 

The following officers were elected: President, Mrs. John 
Winterling; Vice President, W. G. Griffon; Secretary, Mrs. May 
D. Howard; Treasurer, Clyde R. Wood. 

With an appropriate address, Mr. Charles P. Story sur- 
rendered the chair to the new President, Mrs. Winterlin', who 
accepted it with fitting remarks, and proceeded to appoint her 
standing committees, as follows: 

Building and Grounds: Chairman, Carl L. Sackett, Charles 
P. Story, John Early, Gregg Stroud, Mrs. Clara Reynolds, Mrs. 
John Telander, Mrs. JJ. Burns, Mrs. Morgarreidge, May D. 

Floral Committee: Mrs. Lyman Brooks. 

Auditing Committee: Carl L. Sackett and Herbert Zullig. 

Program Committee: Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke and Mrs. L. E. 

Membership Committee: Mrs. A. L. Garber, Mrs. Ethel 
Morris, Mrs. Minnie Eubank 

Historian: Mrs. W. S. Metz, to be assisted by Mrs. Vie 
Willits Garber. 

Mrs. Metz, the historian, gave a talk about the 'Teepee 
Book," compiled by Mr. Herbert Coffeen, and urged the club 
to secure a set. * * * 

On August 12, 1928, the annual meeting of the Old Settlers 
Club was held at Story, Wyoming, and was presided over by 
the President, Mrs. John Winterling. 

The following officers were elected: President, W. G. 
Griffon; Vice President, G. W. Stroud; Secretary, Anna B. Smith; 
Treasurer, Clyde Wood. 

The Building Committee gave their report, and it was voted 
on and carried that the club house would be built, but the plans 
were not complete and the building committee was asked to go 
ahead and finish plans. A committee was appointed: Judge 
Metz, L. H. Brooks and Clyde Wood, to meet a committee of 
Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke, A. Brock and Fred Hesse of the Buffalo 
Club, in regard to the Club House Building. Senator John B. 
Kendrick gave a very interesting talk, and suggested that a 
full basement be put under the main building to be used as a 
museum, and offered a very generous donation towards the 

Among those from Buffalo were John R. Smith, of 1869, 
Mrs. Hand DeVoe, 1879, and Mr. Ryan, who was with the troops 
of Old Fort Phil Kearny. 

On August 25, 1929, the annual meeting of the Old Settlers 
Club was held at Peter's Pavillion, S+ory, Wyoming, with the 
president, W. G. Griffon, presiding. 


Mr. L. H. Brooks reported for the Building Committee, 
stating that nothing had been done because of no funds on 
hand. He stated, ''Before we can build a club house, we should 
have one-half of the funds on hand." 

President, W. G. Griffen, expressed the opinion that the 
club needs a b-iilding or some proper place to s':ore relics of 
days gone by; that many would not wish to contribute such 
relics without a proper place to take care of them. 

The following officers were elected: President, Mrs. H. 
Burns; Vice President, Gregg Stroud; Secretary, Anna B. 
Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel H. Morris. 

A very interesting program was then enjoyed by those 
present; a group of songs, by Miss Dorolhy Burns, accompanied 
by Mrs. James Wherry. 

Mr. J. R. Smith, a visi+or, who came to Wyoming in 1866, was 

then introduced by Mr. L. H. Brooks. Mr. Smith, in a very 

interesting manner, related some of his early-day experiences 

with Indians. 

* * * 

On August 17, 1930, the annual picnic and business meet- 
ing of the Old Settlers Club was held at the Presbyterian Cabins, 
near Story, Wyoming, and called to order by Mrs. H. Burns, 
President, and H. E. Zullig, acting Secretary. 

Mrs. Jennie G. Metz read a very interesting article written 
May 18, 1876, by Mary A. Manley, then a young girl in Fort 
Abraham Lincoln, located opposite Bismarck, North Dakota, 
and published in St. Nicholas, giving an account of General 
Custer leaving the Post on his last and fatal expedition. Mary 
A. Manley later became Mrs. Judge Parmlee and wrote an 
article published by the late Herbert A. Coffeen in the Teepee 
Book, and also read by Mrs. Metz. This article being a latter 
account of the leaving of Custer and his men, and of the firsi 
news of the massacre. Mrs. Metz also read a toast by Mrs. 
Dabney Scales to Sheridan County Pioneers, which was heartily 
received, and a rising vote of thanks was tendered Mrs. Scales. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Mrs. Clara Burns; Vice President, Mrs. Minnie 
Eubank; Secretary, Mrs. Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel 
H. Morris. 

* * * 

On August 30, 1931, the annual meeting of the Old Settlers 
Club was held at the Story Community House, when a delicious 
chicken dinner was served by the members of the Story Women's 
Club. The business meeting was presided over by the President, 
Mrs. Clara D. Burns. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Mrs. Helen Dow; Vice President, Carl L. Sackett; 
Secretary, Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Ethel H. Morris. 


Attention was called to the importance of preserving old 
relics. Anna B. Smith reported that permission had been obtained 
from the County Commissioners to use space in the Court House 
for this purpose. The Vice President, who had taken the chair, 
appointed the following committee to arrange a place for old 
relics: A. P. Dow, Chairman; Anna B. Smith, Minnie J. Martin, 
Clifford Woodley, Dolph Yonkee. Thereafter, the meeting 
adjourned and was followed by a very excellent program con- 
sisting of musical numbers and very interesting talks by various 
early settlers present. 

On September 11, 1932, the annual picnic and business 
meeting of the Old Settlers Club was held at the Story Com- 
munity House. The meeting was called to order by the Vice 
President, Carl L. Sackett. Greetings were extended to the 
members by Mrs. Helen Dow, President, who was too feeble 
to preside over the meeting. 

A very excellent program followed, consisting of a group 
of piano numbers by Carl Sackett, Jr.; a group ot songs by 
Dorothy Burns, several of which were composed by Charles 
Badger Clark and set to music by Elsa Spear Edwards; Miss 
Lucile Patterson was the accompanist for Miss Burns and also 
for Miss Beryl Ladd, who charmingly played a group of airs 
of the old songs on the slide trombone. 

Mrs. W. S. Metz, the Historian, read a very interesting 
account of the early experiences of the T. J. Foster family. There 
were also reminiscenses of early days by many of those present, 
which were very interesting. 

The following officeis were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Mr. W. P. Ricketts; Vice President, Mr. A. L. Brock; 
Secretary, Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Ethel H. Morris. 

On September 3, 1933, the annual meeting of the Old 
Settlers Club was held at Lodore, and was presided over by the 
President, Mr. VV. P. Ricketts. 

The following officers were elected: President, Mr. A. L. 
Brock; Vice President, Mr. N. vV. Chassell; Secretary, Mrs. 
Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel H. Morris; Historian, 
Mrs. Vv'. S. Metz. 

A very delightful program had been arranged by Miss 
Dorothy Burns and consisted of the following: a group of songs 
by Mrs. Beatrice Marsden, piano accompaniment by her 
sister. Miss Lucile Patterson; an original poem in honor of the 
Pioneers, composed and read by Miss Catherine Petrofsky; a 
group of saxaphone numbers played by Miss Beryl Ladd, 
piano accompaniment by Miss Lucile Patterson. 

Reminiscences were then in order and because of the feeble 
condition of Mr. Dave Cummings, who came to Wyoming in 


1875, Mr. A. L. Brock related some of his early experiences 
in the west, among which were his assisting in mounding 
soldiers' graves, following the Custer Massacre, and how he 
had very recently returned to the scene of his early experiences 
and had been able to locate every spot familiar to him in these 
former years. 

At the suggestion of Mrs. Metz, Mr. Brock presented a 
compilation of names of early settlers dating back to 1854. This 
was placed on file and a rising vote of thanks was tendered Mr. 
Brock. Other reminiscences were given by Mrs. F. G. S. Hesse, 
Mrs. May Gardner, Mr. Ricketts, Mrs. Winterling and Mrs. 
Chassell. A bouguet of flowers was presented to Mrs. Ira 
Buell in honor of her being the lady who had lived the longest 

in Wyoming. 

* * * 

On September 2, 1934, the annual meeting and picnic 
of the Old Settlers Club was held at the Lodore Dining Room. 

Upon calling the meeting to order, greetings were extended 
by the President, Mr. A. L. Brock. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Edward Burnett; Vice President, Willis M. Spear; 
Secretary, Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Ethel H. Morris; Historian, 
Mrs. W. S. Metz. 

The following program was then rendered: a tribute to 
the memory of Senator John B. Kendrick and to Judge W. S. 
Metz by Mr. Carl L. Sackett; a group of piano and violin numbers 
by the Hewitt Sisters; a group of readings by Mr. Howard 
Watt; a group of old songs, by Mr. E. G. Guyer, accompanied by 
Mrs. Guyer; reminiscences by Mr. Edward Burnett; old time 
fiddling by Mr. Edgar Simmons, accompanied by Ross Sackett; 
old time songs by Mr. Willis M. Spear; reminiscences by Mr. 
W. P. Ricketts, presented by Mrs. Ricketts; reminscences by 
Mis. Cullen Watt, and a beautiful poem entitled, ''When It's 
Sunset O'er the Big Horns," composed by her, sung by her 
son, Mr. Howard Watt, who played his own piano accompani- 

* * * 

On September 8, 1935, the annual meeting and picnic of 
the Old Settlers Club was held at Lodore Pavillion. In the 
absence of the President, the meeting was presided over by 
the Vice President, Mr. Willis M. Spear. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Mr. Willis M. Spear; Vice President, Herbert E. 
Zullig; Secretary, Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Ethel H. Morris; 
His+orian, Mrs. W. S. Metz. 

The matter of the importance of preserving historical 
sletches new in the possession of pioneers was stressed by Mr. 
H. E. Zullig, and each member of the club was urged to lend 


assistance to the Historian in the gathering of data that will 
augment early history compiled by the State Historian. 

The matter of extending the date of eligibility for member- 
ship in the club was discussed at some length, whereupon, a 
motion was duly made and carried that gualification for mem- 
bership in this club be as follows: ''Any person arriving in Wyo- 
ming prior to January 1st, 1892, shall be eligible to membership 
in this club." 

The following program was then enjoyed: a group of 
songs by Walter Nye, accompanied by his son. Bob Nye; Early 
Experiences in the West by Mr. L. F. Johnston; History of Early 
Indian Warfare with the facts concerning the Wagon Box 
Fight by Mr. T. James Gatchell; Old Fashioned Fiddling by 
Mr. Edgar Simmins; description of a trip to Yellowstone Park 
40 years ago by Mrs. Cullen Watt; old time songs by Mr. Willis 

M. Spear. 

* * * 

On September 13, 1936, the annual meeting and picnic 
of the Old Settlers Club was held at Lodore Pavillion, with the 
President, Mr. Willis M. Spear, presiding. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Mr. H. E. Zullig; Vice President, Mr. C. N. Walters; 
Secretary, Mrs. Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel H. Morris; 
Historian, Mr. T. James Gatchell. 

In commenting upon the importance of placing suitable 
historical markers in proper places in Northern Wyoming, 
Mr. Edward Burnett suggested that an effort be made by this 
organization to secure funds from the State Historical Society 
for this purpose; whereupon a motion was duly made and carried 
that a formal letter be sent to Mr. B. B. Brooks, Governor 
Miller and other members of the State Historical Society, from 
this organization, urging that funds be provided for proper his- 
torical markers. 

A very lengthy musical program was carried out and 
interesting reminiscences were given by Mr. L. F. Johnston, 

Mrs. Emily DeWitt, Mr. A. L. Brock, and Mr. Edward Burnett. 

* * * 

On August 8, 1937, the annual meeting of the Old Settlers 
Club was held at Lodore Pavillion, and was presided over by 
the President, Mr. H. E. Zullig, who extended cordial greetings 
to the club, expressing his pleasure at such a large and splendid 

Officers elected for the ensuing year were as follows: 
President, Mr. C. N. Walters; Vice President, Mr. C. L. Sprack- 
len; Secretary, Mrs. Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel H. 
Morris; Historian, Mr. T. lames Gatchell. 

Mr. Zullig, the President, gave a very fine talk about Inde- 
pendence Rock and its historical value not only to Wyoming, 


but to the settling of the northwest, and proposed that steps be 
taken to preserve the names carved thereon and prevent any 
defacement of this famous rock. 

A very nice program of musical numbers was then enjoyed 
and reminscences of early-day experiences given by Mr. 
Edward Burnett, Mr. J. Elmer Brock, Mr. C. N. Walters, Mr. 
Carl L. Sackett and Mrs. J. C. Van Dyke. 

On August 28, 1938, the annual meeting and picnic of 
the Old Settlers Club of Johnson and Sheridan Counties was 
held at Lodore. The meeting was called to order by the Presi- 
dent, Mr. C. N. Walters, and was opened with prayer by the 
Reverend Donald G. Smith, and greetings were extended by 
the President. 

At this meeting a new Constitution and By-Laws were 
adopted and +he name of the organization changed to ' 'Pioneer 
Association of Johnson and Sheridan Counties, Wyoming." 

Eligibility for membership remains the same and provision 
is made in the constitution for life membership. 

A very pleasing musical program was given and early day 
reminiscences by a great many of the pioneers. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Frank R. Spracklen; Vice President, J. Elmer Brock; 
Secretary, Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Ethel H. Morris; Historian, 
T. James Gatchell; Board of Directors, N. W. Chassell, Minnie 
J. Martin, Clyde R. Wood, Olive C. Walters, Herbert E. Zullig. 

On August 27, 1931, the annual reunion and picnic of the 
Pioneer Association of Johnson and Sheridan Counties was 
held at the Story Community House, Story, Wyoming. This 
meeting was presided over by the President, Mr. Frank R. 
Spracklen, who extended cordial greetings to the club. 

The matter of using the building fund for the purpose of 
providing a suitable place for storing old relics was gone into 
guite thoroughly at this meeting, and the executive committee 
instructed to look into the matter thoroughly and report back 
to the organization. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: 
President, Mr. J. Elmer Brock; Vice President, Mr. Bert L. 
Dow; Secretary, Mrs. Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel H. 
Morris; Historian, T. James Gatchell; Board of Directors, N. W. 
Chassell, Minnie J. Martin, Clyde R. Wood, Olive C. Wallers, 
Herbert E. Zullig. 

The program consisted of the following: a Gypsy Operetta, 
Senior Chorus of Wyoming Girls' School; discourse on Early 
History and Early Pioneers by Dr. William Frackelton; group 


of old songs by Mrs. Grant MacLeod, accompanied by Miss 
Patricia MacLeod; group of songs by Mr. L. R. Tyson, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Everett Shores. 

On August 25, 1940, the annual meeting of the Pioneer 
Association of Johnson and Sheridan Counties, Wyoming, was 
held at the Community House, Story, Wyoming, and was pre- 
sided over by the President, Mr. J. Elmer Brock, who, in a very 
able manner extended cordial greetings to the club. 

At this meeting a donation of $10.00 was made to the 
Father DeSmet Monument Fund. 

The matter of using our building fund for the purpose of 
erecting a suitable place for the preservation of old relics was 
again brought up for discussion and a committee of two ap- 
pointed to look into the matter. 

Election of officers resulted as follows: President, Mr. 
Bert L. Dow; Vice President, Mr. Howard B. Lott; Secretary, 
Mrs. Anna B. Smith; Treasurer, Mrs. Ethel H. Morris; Historian, 
Mr. T. James Gatchell; Board of Directors, Mrs. Ida Laub Hough, 
Mrs. Minnie J. Martin, Mr. Clyde R. Wood, Mrs. Olive C. 
Walters, Mrs. Herbert E. Zullig. 

A very excellent sketch covering historical events incident 
to the establishing of the Oregon Trail and other outstanding 
history which took place in the immediate vicinity of this meet- 
ing place, was given by Mr. T. James Gatchell, Historian of the 
Pioneer Association of Johnson and Sheridan Counties, Wyo- 
ming. This sketch will be preserved as a part of the records of 
this organization. 

Mr. Russell Thorp, of Cheyenne, who was born in Wyoming 
in 1877, and who, at this meeting took out a Life Membership 
in this organization, gave a very interesting talk on early 
experiences in Wyoming. 

Dr. William Frackelton, in his customary manner, pleased 
the audience with one of his favorite Jndian stories. 

On August 31, 1941, the annual reunion and picnic of the 
Pioneer Association of Johnson and Sheridan Counties was 
held at the Story Community House, with the President, Mr. 
Bert L. Dow, presiding. Cordial greetings were extended to 
to the club by the President. 

A very comprehensive report was made by the Building 
Committee, and authority given to the building committee in 
conjunction wi+h the executive committee to ''take such steps 
as they see fit for the erection of a building at Fort Phil Kearny." 

Mr. Charles J. Oviatt, a member of the State Historical 
Advisory Board, gave a very interesting and instructive talk 



on the work of the State Historical Society,^and the importance 
of preserving historical relics. 

The following officers were elected: President, Howard 
B. Lott; Vice President, Frank A. Kimmel; Secretary, Anna B. 
Smith; Treasurer, Ethel H. Morris; Historian, T. James Gatchell; 
Board of Directors, Mrs. Ida Laub Hough, Mrs. Minnie J. Martin, 
Mr. Clyde R. Wood, Mrs. Olive C. Walters, Mr. Herbert E. 




Copied from Records — August 19, 1941 

Abrahams, Abe 
Affeldt; Wm. 
Affeldt, Amanda 
Austin, Agnes Mills 
Anderson, Mrs. Nora Fay 
Allen, Orpha Leavitt 

Brock, Mrs. J. Elmer 

Buell, Mrs. Ira 

Barr, Mrs. Ethel Warriner 

Bethurem, George 

Brown, Wm. 

Barkey, Ida R. 

Burns, Horatio 

Burns, Mrs. H. 

Brooks, L. H. (Deed.) 

Brooks, Mrs. L. H. 

Bennett, Lois M. 

Beck, Geo. T. 

Bard, Dick 

Brock, A. L. 

Brock, Mrs. A. L. (Deed.) 

Brundage, G. F. (Deed.) 

Burnett, Edward 

Brock, J. Elmer 

Burns, Miss Dorothy 

Churchill, Emma V. 
Chassell, N. W. 
Custis, J. W. 
Cook, J. Emerson 
Campbell, David A. 

Culver, Mrs. Emma 
Cr outer, S. E. 

Dodge, Amelia 

Duncan, P. A. 

Dunning, W. C. 

Dana, Mrs. T. R. (Deed.) 

Downer, Geo. W. (Deed.) ■ 

Davis, Jennie (Deed.) 

Davis, Mrs. Norman (Deed.) 

Dow, Mrs. Jack (Deed.) 

Davis, Mrs. H. Winter (Deed.) 

Dow, A. P. (Deed.) 

Darlington, A. M. 

Driskill, Mabel 

Duncan, Mrs. Perry 

Davis, Will L. (Deed.) 

Dow, Bert L. 

Eychaner, Frank 

Early, J. E. 

Eubank, Minnie 

Enochs, Jim (Deed.) 

Early, Alice G. 

Foster, Ellery 
Foster, Maude 
French, Barbara (Deed) 
Fox, Chas. (Deed.) 
Faddis, Mrs. R. M. 
Frackelton, Dr. Wm. 

George, Mrs. Chas. (Deed.) 



Griffen, George 
Griffen, Mrs. Geo. 
Garber, Vie 

Gillette, Hallie C. (Deed.) 
Garrard, Mrs. Wm. (Deed.) 
Gerdel, Henry (Deed.) 
Gross, Chris (Deed.) 
Gross, Mrs. Chris. 
Gatehell, T. Jas. 
Gatehell, Mrs. Sula 
Gardner, May V. 
Greub, J. N. 

Howard, May D. 
Hunter, John W. 
Hunter, Mrs. John W. 
Helvey, John D. 
Hayes, W. H. 
Hough, Mrs. Ida Laub 
Hough, H. D. (Deed.) 
Hughes, Anna 
Held, Nethe B. 
Herron, Mereia (Deed.) 
Herron, Duff (Deed.) 
Held, Henry, (Deed.) 
Hilman, D. T. (Deed.) 
Hilman, Lydia (Deed.) 
Hesse, F. G. S. (Deed.) 
Hesse, Mrs. F. G. S. 
Huggins, James Wm. 
Holloway, D. E. 
Hanna, Mrs. O. P. 
Hewett, L. C. 
Hall, Mrs. Graee I. 
Hesse, Vivienne 
Jaekson, Amanda (Deed.) 
Johnson, John (Deed.) 
Jenrich, George W. 
Jenrieh, Mrs. Geo. W. 
Johnson, Mrs. Jane Beek 
Johnson, Mrs. Jessamin Spear 

Kendrick, John B. (Deed.) 
Kendriek, Mrs. John B. 
Kennedy, Jaek 
Kirpatriek, James (Deed.) 
Kilbourne, Mary Viall (Deed.) 
Kerr, Chester 

Keteham, B. F. (Deed.) 
Kimmel, F. A. 

Langhorst, Mrs. Mary 
Lord, George (Deed.) 
Lord, Mrs. Geo. 
Loueks, Homer 
Leaverton, Caroline 
Lamie, R. N. (Deed.) 
Lett, Howard B. 

Manlove, Louise H. (Deed. 
Morrow, Dave (Deed.) 
Morgarreidge, Nellie V. 
Morris, John X. (Deed.) 
Morris, Ethel H. 
Martin, L. H. (Deed.) 
Martin, Minnie J. 
Metz, W. S. (Deed.) 
Metz, Jennie G. 
MePhillamey, Mrs. Fred 
Metz, Wm. G. 
Mayer, Johnny 
Metealf, Horaee 
Messiek, Geo. W. (Deed.) 
Moore, Mrs. Seott 
Miller, Bob 

Neitman, Henry (Deed.) 
Neweomer, E. V. 
Newcomer, Mrs. E. V. 
Nelson, Osear (Deed.) 
Nelson, Osear, Mrs. 
Newinger, Emma Gerdel 
Nelson, Mrs. Olaf 

Owens, F. O. 

Perkins, B. F. (Deed.) 
Perkins, Rose H. (Deed.) 
Perry, Wm. C. (Deed.) 
Patterson, H. C. (Deed.) 
Patterson, Rose Dana 

Reynolds, Clara (Deed.) 
Roberts, W. A. (Deed.) .„ 
Roberts, Mrs. W. A. 
Ramsey, F. B. (Deed.) 



Ricketts, W. P. 
Robinson, Wm. (Deed.) 
Reed, Edith E. 
Rasmussen, R. C. 
Roberson, Betty Beck 
Reed, Thelma 

Shickley, Mrs. M. B. 
Shickley, Mark B. 
Story, C. P. (Deed.) 
Story, Mrs. C. P. (Deed.) 
Stout, T. A. (Deed.) 
Smith, Mrs. Barney 
Smith, Anna B. 
Spraeklen, Frank 
Spracklen, LiUie 
Smith, Louvina 
Shreve, O. J. (Deed.) 
Spear, WilHs M. (Deed.) 
Spear, Mrs. Wilhs M. (Deed.) 
Surrena, George (Deed.) 
Stroud, G.